Formal Certificates by enr10727

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									Implementation of identification and validation of
         non-formal and informal learning
        A critical issue in a strongly structured VET-system




 EPANIL second meeting 23./24. June 2005 in Arras,
 France

 Gerald Heidegger, Irina Michel, Wiebke Petersen
 biat/University of Flensburg
Societal preconditions in a „corporatistic“
structure of VET and CVT


   VET and CVT are mostly governed by employers and
    trade unions not by the state

   VET and CVT- structure is connected with a strongly
    structured system of labour relations

   As a result VET and CVT- certificates have an impact
    on the legal labour rights of the employees
Societal preconditions in a „corporatistic“
structure of VET and CVT


   Any accreditation of non-formal and informal learning
    has to be treated according to the laws and
    agreements in labour relations

   Results:
    Most of the European Principles are partly secured
    through the following regulations

                                            →
Societal preconditions in a „corporatistic“
structure of VET and CVT

Examples regarding those principles:
   Individual entitlements (particularly right to appeal)

   Validation: integral part of human resource development
    based on social dialog

   Confidence and trust: guidance is not required

   Impartiality: required but not always secured, also with respect to
    training of assessors

   Credibility and Legitimacy: unions are included, however often not
    on operational level
Relevance of non-formal and informal
learning in a „corporatistic“ structure –
Germany as an example

   Rising awareness of the individual’s responsibility and self-
    organization capabilities in continuing education

   Non-formal and informal learning as part of lifelong learning are
    gaining more attention in this context

   Strong legal framework for lifelong learning in formal contexts

   BUT: initiatives for validation of non-formal and informal learning
    within continuing education are without formalized legal framework

   Legal framework becomes important when certificates are used in
    connection with an actual employment
Relevance of non-formal learning in the
(dual) apprenticeship system


The dual system consists of two learning environments:

   Worked based learning in the company offering

        →      formal learning options, e.g. cooking according to
               the instructions of the „Meister“

        →      non-formal learning options, e.g. observing and
               participating in the daily work process
   School-based learning

         →     mainly formal learning options
Relevance of non-formal learning in the
(dual) apprenticeship system

Final exam:    only testing of some specific abilities, skills and
               knowledge, activity is „equated“ with competence

Expectation:   background and competence of the trainee is much
               broader than shown in the final examination

               → Input oriented idea of VET!!!
               → Therefore non-formal and informal learning is no
                   alternative to an apprenticeship in the dual
                   system!!!

Consequence: separate accreditation of non-formal and
             informal learning relevant only in CVT
Relevance of non-formal and informal
learning for CVT and lifelong learning


   Most CVT courses are similar to the IVET-principles:
    non-formal learning is included in the formal learning
    („Meister“ in the crafts and industry)

   Accreditation is only complementary to the formally
    accredited occupational certificates

   Most important case of identification of non-formal and
    informal learning: „profiling“ schemes
    Relevance of non-formal and informal
    learning for CVT and lifelong learning –
    Germany as an example

   „Profiling“ schemes on behalf of the labour office
    Assessment of competences and skills for the re-integration into the
    labour market focusing on:

            Former occupational experience
            Content related knowledge
            Curriculum vitae
            Mother Tongue
            Foreign language(s)
            IT-skills
            Personal and key-competences

    → no formal system of accreditation
    → the fact that the profiling-sheet is owned by the labour office is
      contradictory to European Principles
Recognition of non-formal and informal
learning in a strongly structured VET and
CVT-system?


● „Weiterbildungspass“/ “ProfilPASS“- initiative
  → Model of a national pass certifying informal learning
  → Model project of the „Federal and States Commitee on
  Planning Education and Promoting Research“ („Bund-Länder
  Kommission für Bildungsplanung und Forschungsförderung“)

  → Financed and commissioned by the „German Federal and
  States Ministries of Education“ („Bundesministerium für Bildung
  und Forschung- BMBF“)
 Strongly structured system: model of a
 portfolio for lifelong learning – methods and
 instruments

First recording system measuring informal learning:
     Open recording system

      → operates with a concrete context in which the performed activity is
         described referring to suggested competences including e.g.
         ability to work independently or in a team
      → person can complete the list of suggested competencies on
         his/her own
      → the duration is registered
      → Outcomes are certified by a third person or organization
Strongly structured system: model of a
portfolio for lifelong learning – methods and
instruments

Second recording system measuring informal learning:

     Closed recording system

      → gives a complete list of competencies

      → person can not add additional recordings

      → performed activity is described and registered
       within a concrete context and by a third person
       or organization
Model of a portfolio for lifelong learning -
conclusions for a strongly structured system

   Assessment stage:

   Describing learning efficiencies and competencies

   Mostly consisting of self-evaluation of the portfolio/ “pass“owner along a
    given list of competencies

   Not involving external institutions that scientifically measure recorded
    competences

→ Little checkable procedures: missing assessment of how far the
    experience has been a learning experience
    Strongly structured system: model of a
    portfolio for lifelong learning – contents

   First and main step:
         → documentation of formal, non-formal and informal learning
   Contents:
         → School leaving certificates (formal)
         → Formally accredited occupational certificates
         → Formally accredited certificates of further
             Education
         → Formally accredited certificates of continuing education
            (particularly including non-formal learning)
         → Work certificates issued by the employers (comprehending
             mostly non-formally acquired competencies)
Strongly structured system: model of a
portfolio for lifelong learning - examples


   Reports of one‘s own documentation about the processes of non-
    formal and informal learning

   Reports about voluntary work (related to citizenship): portfolio
    „Nachweismappe Ehrenamt“

   Portfolio about processes of non-formal and informal learning
    („Kompetenzbilanz“)
Model of a portfolio for lifelong learning -
„Kompetenzhandbuch“ as an example – part
one


   Originally devised by the metal workers union (IG Metall) for the IT
    occupations ( for these a close interrelation between formal
    education and informal learning is widely spread: „nerds“)

   Aim: „to collect, identify, discover and make visible personal and
    occupational competences

   Three steps:
         →       portfolio
         →       standardized questionnaire
         →       action planning
Model of a portfolio for lifelong learning -
„Kompetenzhandbuch“ as an example – part
two

   First step:
                   → portfolio for the analysis for the individual profile of
                   competences (strengths and weaknesses) as mentioned
   Second step:
                     standardized questionnaire for the analysis of
                     personal „potentials“ including:
                   → Contentedness with the present occupational situation
                   → Fields of interest
                   → Key competencies
                   → Self-confidence
                   → Possible fields of future work
   Third step:    → action planning
                   → Aims of personal development
                   → Endeavours for realising these objectives
Model project for identification and evaluation
of informal learning: „Kompetenzbilanz“


   Not to be mixed up with „bilan de compétence“ – only
    related to informal learning

   The following show the characteristics describing the
    operational steps



                                          →
Model project for identification and evaluation
of informal learning: „Kompetenzbilanz“

   Biographical learning environments
   Important learning experiences (mind-map)
   Learning experiences drawn from family related learning situations
    (mind map)
   Coping strategies, field of activity and necessary competences
   Daily schedule (table showing learning experiences)
   Relation of learning in the family to learning during work
   Table of personal profile of competencies
   Self- and external evaluation (friends, supervisor, counsellor)
   Checklist for using the competence profile
Model project for identification and evaluation
of formal, non-formal and informal learning:
„ProfilPASS“

   Documentation of competencies gained in the following
    learning environments:

   Overview of one‘s life and looking back at what is important today

   Fields of activity:

    → hobbies
                   → household
                                     → family
                                                          → school
         → vocational education
                                                                     → work
                            → voluntary work
                                                → special life circumstances
Model project for identification and evaluation
of formal, non-formal and informal learning:
„ProfilPASS“

   Documentation of competencies gained in the following
    learning environments:

   Balance: get an overview of abilities and competences

   Goals and next steps: wishes and personal goals, preferred leisure
    time and work activities, interests to be liked to pursued

   Collecting of reports: follows recommendations for the „Europass“
Societal conditions for implementing a
Portfolio of lifelong learning in a strongly
structured system

Feasibility study regarding such a portfolio
(„Weiterbildungspass“) concludes:

   Goals of the pass initiatives move between individual, societal
    and corporate demands and are often motivated merely
    economically

   Passes operate incompletely and with little systematic
    procedures: additional recordings can not be included or external
    institutions that measure the competencies are not involved
    (compared to CEP)
                               → first results of evaluation
Societal conditions for implementing a
Portfolio of lifelong learning in a strongly
structured system

   Particularly demand of the unions: not only outcomes should be
    documented but also processes of learning which show the ability
    and openness for learning

   Counselling is substantial – some work agreements already
    contain this requirement laws guiding labour relations and have to
    be recognised when the portfolios are used by the employers

   Employees fear to be occupied– employers want as much
    transparency as possible

   Employers want the documentation and the evaluation to be as
    comprehensive as possible but are not prepared to provide the
    necessary resources
CONCLUSIONS
General fundamental contradiction:
All groups wish the recognition of the portfolio but the legal
conditions only allow this to a certain degree!
   Various initiatives show the relevance of the topic in the national arena
    and willingness on national scale to implement non-formal and informal
    learning into the legal framework of continuing education

   Too early to compare the efficiency and effectiveness of many initiatives

   Non-formal and informal learning moves between individual, corporate
    and societal demands

   Mostly input oriented identification of non-formal and informal learning in
    Germany

								
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