Pierre Trudeau and the Canadian sport system - Slide 1

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					Pierre Trudeau
and the Canadian Sport System
Bruce Kidd, ‘The Philosophy of Excellence’, in Pasquale Galasso (Ed.)
Philosophy of Sport and Physical Activity (Toronto: Canadian Scholars’
Press, 1988), pp. 11-31.
         A rough periodization of
        Fitness and Amateur Sport
   1961-68   The ‘enabler’ period
   1968-70   The turn to high performance
   1970-76   Making the ‘Canadian Sport System’
   1977      Ministerial status
   1978-83   Consolidating the system
   1983-88   ‘Best ever’ and the Calgary WOG
   1988-93   BJ, Dubin and the ‘gospel of order’
   1993-00   Unraveling the Canadian sport system
   2000-02   Towards a new national sport policy
   2002-03   The Canadian sport policy and the Physical
                Activity and Sport Act
           The ‘enabler’ period
   Government took direction from the National
    Advisory Council
   Equal emphasis paid to sport and fitness
   Focused upon ‘enabling’ existing organizations,
    especially the national sport governing bodies,
    provinces and universities, to realize their
   50 % of the monies were devoted to shared-
    cost programs with the provinces
           But by the late 1960s
   Little improvement in international
    performances, while increasingly the federal
    politicians were blamed
   The agreements with the provinces did little to
    enhance high performance sport, and the
    provincial politicians took the credit for federal
    spending on mass participation
   The volunteer, amateur system—what was
    called the ‘kitchen table’ approach, because
    sports leaders administered programs out of
    their own homes—had become a bottleneck to
    The crisis of the 1960s: ‘kitchen
         table’ administration
   Volunteer sports administrators, often lacking in training,
    experience and continuity, were inefficient and
   Volunteer coaches and officials, often lacking in scientific
    knowledge and experience, could not provide excellent
   With self- or private funding, there were few resources
    for technical and administrative assistance and modern
    communications; government funds for national and
    international competition only increased the burden
   Amateur athletes, with little time for training, were
    falling behind competitors who were increasingly paid to
             For the athlete
   Activities self- or privately financed
   Amateurism still strictly enforced
   National teams chosen at previous national
    championships; representatives in team
    sports were club champions from previous
    year. No ‘team-in-being’ until David Bauer’s
    hockey team of 1964.
   Major awards made by NSGBs, e.g. AAU of C.
 A convergent national crisis

During the late 1960s, many Canadians
questioned the leadership of the federal
government and the future of Canada, in
the face of growing Americanization,
Quebec separatism, western Canadian
alienation, resurgence of organized labour,
reassertion of aboriginal peoples
    Into these crises stepped
A new Prime Minister,
Pierre Trudeau.
Trudeau was first elected
in 1968.
            Trudeau believed
in a strong federal government which provided
   Equality before the law for all citizens regardless of
    their class, gender, ethnicity, sexual identity,
    province/region or ability/disability
   Full access to public services in both English and
    French (‘bilingualism’)
   Supportive policies for Canadians of other ethnicities
      Trudeau also believed that
   Successful sport
    teams in international
    symbolized pan-
    Canadian unity: ‘sport
    can give Canadians a
    strong sense of
       The Trudeau Government
   Withdrew from provincial agreements
   Discontinued National Advisory Council
   Strengthened the links between amateur sport and pan-
    Canadian unity
   Sub-divided the Fitness and Amateur Sport Directorate
    into a large sport branch, Sport Canada, and a tiny
    recreation and fitness branch, Fitness Canada
   Created the ‘Canadian sport system’ to increase the
    focus upon and investment in high-performance sport
Making the ‘Canadian sport system’

   The adrenalin:
       The IOC awards Montreal 1976 Olympics
       Success of other countries, particularly the
        Soviet Union and GDR
       The dynamic of Pan-Canadian nationalism
        against the rising challenge of Quebec
        nationalism, etc., etc.
     The ‘Canadian sport system’
   State control: Sport Canada direction, financial support
    and control, with professional leadership at senior levels
       NSGBs become NSOs, with offices in National Sport and
        Recreation Centre in Ottawa, with administrators’ salaries,
        program costs, and other expenses heavily subsidized by Sport
       National coaches, technical directors paid by grant from Sport
       National teams semi-permanent, financed by Sport Canada
       Program budgets largely financed by Sport Canada
       Athletes enjoy Sport Canada financial support
       State plays a major role in awards
             New institutions:
   To strengthen administration: National Sport
    and Recreation Centre
   To strengthen coaching: Coaching Association of
    Canada and National Coaching Certification
   To strengthen development: Canada Games
   To assist athletes: Athlete Assistance
   To promote fitness: ParticipAction
   To promote programs/combat media bias:
    Sports Information Bureau
             Elevated status

   In 1977, the FAS Directorate becomes the
    Ministry of State for Fitness and Amateur
    Sport, with Cabinet status