Food Value Addition and Waste Management by enr10727


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									  Can Nanotechnology Provide the Innovations for a Second
          Green Revolution in Indian Agriculture?
                                                                          R.Kalpana Sastry*, N.H.Rao**, Richard Cahoon* and Terry Tucker*
                                                                                                                   * Cornell University, NY; ** NAARM, India

Changing Context                                                                 Possible Themes and Research                                                            Results                                                                                           A Road Map for NT in Indian
From green revolution to decline in ag.growth                                                                                                                                  Theme            Application         Probable type of technology
                                                                                       Sector of                Themes                   Nano-Research areas
                                                                                  agricultural supply                                                                                           area
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           •Develop a database/knowledge base to assess
                                                                                 Method  chain
                                                                                                                                                                         1.    Natural          Energy              CNT-based Hydrogen storage systems,
                                                                                 • farm inputs          • basic research for    • nanoscale phenomena and                      resource                             quantum dots-based photovoltaic cells,                 applications in agriculture based on:
                                                    5-year moving                • agricultural          development of          processes:
                                                                                                                                                                               management                           film coatings for solar cells/panels, nano
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    catalysts for hydrogen generation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             •Areas of research (across various links in agri-
                                                       average                    production             nanomaterials /         plant/animal cells;                                                                                                                         chain)
                                                                                 • pre-harvest           devices                 genomics/proteomics;                                           Water               Nanosensors, polymers, clays, zeolites                   •Products
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    for contaminant detection
                                                                                 • post harvest         • plant/animal           biosafety; crop/ animal production                                                 Nanomembranes for purification,                          •Methods
                                                                                  processing             production              processes; natural resources cycles                                                desalination, detoxification                             •Timeline
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Nanomolecules for robust water tanks
                                                                                 • packaging            • plant/animal          • nanomaterials: nano fertilizers and                                               and to prevent seepage                                   •Potential for effective interface with current
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Nanosensors for water flow detection
                                                                                 • transportation        protection
                                                                                                                                 nanocides for efficient use of inputs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Nanozeolites for efficient release of water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             research trends
          Source : Planning Commission, GOI, 2007
                                                                                                                                • soil erosion control; packaging                                                                                                            •Environmental, health and societal implications
                                                                                 • retail               • natural resource
                                                                                                         conservation           • nanodevices and systems:                                      Soil                Nanozeolites for slow release of                         •IP and biodiversity related issues
                                                                                 • consumer                                                                                                                         fertilizers particles for soil conservation,
 From self-                                                                                                                      biosensors for precision agriculture;                                              nanomagnets for removal of soil                                              Missed in early stage of
                                                                                 • post-consumption • pathogen/
 sufficiency to                                                                                                                 • diagnostics;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    contaminants, soil health testing                                            ag-biotech development !
 concerns on food                                                                                                                pathogen/contaminant detection
                                                                                                         detection                                                                                                                                                         •Assess priorities
                                                                                                        • veterinary medicine   • smart delivery systems for
 “Is it a technology fatigue?”                                                                                                   genes/drugs/vaccines                          Theme             Application        Probable type of technology                            •Identify institutional strategies for:
                                                                                                        • bioprocessing for                                                                      area
                                                                                                         food                   • nanofiltration: nanobrushes for soil   2.    Value addition    Agri-waste/        Nanoparticles synthesis from cellulose-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              •Research, educational, extension, governance and
                                        Source: Planning Commission, GOI, 2004
                                                                                                                                 & water purification                                            biomass            base agricultural byproducts                              regulation
                                                                                                        • nanobased                                                                                                 Particles in strengthening natural fibre,
                                                                                                         packaging              • smart systems integration                                                         enhancing aesthetics in cotton, jute and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    other fibre products
                                                                                                        • nano-bio industrial   • environment, social, ethical, health                                              Nanoparticles for liquid and gaseous
                                                                                                                                 implications                                                                       fuels-based lighting and cooking
                                                                                                         products                                                                                                   technologies from crop residue, animal

                          Objective                                                                     • agricultural waste
                                                                                                                                • education
                                                                                                                                                                         3.    Delivery          Disease and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Encapsulated nanoparticles for
                                                                                                                                                                               mechanisms        pest control,      pesticides including biopesticides,
Preliminary assessment of                                                                                                                                                                        crop/animal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    drugs, hormones, vaccines, gene, DNA,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    for crop, livestock, fish hatcheries,
  potential of nanotechnology (NT)                                               Priority Research Areas                                                                                                            poultry                                                Nanotechnology could provide
                                                                                                                                                                         4.    Disease           Early              Nanosensors for detection

for sustainable agricultural                                                                                                                                                   diagnosis         detection in       Quantum dots for diagnosis                              the much needed trigger for a

  growth in India                                                                1. Natural resource management:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            second green revolution in
                                                                                                                                                                         5.    Tracking use of Use of               Nanosensors for tracking use of elite                   Indian agriculture if the
                                                                                        efficient use of soil, water, energy inputs                                            biodiversity    germplasm,           lines, breeds, cultivars
NT in agriculture is an evolving                                                                                                                                                               biodiversity                                                                 following are emphasized:
                                                                                 2. Value addition of ag-waste/bio-mass                                                  6.    Horticultural     For            Nanosensors for tracking in cold chain
 field :                                                                                                                                                                       chain             processing of Nanoemulsions for enhancing shelf-life
                                                                                 3. Disease diagnosis                                                                                            products in
   Has potential to revolutionize                                                                                                                                                                flower, fruit,                                                            1. Strategic approach to nanotechnology
   agriculture and food systems (Roco,                                           4. Delivery mechanism in plant-soil-animal
                                                                                                                                                                                                 food industry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              research and development across the
   2003; Kuzma and Verhage, 2006)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             agricultural value chain.
                                                                                        system                                                                                 Theme            Application area      Probable type of technology/approach
   To improve the conditions of the poor                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2. Environmentally and socially
   (Juma and Yee-Cheong, 2005)                                                   5. Tracking biodiversity                                                                7.    Food (fresh      Food processing,      Development of nanoscale formulations of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              responsible development of the
                                                                                                                                                                               and              packaging,            different traditional food products, for
                                                                                                                                                                               processed)       nutraceutical         flavouring, refining catalytic devices in oils,
                                                                                 6. Horticultural /food supply chain                                                           sector           delivery, safety      dairy, meat, poultry products                           technology.
                                                                                                                                                                                                and sensing           Nanocomposites, particles in packaging
Investments in India over $25                                                    7. Food processing/packaging                                                                                                         materials including traditional, indigenous          3. Anticipatory design of effective
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              regulatory mechanisms and strong
  million for next 5 years                                                       8. Value-addition of ethnic foods
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Liposomal nanovesicles, nanocapsules for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      better nutrient delivery, bioavailability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              governance systems designed with
   Need to conceptualize, prioritize and
                                                                                 9. Protocols for risk assessment/safety                                                                                                                                                      involvement of all the stakeholders.
   design NT research across various                                                                                                                                     8.    Protocols for    Regulation            Data generation on testing and stds, toxicity

                                                                                 10. Education                                                                                 risk             systems               assessment methodology                               4. Ultimate acceptance by the
   links in the agricultural                                                                                                                                                   assessment
                                                                                                                                                                         9.    Education        Researchers,          Strong HRD programmes, global
   production-                                                                   11. Awareness across society (ELSI)                                                                            policy, industry,     partnership
   consumption                                                                   12. Developing new genetic types/                                                                              consumers                                                               Acknowledgments: SM Ilyas, NAARM; Lesley Yorke, Kavli Institute at
   value chain                                                                                                                                                           10.   Awareness        Building
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      SME education and involvement, joint
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ventures, supply chains. clusters, public-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Cornell for Nanoscale Science; Fulbright Scholar Program; IP/CALS,
                                                                                            breeds/cultivars                                                                                    networks in rural     private partnerships                              Cornell University
  Fig Source: Hartwich et al, 2003                                                                                                                                                              areas


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