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					                                                    Comparison Additional Finance and Investment needed in 2030 and supply
all in billions US dollar
                                                                 Annex 1 for non-Annex 1                           non-annex 1                                                                     Annex I            global
Mitigation Finance                                               Actual (average 2008-2012)           Potential Mitigation                                                     Need (in 2030)      Need (in 2030)     Mitigation             Need (in 2030)
                                                         Range         Low-end   High-end   Low-end     High-end                                                    Low-end            High-end                                   Low-end High-end
                                                                                                                   Fossil fuel supply total                                               -32.00             -27.00   Fossil fuel supply total -59.00
CDM (CER revenue only) p.a. (1)                                           7.11      19.75    100.00                Coal                                                                    -5.00              -3.00   Coal                      -8.00
Private and other leveraged by CDM p.a. (2)                              35.55      98.75    500.00                Oil                                                                    -16.00             -13.00   Oil                      -29.00
                                                                                                                   Natural gas                                                            -11.00             -11.00   Natural gas              -22.00
Multilateral (UNFCCC)                                                                                              Power generation + T&D total (fossil & renewable)                       -5.60              -1.40                              total
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Power generation + T&D -7.00 (fossil & renewable)
  GEF Trust Fund p.a. (19)                                                0.25                                      Power generation (fossil) and T&D total                               -79.00             -77.00                           -156.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Power generation (fossil) and T&D total
  Leveraged by GEF Trust Fund p.a. (19)                                   1.24                                      Coal-fired generation                                                 -27.00             -24.00    Coal-fired generation -51.00
Multilateral (outside of UNFCCC)
  Asian Development Bank (EE projects) p.a. (3)                                      1.00                           Oil-fired plants                                                       0.00               -1.00    Oil-fired plants        -1.00
  World Bank Forest Carbon Partnership Fund (2008-2012) p.a. (3)          0.01       0.06                           Gas-fired plants                                                      -4.00                1.00    Gas-fired plants        -3.00
  GEF Tropical Forest Account (total) (3)                                                      0.06                 Transmission and distribution                                        -48.00              -53.00                         -101.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Transmission and distribution
  World Bank Clean Technology Fund (22)                                   0.80       1.00                           Power generation (non-fossil + CCS) total (6)                         73.40               75.10                          148.50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Power generation (non-fossil + CCS) total (6)
  EC Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund
(GEEREF), pledged (2007-2010) (5)                                         0.02       0.04                            Nuclear                                                              11.00               14.00     Nuclear                  25.00
  Anticipated GEEREF leverage of risk capital (potential: total 1bn)                 0.06                   1.00     Hydro                                                                18.00                4.00     Hydro                    22.00
                                                                                                                     Renewables                                                           18.00               20.00     Renewables               38.00
Bilateral                                                                                                            CCS Facility coal fired plants                                       21.00               19.00                              40.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        CCS Facility coal fired plants
 Cool Earth partnership p.a. (3)                                                     1.60                            CCS Facility gas fired plants                                         6.00               17.00                              23.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        CCS Facility gas fired plants
 GIFC (total) (3)                                                                    0.04                          Industry                                                               19.10               16.57   Industry                   35.67
                                                                                                                     Energy-related investment (EE)                                        6.90               12.60                              19.50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Energy-related investment (EE)
                                                                                                                     CH4 reduction                                                         1.17                0.86     CH4 reduction              2.03
                                                                                                                     N2O reduction                                                         0.00                0.01     N2O reduction              0.01
                                                                                                                     High GWP GHG reduction                                                0.00                0.00     High GWP GHG reduction .00 0
                                                                                                                     CCS                                                                  11.00                3.13     CCS                      14.13
                                                                                                                   Transport                                                              35.50               52.40   Transport                  87.90
                                                                                                                     EE in vehicles and hybrid vehicle                                                        78.70                              78.70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        EE in vehicles and hybrid vehicle
                                                                                                                     biofuel                                                                                   9.20     biofuel                    9.20
                                                                                                                   Builiding                                                              14.00               36.80   Builiding                  50.80
                                                                                                                     Electrical equipment                                                 10.00               32.00     Electrical equipment     42.00
                                                                                                                     Fuel consuming equipment                                              4.00                4.80     Fuel consuming equipment   8.80
                                                                                                                   Waste                                                                   0.60                0.34   Waste                        0.94
                                                                                                                   Agriculture                                         12.80                                   0.00   Agriculture 35.20
                                                                                                                     Non-CO2 gases                                     12.80                                   0.00     Non-CO2 gases 20.20
                                                                                                                     Agroforestry (removal by sinks)                           N.A.                N.A.                                          15.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Agroforestry (removal by sinks)
                                                                                                                     Grassland management                                      N.A.                N.A.                 Grassland management N.A.
                                                                                                                   Forestry                                                               20.90                0.10   Forestry                   21.00
                                                                                                                     Reduced deforestation                             12.30                                   0.00                   12.30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Reduced deforestation
                                                                                                                     Forest management                                  8.20                                   0.00                    8.20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Forest management
                                                                                                                     Afforestation and reforestation                    0.10               0.40                0.10                    0.12        0.50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Afforestation and reforestation
                                                                                                                   Technology R&DD                                                                            45.00   Technology R&DD 35.00      45.00
Total including leveraged funding                                        46.87    122.78                                                                                                                       0.00
Total (without leveraged fundin                                          10.02     22.74                                                                                                  65.30              145.20                200.00      210.50
Adaptation Finance                                               Actual (average 2008-2012)           Potential Adaptation                                                     Need (in 2030)                         Adaptation             Need (in 2030)
                                                      Range            Low-end   High-end   Low-end     High-end                                                    Low-end            High-end                                   Low-end High-end
Multilateral (UNFCCC)                                                                                              Agriculture,forestry,fisheries                                          7.24                7.00                             14.23
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Agriculture,forestry,fisheries
  GEF SPA (50 mil in three years)                                                    0.01                           Capital formation/production and processing                            5.82                4.96                             10.78
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Capital formation/production and processing
  GEF LDCF (pledged) (7)                                                             0.03                           Research and development                                               1.35                2.04    Research and development  3.39
  GEF SCCF (pledged) (7)                                                             0.02                           Extension activities                                                   0.06               -0.06    Extension activities      0.00
  Adaptation Fund (2% of CER revenue) p.a. (1)                            0.14       0.40      2.00                Water supply                                         8.00               9.00                2.00   Water supply 9.00         11.00
Multilateral (outside of UNFCCC)
  World Bank Strategic Climate Fund/Pilot Programme for
Climate Resilience (target 2008-2012) p.a. (3)                            0.10       0.20                          Human health                                         3.76               5.39                0.00   Human health 3.76          5.39
                                                                                                                    Diarrhoeal diseases                                 1.92               2.24                0.00                  1.92
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Diarrhoeal diseases       2.24
Bilateral                                                                                                           Malnutrition                                        0.06               0.12                0.00    Malnutrition 0.06         0.12
 Cool Earth Partnership p.a. (3)                                                     0.40                           Malaria                                             1.77               3.03                0.00    Malaria       1.77        3.03
 Spanish MDG Fund p.a. (3) (partly for poverty eradication)                      0.04                             Coastal zones (8)                                4.60                5.00                7.42                            (8)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Coastal zones11.00        12.42
                                                                                                                    Coastal infrastructure                         4.60                5.00                5.68                             9.53
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Coastal infrastructure 10.68
                                                                                                                      Beach nourishment                                                                    2.47                             2.32
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Beach nourishment      2.47
                                                                                                                      Sea dykes                                                                            8.20                Sea dykes 7.21         8.20
                                                                                                                    Land loss                                                                              0.01              Land loss      0.01      0.01
                                                                                                                    Sea floods                                                                             1.73              Sea floods     1.47      1.73
                                                                                                                  Infrastructure (9)                               2.40               41.00               89.06                             7.63
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Infrastructure (9)       130.06
Total                                                               0.74         1.09                                                                             25.99               67.63              105.48                           45.62     173.10
Mixed Climate Funds                                                        Actual                    Potential
                                                        Range   Low-end      High-end     Low-end      High-end                                                Low-end             High-end                                           Low-end High-end
Bilateral
 ETF-IW p.a. (3)                                                                 0.53
 Norad Rainforest Fund p.a. (3)                                                  0.11
 GCAA p.a. (3)                                                      0.03
 German Climate Initiative p.a. (3)                                              0.06

Multilateral (outside of UNFCCC)
  GEF-IFC Earth Fund (total) (3), also biodiversity and land
degradation, share for climate change unclear, but less than
given amount! (10)                                                               0.01
  Private investment leveraged by GEF-IFC Earth Fund (3)                         0.03

Total including leveraged funding                                                0.77
Total                                                                            0.74
Scaling up Finance                                                         Actual                    Potential
                                                        Range   Low-end      High-end     Low-end      High-end                                                Low-end             High-end                                           Low-end High-end
Potential additional funding per annum
  International Aviation Levy (11), p.a.                                                    10.00         15.00
  Auctioning allowances marine, 2000-2030 p.a.                                              10.00         15.00
  Auctioning allowances aviation, 2000-2030 p.a.                                            10.00         25.00
  Tobintax (0.01% on wholesale currency transactions in 2003)                               15.00         20.00
  Extension of CDM levy to other mechamism (JI, IET), 2008-
2012 p.a.                                                                                    0.01          0.05
  Chinese +0.5% of GDP Proposal p.a. (15)                                                  185.00
    of which adaptation funding p.a.                                                                      46.00
  Swiss Global Carbon Adaptation Tax Proposal p.a. (15) (16)                                              48.50
  Norwegian Proposal of extending adaptation levy to IET p.a.
(15) (17)                                                                                                 14.00
  Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act p.a. (15) (18)                                        1.00         6.00
  EC ETS revision proposal (20% of auctioning proceeds) p.a.
by 2020 (21)                                                                                              10.00
  Pakistan Proposal to increase CDM adaptation levy to 3-5%
(23)                                                                0.07         0.59         1.00         3.00

Other additional funding potential
  Funds to invest foreign exchange reserves, 5% in 2004
globally (12)                                                                                            200.00
  Access to renewables programmes in developed countries
(2005) (13)                                                                                                0.50
  Donated special drawing rights (one-off 18 bn, plus annual
SDRs in the future) (14)                                                                    18.00
  Debt-RE + efficiency swap
Diverting fossil fuel subsidies, EU in 2001 (20)                                            22.00

Total potential additional funding per annum                                               339.51        374.55
Total other additional funding potential                                                   218.50        218.50

(1) Actual: Assuming 300 million CERs/year (Fenhann, 2008) and a CER price between €15 and €25 between 2008 and 2012 (using a US$ exchange rate of 1.58) ; Potential: values for CER revenue potential are taken from UNFCCC (2007); the USD 100 bn per year in emission reduction purchase
(2) The generally accepted rule of thumb for investments leveraged by the CDM is five times the CER value, for example UNFCCC (2007) p. 140
(3) Source: ODI (2008) New finance for climate change and the environment for the developing world
(4) http://www.ebrd.com/pubs/factsh/themes/energy.pdf
(5) http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/08/473&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
(6) Total investment for power supply in 2030 declines from USD 251 billion in the Reference scenario to USD 245 billion in the Mitigation scenario. The USD 73.4 billion reported here is the additional investment that would be needed for renewables, CCS, nuclear power and hydropower. Investment f
(7) GEF (2008) Status report of climate change funds as of March, 4 2008
(8) Assuming anticipation to 2080, i.e. estimated investment required in dykes, for instance, assumes that coastal infrastructure built in that year is sufficient to adapt to the maximum amount of SLR anticipated in 2080. Note that this estimate is extremely sensitive to the assumed planning horizon.
(9) Infrastructure adaptation here involves making modifications to or changes in operation of infrastructure that would be directly affected by climate change. This applies to infrastructure used to manage natural resources such as water or coastal resources infrasturcture, e.g. coastal defences, flood
(10) The objective of the GEF-IFC Earth Fund is to leverage private sector funding for new technologies to find solutions for climate, biodiversity loss and land degradation in developing countires (ODI, 2008).
(11) Based on a charge of USD 6.50 per passenger per flight; annual average likely to increase towards mid-century with increasing air travel
(12) Voluntary allocation of up to 5% of foreign exchange reserves to a fund to invest in mitigation projects determined by the investors to diversify foreign exchange reserve investments
(13) Eligible renewables projects in developing countries could earn certificates that could be used toward compliance with obligation under renwables programmes in Annex I countries to a specified maximum, such as 5%. Estimate is based on a 5% share of the renewable energy programmes in Ann
(14) Special drawing rights are a from of intergvoernmental currency provided by the IMF to serve as a supplemental form of liquifity for ist member countries. Some special drawing rights issued could be donated to raise revenue for Convention purposes.
(15) Source: Müller, B. (2008) International Adaptation Finance: The Need for an Innovative and Strategic Approach. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies
(16) Uniform global carbon tax of $2/tCO2 on all fossil fuel emissions, wih a basic tax exemption of 1.5tCO2 per inhabitant; of global total of $48.5bn, 48% from developend and 52% from developing countries; disbursement partly domestic, partly multilateraly into a Mulitlateral Adaptation Fund. (Equit
(17) According to the Climate Analysis Indicator Tool (CAIT) of the World Resources Institute, 5.2% of 1990 Annex I CO2 emissions = 17.2GtCO2, 2% of which sold at the current EUA price of €25 ($40)/tCO2 would bring in revenues of around $14bn.
(18) Planned “International Climate Change Adaptation and National Security Fund” funded by auctioning a percentage of the annual emission allowances of the proposed US emission trading scheme, starting with 1% in 2012, and raising gradually to 7% in 2050. According to Waskow (2008), this w
(19) The annual average amount for the GEF Trust Fund here goes back to the 990 million in GEF 4 (2006-2010), numbers for GEF 5 are not yet available, so that the GEF 4 average was extrapolated for the years 2010-2012 and given as low-end value. The ratio of leveraged funding by the GEF tru
(20) Kowalzig (2008) Innovative Finance for Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries: an NGO perspective. Presentation Oxfam Germany, Berlin, 26 May 2008.
(21) EC ETS revision proposal suggests at least 20% of the proceeds from auctioning be used fro CCS, energy efficiency/renewable energy in developing countires, avoided deforestation efforts and adaptation in developing countries (Schmidt (2008) Financing Developing Country Mitigation and Ada
(22) Reuters UK (2008) World Bank approves climate funds before G8 summit. Published 2 July 2008 at reuters.com (http://www.reuters.com/article/environmentNews/idUSN0131191820080701). In this article Warren Evans, director of the World Bank's environment department is quoted to have said
(23) This proposal does not scale up overall climate finance, it only increases the share of adaptation finance of the CDM revenue. The number given here is the difference to the estimates of the Adaptation Fund based on a 2% levy.

Notes: 1) Where not otherwise indicated numbers are taken from UNFCCC (2007) Investment and financial flows to address climate change
       2) Where numbers do not add up correctly this is due to rounding errors in the breakdown numbers
       3) The IEA Report (2008) Energy Technology Perspectives 2008 distinguishes between two scenarios, BLUE MAP and ACT MAP. Additional investment needs in the total energy related sectors worldwide in the BLUE Map scenario amount to USD 45 trillion over the period up to 2050 or USD
       4) UNDPs Human Development Report 2007/2008 provides ballpark estimates of total new additional adaptation finance of USD 86 per year by 2015 (USD 44 bn/a for climate proofing, USD 40 bn/a for adapting poverty reduction to climate change and USD 2 bn/a for climate change related d


Gaps identified:
Breakdown for agriculture and forestry, only rough global figures
deforestation mitigation cost based on annual deforestation rates, dodgy to extrapolate until 2030 (p.81 and 174)
Adaptation numbers are rather rough, e.g. in infrastructure not covering all aspects and based on past experience with e.g. weather disasters. Estimates for adaptation cost in infrastructure based on MunichRe data of past weather damage of large catastrophes. This data is furhter scaled up using a
Aggregation of adaptation numbers is not always transparent (e.g. coastal infrastructure: p.119 and p. 123)
Need (in 2030)




Need (in 2030)
the USD 100 bn per year in emission reduction purchases is derived by assuming 60-80% emission reductions by industrialized countries by mid-century, half of which would be met through investment in developing countries (UNFCCC,2007: 156).
wables, CCS, nuclear power and hydropower. Investment for coal-, oil- and gas-fired generation and transmission and distribution would be reduced by 79 billion USD.

s extremely sensitive to the assumed planning horizon.
stal resources infrasturcture, e.g. coastal defences, flood protection, water supply, water quality treatment, hydropower, heating and colling systems. Estimates based on weather damage data by MunichRe and Association of British Insurance. Possible partial overlap with coastal infrastructure!



n a 5% share of the renewable energy programmes in Annex I Parites in 2005.


rtly multilateraly into a Mulitlateral Adaptation Fund. (Equity issues with developing countries providing more than half of the money!)

dually to 7% in 2050. According to Waskow (2008), this would amount to about $1 billion in 2012, increasing to around $2 billion by 2020 and $6 billion by 2030.
w-end value. The ratio of leveraged funding by the GEF trust fund was assumed to be 5.0 based on past trends as described in UNFCCC (2007): 164.

  (2008) Financing Developing Country Mitigation and Adaptation Actions: Generating Significant and Predictable Support. Presentation Center for Clean Air Policy, UNFCCC Side-Event, Bonn, 12 June 2008.
orld Bank's environment department is quoted to have said that media reports that USD 10 billion would be raised for the fund "are on the high side".




mount to USD 45 trillion over the period up to 2050 or USD 1.1 trillion per year (ACT: USD 17 trillion up to 2050 or USD 400 billion per year).
mate change and USD 2 bn/a for climate change related disaster response)




 large catastrophes. This data is furhter scaled up using an adjustment factor of 4.3 based on the ratio of the Association of British Insurance (ABI) data on toal eather related losses for the period 2000 - 2006 to the Munich Re losses for the same period. In other words, potential increases of extreme weather events are not
ntial increases of extreme weather events are not taken into account at all in this estimate (UNFCCC (2007) p. 121)
          Supplementary Information on Additional Finance and Investment needed in 2030 based on
all in billions US dollar
Mitigation                                 Need (in 2030)
in billion USD                Energy (p.46-47)                                Industry (p.57)
                                                                                Energy-related
                               Transmissio                                         investment
                                         n&       Power      Coal, oil and             (energy
                                Distribution   generation     gas supply           efficiency ) CH4 reduction
World                                -101.2         94.1                -59               19.5         2.028
OECD                                   -48.3        46.6            -16.9                 11.5         0.487
OECD North America                     -24.7        36.5            -10.1                5.115         0.316
  United States                        -20.4        35.4    N.A.                         3.899         0.125
  Canada                                -2.8          0.2   N.A.                          0.75         0.023
  Mexico                                -1.6          0.9   N.A.                         0.465         0.168
OECD Pacific                            -5.1          6.4              -1.9               2.34          0.07
  Japan                                 -2.3          2.8   N.A.                         1.194         0.002
  Korea                                 -1.5         -1.6   N.A.                         0.822         0.008
  Australia and New Zealand             -1.2          2.7   N.A.                         0.324         0.059
OECD Europe                            -18.5          3.7              -4.8              4.045         0.102
Transition economies                    -5.3          5.8              -9.8              1.061         0.369
Russia                                    -1          3.9              -6.8              0.596         0.157
Other EIT                               -4.3          2.1              -2.9              0.465         0.212
Developing countries                   -47.6        41.6            -32.5                6.939         1.171
Developing Asia                        -33.8        33.7            100.2                4.887         0.691
  China                                -18.1        25.2               -3.4              3.157         0.421
  India                                 -6.7          6.6              -0.7              0.727         0.154
  Indonesia                             -1.3          1.3              -0.7              0.202         0.041
  Other Developing Asia                 -7.9          0.5              -4.2              0.802         0.075
Latin America                             -7         -0.3              -7.8              0.798         0.125
  Brazil                                -2.7           -1              -2.6              0.393         0.021
  Other Latin America                     -5          0.7              -5.2              0.405         0.104
Africa                                  -3.5          4.6              -7.9               0.41         0.217
Middle East                   N.A.           N.A.           N.A.                         0.844         0.139



Adaptation                                 Need (in 2030)
in billion USD                Water supply                  Coastal Infrastructure
                                                            Mean 2030                           Maximum in 2080


                              SRES A1B SRES B1              SRES A1B SRES B1       SRES A1B
World                                 11               9          4.702      4.014       10.634
OECD                                                              2.199      1.894        4.887
OECD North America                                                1.002      0.882        2.022
 United States
 Canada
 Mexico
OECD Pacific                                                         0.46               0.388           1.08
 Japan
 Korea
 Australia and New Zealand
OECD Europe                             0.737    0.624   1.785
Transition economies                    0.189    0.158   0.479
Russia
Other EIT
Developing countries
Developing Asia                         0.951    0.801   2.181
  China
  India
  Indonesia
  Other Developing Asia
Latin America                            0.68    0.573   1.597
  Brazil
  Other Latin America
Africa                                  0.612    0.528   1.319
Middle East                             0.072     0.06   0.171
Non-Annex I Parties       9.35   7.65      2.4       2       5
eded in 2030 based on UNFCCC (2007)


                                                       Transport (p.62)                    Building (p. 68) Waste (p.70)
                             High global
                                warming                Energy
                 N2O      potential GHG                efficiency and                      Energy
             reduction         reduction        CCS    vehicle           Biofuel           efficiency
                0.009              0.004      14.125                78.7             9.2                50.8         0.936
                0.005              0.002       2.052                41.9             5.2                34.2         0.251
                0.002              0.001       0.626                25.3             2.4                16.3         0.163
                0.002              0.001       0.561                21.1             2.3                13.6         0.102
                     0                 0       0.049                 1.8             0.1                 1.8         0.017
                     0                 0       0.016                 2.4               0                 0.9         0.045
                     0                 1       0.798                 5.2             0.1                 4.9         0.027
                     0                 0        0.55                 2.5               0                 2.8         0.006
                     0                 0       0.177                 1.5               0                 1.3         0.009
                     0                 0        0.07                 1.2               0                 0.8         0.012
                     3                 0       0.629                11.3             2.7                  13         0.061
                     0                 0       0.804                 5.3               0                 2.5         0.084
                     0                 0        0.26                 3.6               0                 1.4         0.028
                     0                 0       0.544                 1.7               0                   1         0.056
                     3                 2      11.269                31.5               4                14.1            0.6
                     2                 1      10.691                18.9             1.6                   9         0.358
                     2                 1       8.621                10.6             0.8                 4.3         0.138
                     0                 0       0.982                   2             0.2                 2.5         0.118
                     0                 0       0.214                 1.7             0.2                 0.7         0.031
                     0                 0       0.875                 4.7             0.4                 1.5         0.071
                     1                 0       0.278                 4.6               2                 1.1         0.088
                     0                 0       0.199                 2.2               2                 0.4         0.037
                     0                 0        0.08                 2.5               0                 0.7         0.051
                     0                 0       0.275                 3.6             0.3                 2.8         0.086
                     0                 0       0.024                 4.3               0                 1.3         0.067




                         Infrastructure (p.123)                                            Agriculture, forestry and fisheries (p. 103)
aximum in 2080           Based on Munich Re data       Based on ABI data

                     5% additional 20% additional 5% additional     20% additional
           SRES B1 investment        investment     investment      investment     Research       Extension
               9.496           7.627         30.508          32.514        130.058           3.39         0.062
               4.383           5.209         20.834          22.204         88.819          2.037             0
               1.838           3.736         14.943          15.925         63.702



                 0.958            0.473        1.892              2.017            8.067
1.587        1   3.999   4.262    17.05
0.421    0.024   0.097   0.102    0.412


                                          1.353   0.062
1.928    1.901   7.605   8.106   32.424




1.414    0.405    1.62   1.726    6.906


1.197    0.022   0.087   0.092    0.371
0.153    0.066   0.264   0.282    1.127
   4.6
ry and fisheries (p. 103)


             Capital
             formation     total
                   10.782          14.234
                      4.96          6.997
5.822   7.237

				
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