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									        Career Awareness
    Why do people have jobs or careers?
What are the different types of jobs or careers?
                  About This Unit:
     The Career Awareness unit is the first of four units
       and will introduce students in grades 5-8 to:

 Why people need to have jobs
 Different types of jobs/careers


As well as…,
 Expose students to general work expectations:
          punctuality
          attendance and reporting of absences
          completing assigned work
          reporting of problems and asking for assistance,
          cooperating with others
          hygiene and health
Fall 2005 self-advocacy Transition Services Preparation & Training
                     Design Framework
            Units are designed using the three stages of
                      Understanding by Design
   Stage ONE:
    * Identify external standards and overall unit goals that are relevant to the
    students strengths and needs
    * Incorporate these standards and goals to create relevant, authentic
    questions that “hook” students and address and key misunderstandings

   Stage TWO:
    * Develop assessments that demonstrate thorough unit learning by using
    the Six Facets of Understanding

   Stage THREE:
    * Develop learning activities that develop the knowledge and skills needed
    to successfully complete the assessment and demonstrate thorough unit
    understanding

Fall 2005                     Transition Services Preparation & Training
                                  Stage ONE:
               Identify external standards for the unit:
        Ohio Department of Education Middle School Content Standards

 Language                   Arts Standards
   – Reading-
              Use multiple resources to enhance comprehension of vocabulary
              Determine a purpose for reading and use a range of reading comprehension
               strategies to better understand text

     – Writing-
              Write letters (business letters to the editor, job applications) that
               address the audiences needs and state purpose in a clear and efficient
               manner
              Use persuasive strategies, including establishing a clear position in
               support of a proposition or a proposal with organized and relevant
               evidence
     – Communication-
              Present ideas in a logical sequence and use effective introductions and
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               conclusions that guide and inform a listener’s understanding of key ideas
                                   Transition Services Preparation & Training
             Content Standards cont.

 Mathematics-
             Analyze and solve multi-step problems involving addition,
              subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers
 Science-
             Describe how technology affects human life
             Give examples of how thinking scientifically is helpful in daily
              life


 Social          Studies-
             Define and identify regions using human and physical
              characteristics.


Fall 2005                     Transition Services Preparation & Training
                       Stage 1
 Identify and prioritize content standards.
 Identify and prioritize key students
  learning needs.
 Combine standards and student needs to
  develop inquiry-based unit questions that:
        – Reflect overarching unit goals
        – Address authentic and relevant life-long issues
        – ―Hook‖ and engage students
        – Address key unit misunderstandings

Fall 2005              Transition Services Preparation & Training
                      Unit Questions
  These questions result from prioritizing the standards and
                     the student needs.


     Why do people have jobs or careers?
        – What is the difference between a job and a career?
        – Why do people need to or want to work?


     What are the different types of jobs or careers?
        – What skills do different careers require?
        – What skills will I need to help me succeed in a
          career?



Fall 2005                 Transition Services Preparation & Training
                              Stage TWO:
         Develop assessments using the Six Facets of Understanding

       Facet                         Activity                     Performance
                                                                      Criteria
Facet 1:             Explain the difference between              Accurately
                     jobs and careers by comparing               describe a job and
Explanation          and contrasting between these               a career (based
                     work characteristics:                       on training path)
                     *Indoor/outdoor                             that correctly
Sophisticated                                                    identifies
explanations         *Working alone/working with
                     others                                      differences
and theories                                                     between 2
                     *Uniform/no uniform                         positions (as a job
                     * Salary without overtime/                  or career) with
                     hourly with overtime                        5/6
                     *Shift work/ day work                       characteristics
                     * Entry level/ professional                 correct.
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                     technical Services Preparation & Training
                            Transition
            Stage 2: Facets cont.

            Facet                  Activity                             Performance
                                                                           Criteria

Facet 2:            Students will interpret and                       Students will
Interpretation      explain the the 6                                 choose 2 preferred
                    characteristics from Facet #1                     career categories
                    in terms of major career                          and correctly
Interpretations,
                    categories or clusters (using                     describe the 5/6 of
narratives, and
                    the Occupational Outlook                          the characteristics
translations
                    Handbook’s 10 categories, or                      for each one.
                    the Dictionary of Occupational                    Students will then
                    Titles’ 9 categories), and their                  interpret each
                    interest in each.                                 category with a
                                                                      realistic description
                                                                      of their own future
Fall 2005                Transition Services Preparation & Training
                                                                      career plans for
              Stage 2: Facets cont.
      Facet                        Activity                                  Performance
                                                                                Criteria

Facet 3:           - Class will make job site visits                     -Using  an observation
                   or field trips to observe people                      form or worksheet, each
Application        working across the career                             student will correctly
                   categories: in the school                             identify 5/6 of the
Use knowledge in   building, within the school                           characteristics for each
new situations     district, and within the local                        job site visit.
                   community. Students will                              -After visiting each job
and contexts
                   identify examples of each of                          site, students will use a
                   the 6 criteria across all of the                      map of natural resources
                   career categories.                                    and a standard highway
                   - Class will identify the region’s                    & city map to identify at
                   resources and geographic                              least 2 features that
                   characteristics that support the                      support each job (city,
                   different local jobs available.                       transportation, farms).
                                                                         -Identify at least 1
                   -Students will identify how
                   technology is used on job                             technology item and
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                   sites.
                            Transition Services Preparation & Training   how it is used.
               Stage 2: Facets cont.
        Facet                        Activity                               Performance
                                                                               Criteria

Facet 4:               -After visiting job sites,                      - Students will give at
                       students will write letters to                  least 1 good example for
Perspective            individuals at sites asking                     each that compares theirs
                       about their interests,                          & the person’s
Critical and           motivations, and skills in                      perspectives on interests,
                       making their career choice,                     motivations and skills for
insightful points of
view                   and the factors that have                       that career, and ways to
                       helped them be successful.                      be successful.
                       - Students will examine                         -Students will identify 1
                       technology used on jobs and                     preference for and against
                       workers’ preferences for                        for each piece of
                       using technology.                               technology.
                       - Students will apply scientific                - Students will identify 1
                       thinking to technology to                       clear reason each– pro,
                       solve problems, including                       con, and outcomes for
   Fall 2005           disabilities. Services Preparation & Training
                               Transition                              each piece of technology.
             Stage 2: Facets cont.
        Facet                     Activity                              Performance
                                                                           Criteria
Facet 5:            - Using letters from Facet 4,                   -Students   will identify
                    students will compare the                       at least 2 differing
Empathy             person’s and their own feelings                 feelings for each.
                    and satisfaction regarding each                 -Students will show at
                    job.                                            least one example of
Ability to get
                    - Students will use workers’                    empathy in describing
inside another
                    differing perspectives on                       feelings associated
person’s feelings
                    technology preferences to                       with technology
                    examine feelings.                               perspectives.
                    - Students will compare                         - Students will show at
                    scientific thinking to compare                  least one empathetic
                    reasons and outcomes with                       feeling and how it may
                    feelings of empathy as another                  guide decision making
                    basis for decision-making.,                     for technology use and
                    including accommodating                         accommodating
 Fall 2005          disabilities. Services Preparation & Training
                           Transition                               disabilities.
              Stage 2: Facets cont.

            Facet                Activity                                Performance
                                                                            Criteria
Facet 6:            Students will use descriptions                    Students will include
                    of the career categories and                      all 6 categories and
Self-               their characteristics, and self-                  describe at least 1
knowledge           evaluative descriptions of                        strength accurately
                    strengths and needs, to                           and realistically for
To know one’s       express a clear thesis (with                      5/6, and come to a
ignorance,          supportive explanation) of                        well-developed
prejudice, and      which career category is most                     conclusion. Students
understanding       appropriate as a career                           will accurately
                    choice; students will include                     identify their need for
                    need of accommodations for                        at least 1
                    this career choice.                               accommodation for
                                                                      this career choice.

Fall 2005                Transition Services Preparation & Training
   Stage THREE:                          Suggested Teaching Activities
                                          Career
                                         Awareness
                                            Unit
   Communication:
 Students will communicate                                                         Mathematics
   the 6 characteristics of                                                       Students will compute
   the career cluster using                                                     wages plus overtime vs.
      logical sequencing
                                             Writing                          salaries to compare weekly,
 to present the information.     Students will write letters to                   monthly, and annual
                                 People at job sites about their                         earnings.
           (Facet 1)
                                      career interests and                             (re: Facet 1)
                                           satisfaction.
                                       Students will write
                                 persuasively to support their
                                    decision about a career.
                                         (Facets 1 & 6)



                                                                                        Reading
    Social Studies
 Students will use maps to
                                            Science                             Students will information
                                     Students gather info.                     about the career categories,
  identify geographical and                                                   using context to support new
human features that support    on site visits about technology
                                  use and accommodations.                       vocabulary, and choosing
the existence of local jobs.                                                  appropriate reading strategies
           (Facet 3)              Students use scientific and
                                logical reasoning (pros, cons,                 to scan among categories,
                                  and outcomes) to examine                          and read in depth
                                          technology and                          to gather information.
  Fall 2005                          accommodation use.
                                 Transition Services Preparation & Training
                                                                                      (re: Facet 1)
                                          (Facets 3, 4, 5)
    Sample of Lesson Plans –
                       Writing #1
   Activity- Students will write letters to people met on job site visits at school,
    the district, and in the local community, to ask for information about the
    interests and motivations that led them to their careers.

   Behavioral Objective- Students will compose a letter to a person of their
    choice that uses the correct business letter format, with no more than 2
    teacher corrections; and asks clear questions about interests, motivations,
    and other circumstances that led to their current career, after peer editing.

   Pre-Requisite Skills- Before this activity students will need to know the
    differences between friendly and formal letters, and how to use the writing
    process for developing and editing written work.

   Lesson Introduction- Teacher will ask students about the job site visits
       they made in learning about the 6 characteristics of jobs, and examining
       technology and accommodations. Teacher will ask students to imagine how
       the different workers got their jobs. Teacher may describe one or offer
       his/her own career path as an example. Teacher will ask how students can
                                  Transition Services writing a letter.
       find out—will facilitate discussion to Preparation & Training
Fall 2005
                Lesson Plan-Writing #1 cont.
     Lesson Procedure-
        – Ask students to identify the differences between friendly and formal or
          business letters—in tone, language style, and format. Generate the rules
          and format and post.
        – Have students identify one person from their visits they would like to
          contact to learn about their interests, motivations, skills, and career path
          in acquiring their current job. Have the class develop potential wordings
          for and introduction, questions, and conclusion.
        – Have each student write a draft letter then have a peer review for form
          and clarity of questions. Get addresses and have students write the final
          copy and send.
        – Have students read the responses and identify the person’s perspective.
          In demonstrating Facet 4, have students compare this with their own
          perspectives on this position, their interests, skills, etc.
     Adaptations-
        – For Younger or Lower Functioning Students : Help students choose
          individuals, provide students with the business/formal letter format, have
          class write each portion of the letter together and then check.
        – For Older or Higher Functioning Students : Have students work more
          independently on drafting letters and write several to compare paths.
    Fall 2005                     Transition Services Preparation & Training
    Sample Lesson Plan – Writing #2
     Activity- Students will write an self-evaluative summary, developing a clear
      thesis and providing support for his/her conclusion about a preferred career
      category/cluster.

     Behavioral Objective- Students will write a summary of their abilities,
      likes, and dislikes across (a) at least 5 of the 6 career characteristics, (b) their
      strengths and limitations (at least 2 each), including a clear thesis statement
      and a clear conclusion to the summary.

     Pre-Requisite Skills- Students can identify their strengths and limitations,
      the 6 career characteristics, and the career categories (DOT or OOH).

     Lesson Introduction- Teacher will ask students the unit questions: why
      people have different careers (different interests, abilities, etc.) and what
      kinds of jobs there are (their visits across the career categories). Ask
      students how they are now better prepared to decide on a career category.

Fall 2005                       Transition Services Preparation & Training
        Lesson Plan – Writing #2 cont.
     Lesson Procedure-
        – Explain that students are now ending the unit and will need to explain
          their career choice (similar to interviewing and explaining why they are
          a good candidate). They will be writing a persuasive essay that
          includes a clear idea of what they believe (thesis), a strong conclusion,
          and evidence for this conclusion (body of the essay). Give examples
          from interviews, or written persuasive forms.
        – Review or explain (give examples) of a thesis statement.
        – Explain the criteria for evidence: their abilities, likes, and dislikes across
          the 6 career characteristics and at least 2 each of their strengths and
          limitations.
        – Review or explain how to synthesize into a concluding statement.
        – Have students draft their statements and use peers to review.
     Adaptations-
        – For Younger or Lower Functioning Students : Provide students with a
          format to use, have class write each portion together and then check.
        – For Older or Higher Functioning Students : Have students work
          independently to draft and review each others’ work.
Fall 2005                        Transition Services Preparation & Training
            Sample Lesson Plan - Reading
     Activity- Students will read information about career categories using
      context to support vocabulary development, and using different reading
      strategies to support different purposes for reading.

     Behavioral Objective- Students will locate and read information across
      the 9 (DOT) or 10 (OOH) career categories to collect information about the
      6 career characteristics within each category—using context clues to make
      an approximate guess of meaning for at least 5 unknown words, and
      varying reading according to purpose: scanning to locate category,
      skimming to locate career characteristics within a description, and thorough
      reading to take notes, using all 3 at least 5 times.

     Pre-Requisite Skills- Students have basic context skills and have used
      each reading strategy previously.

     Lesson Introduction- Teacher will ask how much they know about
      (unit question) what kinds of jobs there are. Discussion will lead to how
      jobs may be categorized by similarity, and ask for ideas. Teacher will
      present preferred categorization (DOT or OOH) and give examples.
Fall 2005                      Transition Services Preparation & Training
                Lesson Plan – Reading cont.
     Lesson Procedure-
        – Teacher will explain that class will visit job sites and look for specific characteristics—
          will explain the 6 for this unit.
        – To prepare for these visits and to answer the unit questions, students will do research
          on the career categories. Teachers will have students choose a category or work in
          pairs/groups (teacher can choose one category to complete as a demonstration to do
          with the class initially). Pass out print material about the category(ies) to each
          student.
        – Ask some of the different ways students have used reading in the past: to find
          information quickly, to read thoroughly, etc. Pass out worksheet with info listed for
          the 6 categories. Discuss how students would locate various types of information,
          linking reading purpose with strategy. Show place on worksheet for students to
          indicate the reading strategy used.
        – Ask students what strategies they have used when they encounter a word they don’t
          know. Review use of context and have them list words and their guesses in a ―word
          log.‖ Compile information found for the class.
     Adaptations-
        – For Younger or Lower Functioning Students: Model more than one career category, or
          do all as a group, discussing reading & word strategy used.
        – For Older or Higher Functioning Students: Have students work without an initial
          model, and develop their own worksheet or reporting form.
    Fall 2005                         Transition Services Preparation & Training
                 Sample Lesson Plan –
                          Mathematics
     Activity- Students will compute wages plus overtime versus salaries to
      compare weekly, monthly, and annual earnings.

     Behavioral Objective- Students will compare weekly, monthly, and
      annual earnings of typical hourly wages and salaries across the career
      categories, using multi-step addition, subtraction, multiplication, and
      division with at least 5/6 correct across each category.

     Pre-Requisite Skills- Be able to successfully complete a multi-step
      problem; able to do addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of
      whole numbers to 95% accuracy.

     Lesson Introduction- Teacher will ask if it is ―better‖ to be paid with
      an hourly wage or an annual salary. Ask for examples from their
      friends/family and provide competing examples. Help them conclude that
      this must be calculated because it’s not always clear.
Fall 2005                      Transition Services Preparation & Training
         Lesson Plan – Mathematics cont.
     Lesson Procedure
        – Review the difference between hourly wages and salary (from the 6
          categories). Choose an example of an hourly wage and salary to use with the
          class. Use hourly wage and ask students/review how to compute weekly,
          monthly, and annual earnings. Have class compute each.
        – Ask/review how to now compute monthly and weekly earnings from annual
          salary, and have class compute these. Compare final results.
        – Have students work together to compute wages and salaries from ―typical‖
          jobs within each job category.
        – Make a class chart that compares these salary computations and discuss the
          types of jobs that tend to be hourly or salaried, and any student preferences.
     Adaptations-
        – For Younger or Lower Functioning Students : Model more than one set of
          calculations, or do all as a group.
        – For Older or Higher Functioning Students : Have students work without an
          initial model and less guidance in developing calculation comparisons; have
          students use reverse computations to check their answers.
    Fall 2005                    Transition Services Preparation & Training
               Sample Lesson Plan –
                       Social Studies
     Activity- Students will use general and natural resources maps to indicate
      natural and human conditions (cities, highways, etc.) that support local
      jobs.

     Behavioral Objective- After visiting each job site, students will use a
      map of natural resources and a standard highway & city map to identify at
      least 2 features that support each job (city, transportation, farms, etc.).

     Pre-Requisite Skills- Students have basic map-reading skills including
      use of legends; students can find their own city or location on a state map.

     Lesson Introduction- Teacher will ask students about the job sites
      they have visited and what kind of work it entailed, and the career
      category. Teacher will ask what things the workers used at work and guide
      discussion to what workers need in order to get to work and to complete
      their work: transportation, highways, gas, etc. + work machines, materials,
      (transportation for the materials, etc.)
Fall 2005                      Transition Services Preparation & Training
    Lesson Plan - Social Studies cont.
   Lesson Procedure
     – Describe how different areas have special features or resources that help
       businesses. Ask students about special geographic features of the area and what
       businesses use them. Look at a standard map to expand the list—identify presence
       of large cities, rivers, lakes, etc. List these out: features & businesses.
     – Have students identify how cities, lakes, etc. help businesses: transportation,
       highways, offices and resources, etc. Add a column of ―support‖ to the previous 2
       and list out examples for each business.
     – Ask if there are other things that help businesses decide to come to an area. Guide
       discussion to natural resources and land use. Show students a natural resources
       map and help them read the legend. Identify other industries that use minerals,
       forests, pasture, etc. on the class chart.
     – Refer back to the unit question: What are the different types of jobs or careers?
       Help students summarize how each area may have different local job or career
       opportunities because of different resources. Discuss some that are the same:
        schools, libraries, public services, etc. and how this may influence career choice.
     – Adaptations-
       – For Younger or Lower Functioning Students: Guide students in reading maps, and in
            identifying key features; focus on fewer features.
       – For Older or Higher Functioning Students: Have students fill in chart more
    Fall 2005                           Transition Services
            independently and have them compare Preparation & Training or state areas.
                                                            2 or more local
      Sample Lesson Plan - Science
   Activity-Students gather information during site visits about technology
    use and accommodations. Students use scientific and logical reasoning
    (pros, cons, and outcomes) to examine technology and accommodation
    use.

   Behavioral Objective- Students will identify at least 1 technology item
    and how it is used from their job site visits. Students will identify 1
    preference for and against for one piece of technology they observed on
    job sites, and one accommodation. Students will identify 1 clear reason
    each– a pro, con, and an outcome to support preference for one piece of
    technology and one accommodation.

   Pre-Requisite Skills- Students will remember technology equipment
    and accommodations use from their job site visits; students have recorded
    observations about their visits.

   Lesson Introduction- Teacher will ask students about how jobs may
        change over time (use family/friends stories), and guide to discussion of
        technology as a source of change. Compare with technology that has
        changed at their home (new appliances, computers, communications, etc.
Fall 2005                      Transition Services Preparation & Training
            Lesson Plan – Science cont.

     Lesson Procedure
        – Have students list some of the technologies they observed in the worksites
          (worksheet from site visits). Discuss how technology helps people work more or
          better. Have each student choose one of the technologies they used and identify
          how it improves work or performance (use worksheet or narrative description).
        – Ask students about the class list of technologies and the several they observed.
          Ask if there are some they like or some they dislike, and why (old fashioned, not
          like their home version, etc.). Ask why businesses might have these although
          the student(s) or worker(s) may not ―like‖ these (raise supervisor perspectives,
          expense of new, training, etc.). Have students describe their own preference
          and compare it to a possible supervisor’s or worker’s difference in preference.
        – Ask students about the types of accommodations they saw at the job sites, or
          what they think might be needed in order for them to work. Describe their own
          accommodations, and their preference for an accommodation in the worksite,
          and then another person’s possible preference (TTY, hearing aids, FM systems,
          video relay, etc.).
        – Describe a scenario where a boss needs to make a decision about a pieced of
          technology or an accommodation. Explain that the reasons given above are
          personal preferences based on feelings. Ask what other types of reasons a boss
          may want in making a decision (cost effectiveness, utility, training ease, etc.).
Fall 2005                         Transition Services Preparation & Training
          Lesson Plan – Science cont.
    Lesson Procedure, cont.
      – Explain that sometimes scientific or logical reasons are important for making decisions
        about work, and give some examples (decisions about 1 person’s preference may not
        be successful with all, etc.).
            Have students think about how their own accommodations were chosen and determined—
             audiological testing, trial, re-fitting and observation, etc.
      – Show students 3 important things that need to be included in making a decision:
        things that support use (pros), things that are problematic (cons), and overall
        outcomes (results). Have students list the piece of technology and the
        accommodation and create these 3 columns; use their visitation observations to
        provide at least one example of each. Then review as a class.
      – Refer back to the unit question: What are the different types of jobs or careers?
        Discuss how technology and accommodations have now allowed D/HH students and
        others with disabilities to have more jobs. Discuss some of these job changes and
        how this influences their career choice. Explain that workers must request
        accommodations from employers, who will use data as well as preferences to make
        decisions.
      – Adaptations-
         – For Younger or Lower Functioning Students: Do as separate lessons: work technology
              and its use, preferences, and data-based reasons.
         – For Older or Higher Functioning Students: Have students collect internet and print
              data to support their pros, cons, and outcomes. Discuss self-advocacy and use of
                                         employers Preparation & accommodations.
    Fall 2005 persuasive strategies with Transition Servicesregarding Training
      Tips for Teachers
      Setting Up a Career Awareness Program

            – Contact other work study or transition coordinators who may also be setting up
              work sites or visitations. Piggy-back and share responsibilities for sites and
              transportation arrangements when possible.
            – Combine site visits with short presentations from people in the community—have
              them bring in slides, videos, and materials when they present. Use these to
              supplement, extend, or expand the site visits.
            – Try to cover the major career categories in your site visits and classroom
              presentations; also use guest speakers, videos, etc. to expand students’
              exposure to the breadth of careers across each category.
            – Let the students choose, when possible, the people and sites they will learn
              about; for example choose among 2-3 possibilities (this builds engagement and
              motivation).
            – Have students become involved in the site visitations and guest speakers by
              writing invitations and helping to make arrangements, as is appropriate (at times
              accompanied by a letter of explanation from the teacher); do things that help
              involve the students in what will be their future career decision!

Fall 2005                            Transition Services Preparation & Training
                        Tips for Teachers cont.
 Use family & friends networks to expand your contacts


                                         Parents


                                                                           Food-Service
             Other Teachers
                                                                             Workers

                                   PEOPLE TO
                                CONSIDER FOR:
                              worksite visits, career
                               presentations, or
             School               for business                                   Medical
            Officials              networking                                  Professionals




                        Community                        Government
                         Members                           Officials

Fall 2005                     Transition Services Preparation & Training
                                References
     Brolin, D. E. (1997). Life centered career education: A competency based approach .
      Reston, VA: The Council for Exceptional Children.

     Dictionary of Occupational Titles and its 9 career categories at:
      http://www.occupationalinfo.org/contents.html

     Luft, P., & Koch, L. (2005). Career Development Theories for Transition Planning. In
      R. W. Flexer, T. J. Simmons, P. Luft, & R. M. Baer (eds.), Transition planning for
      secondary students with disabilities (2nd ed., pp. 83-108). Upper Saddle River, NJ:
      Pearson/Merrill.

     Occupational Outlook Handbook and it’s 10 career categories at:
      http://www.bls.gov/oco/home.htm

     Ohio Department of Education. ―Academic Content
      Standards.‖http://www.ode.state.oh. us/academic content_standards/

     U.S. Department of Labor. 2005. http://www.dol. gov/

     Wiggins, G. & McTigue J. (2005). Understanding by design (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA:
      Association for the Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Fall 2005                          Transition Services Preparation & Training

								
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