If You Are Just Joining Us

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					    20th Century Views on Mind and Body
   • Logical Behaviorism (Gilbert Ryle):
     “mind” refers simply to a way of
     speaking about behaviors                      (1900-76)

                 • Mind-Brain (Identity) Theory: states
                 of consciousness & thoughts are simply
                 brain states (“reductive materialism”)
J. J. C. Smart
   (1920- )
                   • Problem: consciousness & brain
                   states have different properties (e.g.,
                   consciousness is not spatial)
   More 20th Century Theories of Mind
                  • Eliminative Materialism: we should
                    replace terms like “thought” with
                    purely material expressions
Paul Churchland
   (1942 - )

   •Functionalism: mental states are
   patterned associations of sensory
   stimuli and behaviors; these
   associations are not tied to any           Jerry Fodor
   particular anatomical mechanism             (1935 - )
                Minds and Machines
• Epiphenomenalism: “conscious”
  activity is simply the result of
  physical (“automatic”) organization           Thomas Huxley
                                                  (1825-95)

                • Objection: to say that a being
                  thinks or feels pain is not to
                  describe anything; it is to reveal
   Ludwig
 Wittgenstein     how we speak (which is linked
 (1889-1951)
                  to a network of other beliefs)

				
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