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									松山 MATSUYAMA                                                                                                                                                2010/4/19




                                                    THE 5TH AERF IN NAGOYA UNIV.
                                                                      APRIL 2010
                                                                                       Contents
                                                                                          1.Background
                      ANALYSIS ON
      SECONDARY MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE CURRICULUM
                  IN KENYA AND MALAWI
                                                                                          2.Objectives
                                  FROM
                   SOCIAL AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES                                     3.Related prior researches

                                                                                          4.Research method
                                             MASANOBU MATSUYAMA
                                                                M2                        5.Progress
               1
                                              IDEC, HIROSHIMA UNIV.
                                                                                          6.Hereafter                                                           2




    Background                                                                          While the quantity and quality of Education in Primary Education
      Starting in the 1960s, the trend in International Cooperation in                are discussed, UPE will lead the huge demand for Secondary
    Education in Developing countries was represented by UPE and EFA.                 Education.
    Then in 2000, the Dakar Framework and MDGs marked the Quality of                       During the process of UPE, it is necessary to have
    Education with more emphasis.                                                        basic discussions for Secondary Education. (Ogawa・
      Even in Sub-Saharan Africa, due to MDGs, the quantity of                           Nomura, 2008)
      Education expanded as shown the table below.
      *Table: the average of GER and NER in Sub-Saharan Africa                                                           SMASSE project has been launched
           Primary           1991            1999            2006                                                              in Kenya in 1998.

             GER             72 %            78 %            95 %                                                                 Focusing on
                                                                                                                        Secondary Math & Science subjects
             NER             54 %            56 %            70 %

         Secondary           1999            2006
             GER             24 %            32 %
             NER             18 %            25 %        *Source: UNESCO(2009)

                                                                                 3
                                                                                       SMASSE network has been established to involve                           4
    Contrary to the gradual expansion of quantity of Education, the
                                                                                       more than 30 countries in Africa, which clearly
    achievement of students is under the threat. (UNESCO, 2009)
                                                                                       shows the demand for Secondary Education.




                                                                                       Objectives
     Social need presented                                 Industrialization
     in National Development Plan in Kenya:
                                                                                      Main Objective
         Urgent issue; to cultivate the human resource                                  To clarify the relations between “the recent curriculum
                                                                                      revision in Math & Science” and “Social and Historical
      Industrialization is inextricably related to the HR in                          factors”, and to show the feature of each curriculum by
    more than Secondary Education. Especially, Science                                comparing between Kenya and Malawi.
    and Math Education play the important role for
    economic and technological developments, and it has
    the aspect of development of HR. (JICA, 2007b)                                    In order to achieve the main objective, these 4 sub-objectives are set.

          Social                                                                          1. To   clarify the transitions of the curriculum,
                                          Policy                      Education
         demands                                                                          2. To   list the changes in the recent curriculum revisions,
                                                                                          3. To   identify the factors acting on the curriculum revisions and
    Industrialization                National policy                Secondary M & S
                                                                                          4. To   clarify the differences by comparing the results
                                     Education policy                 Curriculum

                                                                                 5                                                                              6
     How does the curriculum revision link with Social
     demands in details ??




                                                                                                                                                                    1
松山 MATSUYAMA                                                                                                                                                                                                    2010/4/19




     Related prior researches
                                                                                                                                      Analysis                                           Analysis
    ・ Howson et al. (1981)『Curriculum development in
                                                                                                                             Current Curriculum                                   Current Curriculum
    mathematics』; 3 pressures for initiating curriculum change
                                                                                                                                               Revision                           Revision
          Social &                                                                                                           Policy                                                             Policy
                                     Mathematical                        Educational                                                                          Comparison
          Political

    ・ MUTUA (1975)、DZAMA (2006)                                                                                                        Ex-Curriculum                               Ex-Curriculum
      Researches on the influence by Colonial power in the
    time from before independence to just after independence.
        From the colonial era to the independence period,
      Education development in the colonies was one of                                                                                                                             Historical
                                                                                                                                          Historical
      the important governance policies.                                                                                                                       Inter
        The Education goals-setting and Establishment of                                                                                                      national
                                                                                                                                                                                             Social
      Education system are influenced by former colonial                                                                              Social
                                                                                                    7                                                                                                           8
      power. (Kuroda, 2005)                                                                                                                        National                National

                                            Historical                                                                                                           Factors
                                                                                                         Research Framework




     Research steps
                                                                                                             Progress
     1    Checking Prior researches
                                                                                                                     2009. Sept: Field research in Malawi
          Collecting the information and documents
     2    Syllabi, National policies, Education policies and so on.
                                                                                                                     2010. March: Same in Kenya
          Interviews to Curriculum Developers                                                                                                             成果
     3     The curriculum developers in KIE and MIE, clarifying the policies that                           ・ Background information
          acting on the curriculum revision most strongly.
                                                                                                              Collecting the information about Secondary Math
          Analysis on Syllabi                                                                               and Science Education under SMASSE project
     4     Identifying New and Ex- syllabi, clarifying the history of the
          curriculum revisions, listing the changes in Syllabi.
                                                                                                            ・ Collecting Documents
                                                                                                              Malawi: Current & old syllabi         Under Analysis
          To analyze the relations between the changes and factors
     5     To make links between them by way of policy
                                                                                                              Kenya: Current & old syllabi, references
                                                                                                            ・ Conducting Interviews
          To compare the result of analysis
     6                                                                                                        In MIE: Curriculum developers
           To find the differences in between, to show the feature
                                                                                                              Malawi University: Professor
          Conclusion                                                                                          In KIE: Curriculum developers
     7
           To conclude the results led by the former steps
                                                                                                    9         In MoEST: Director                                10

                                                                                                              In JICA: Ex-Education Commission member
    * 1. KIE: Kenya Institute of Education, 2. MIE: Malawi Institute of Education




         Education Systems                                                                                                              GER in Kenya and Malawi
                                         Kenya                              Malawi                          140      Kenya Primary

                                                                                                                     Malawi Primary
                   system   8.4.4 system (1985)               8.4.4 system (1965)                                                                                                            Malawi/Primary
                                                                                                            120
                                                                                                                     Kenya Secondary
                   Pri      8 (2003FPE)                       8 (1994 FPE)                                           Malawi Secondary
    Current
                                                               (          )
                                                              2(Junior Sec)
    System         Sec      4                                                                               100

                                                               (          )
                                                              2(Senior Sec)
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kenya/Primary
                   High     4                                 4                                          GER 80
                                                                                                         (%)
                            KCPE                              PSLCE
                   Pri      (Kenya Certificate of Primary     (Primary School Leaving Certificate
                            Education)                        Examination)                                   60


    National                                                  JCE                                                                                                                     Kenya/Secondary
    Exams                   KCSE                              (Junior Certificate Examination)               40
                   Sec      (Kenya Certificate of Secondary
                            Education)                        MSCE
                                                              (Malawi School Certificate of Education)
                                                                                                             20

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Malawi/Secondary
    Math & Science
                            Math, Bio, Phys, Chemi            Math, Bio, P/S                                  0
    Subjects                                                                                                  1970         1975             1980          1985             1990          1995            2000          2005
                                                                                                                                                              FY
                                                                                                    11                                                             *グラフ:UNESCO Ed Statをもとに筆者が作成                   12




                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2
松山 MATSUYAMA                                                                                                                                    2010/4/19




    History of Education Reforms and Curriculum Revisions
                                                                                New and Ex- Syllabi
                          Kenya                  Malawi
      1960s                                                                    New and Ex- syllabi were identified from the result of
                    Education Reform          Education Reform                 history of curriculum revisions.
                      7.4.2.3 system            8.4.4 system
      1970s                                                                                          Kenya                          Malawi
                                                  Curriculum
                    Education Reform               Revision                                 2002 syllabus                        1998 syllabus
                                                                                             Math, Bio, Phy, Chem                  (Junior)
                                                                                 New
      1980s                                                                                 2008 syllabus                        2002 syllabus
                                                  Curriculum                                 MathB, General Science                (Senior)
                    Education Reform               Revision
                      8.4.4 system                                                          1992 syllabus
      1990s                                                                      Ex-
                                                                                 Ex-         Math, Bio, B/S, Phy, P/S,           1984 syllabus
                                              Education Reform                             Chem
                         Curriculum
                                                                              Curriculu
                          Revision
                                             1999
                                                 Curriculum                   m Revision                   2002                          1999
      2000s                                       Revision
                         Curriculum
                  2002                                                  13
                          Revision                                                                                                                14




      Identification of Policies
    According to the interviews, the policies which were most                              2002&2008                       1998&2001
    strongly affecting on the curriculum revisions were
    identified.                                                                                     2002                1999
                                                                                        TIQET                                      PIF
         Kenya
       For 2002 revision, it was the Koech report submitted by
     Koech Commission in 1999, called                                                           1992                        1984
     Total Integrated Quality Education and Training
     (TIQET)
         Malawi
      For 1999 revision, it was the Education policy made by
     Ministry of Education, Sports and Culture, called
     Policy and Investment Framework for Education in
     Malawi (PIF)
                                                                                                                                                 16


                                                                        15




    Changes in Subject for Learning
    Country               Kenya                       Malawi                  Changes in Mathematics Syllabus in Kenya
    Contents   ・2002                         Frequent changes in Core
               Abolishment                  subjects                                 General Objectives
                Physical science
                Biological science          eg.)
                                            in 2000                               1992 Syllabus
               ・2008                        P/S, Math, Agri, Bio became
                                                                             1. make precise and logical use of mathematical language,
               Addition                     optional
                Mathematics Alternative B   Science & technology became      2. perform mathematical operations with confidence, speed and accuracy,
                General Science             core                             3. symbolise and concretize problems from everyday situation,
                                            in 2002                          4. comprehend, analyse, synthesize and evaluate a set of numerical data,
                                            Math became core                 5. apply mathematical knowledge and skills to familiar and unfamiliar
                                            in 2004                              situations,
                                            Science & technology was         6. interpret the result of an analysis, draw conclusions and make
                                            abolished                            predictions and
                                            in 2005                          7. appreciate the aesthetic and utilitarian values of mathematics.
                                            Science & technology became
                                            optional
                                            (DZAMA, 2006)
                                            in 2009                     17                                                                        18
                                            P/S, Bio became core




                                                                                                                                                        3
松山 MATSUYAMA                                                                                                                                    2010/4/19




     2002Syllabus                                                     K                                                 M
    1. develop a positive attitude towards learning Mathematics                  Changes in Mathematics Syllabus in Malawi
    2. perform mathematical operations and manipulations with confidence,             General Objectives
        speed and accuracy
    3. think and reason precisely, logically and critically in any given              1984 Syllabus
        situations                                Educational factors?
    4. develop investigative skills in Mathematics                               1. Knowledge
    5. identify, concretise, symbolise and use mathematical relationships in     a. Knowledge of terminology and specific facts
        everyday life                                                            b. Knowledge and ways and means of dealing with
    6. comprehend, analyse, synthesise, evaluate and make generalizations           conventions, principles, generalization, theories and
        so as to solve mathematical problems
                                                                                    structures.
    7. collect, organise, represent, analyse, interpret data and make
        conclusions and predictions from its results
    8. apply mathematical knowledge and skills to familiar and unfamiliar        2. Comprehension, Application and Analysis
        situations                                                               The ability to understand and apply knowledge to familiar
    9. appreciate the role, value and use of Mathematics in society              and unfamiliar situations and to make simple deductions.
    10. develop a willingness to work collaboratively
    11. acquire knowledge and skills for further education and training
    12. communicate mathematical ideas                                    19                                                                      20

      ↑ The syllabus before 1992 has the similar objectives to 11 and 12.




    1998 Syllabus                                                     M          Examples of Changes in
                                                                                 Mathematics Topics and Contents in Kenya
    1. stimulate and encourage innovation, creativity and problem solving
    2. assist the child to understand mathematical concepts in order that                    Added                           Removed
      he/she may better comprehend his/her environment
    3. build understanding and appreciation of mathematical concepts and          ・Form1                            ・Form1
      computational skills in order to apply them in everyday life                Content;                          Content;
    4. develop logical thinking in child                                            *Circumference,                  *Temperature
    5. develop the ability to recognise problems and solve them with related        *Density,                        Topic;
      mathematical knowledge and skills in research and other disciplines           *Proportion division of line      *Linear motion
    6. develop and foster speed and accuracy                                       *Distance between 2 points          (transferred to Form2)
    7.provide the child with necessary mathematical knowledge and skills in          on the solid
      order for him/her to be productive                                                                            ・Form3
    8. develop in the child positive attitudes and values towards physical        ・Form2                             Content;
      phenomena                                              2001 Mathematical    Topic;                             *Physical application of
    9. provide necessary mathematical prerequisites for further education          *Cube and Cubic root               vecotrs
    10. discuss mathematics using appropriate mathematical language                *Pythagoras’ Theorem              *Moving averages
    11. develop interest in mathematics and encourage a spirit of inquiry and       (from Primary Education)         *Weighted averages
      independent thinking                                                 21
                                                                                                                     *Secant, Cosecant, Cotange   22
                                                                                                       etc.          *Navigation         etc.




      Hereafter
    ・Continuing Analysis on Syllabi
                                                                                      Thank you for your attention!!
    ・To make the relation between the Changes and Factors

                                                                                                                          Zikomo,
                                                                                                                          Asante,
         Social &
                                                           Curriculum                                                     Murakoze!
        Historical                  Policy
                                                            Revision
         Factors


     This research tries to clarify the determination by Nation.
     What did the Nation select as urgent problems in her society,
     and How does the Nation tackle on the problems through her
     Education change ??

                                                                                                                   END
                                                                            23                                                                    24




                                                                                                                                                       4
松山 MATSUYAMA                                                                                                                                     2010/4/19




                                                                                                       Kenya GERs & GDP
                                                                              300

                                                                                       GDP

                                                                              250      Primary GER

                                                                                       Secondary GER

                                                                              200




                                                                              150




                                                                              100




                                                                              50




                                                                               0
                                                                                1960   1965    1970    1975   1980   1985   1990   1995   2000   2005
                                                                        25


                                                                                                                                                  26




                             Malawi GERs & GDP
    400

              GDP
    350       Primary GER

              Secondary
    300       GER



    250



    200



    150



    100



    50



     0
      1960   1965     1970   1975   1980   1985   1990   1995   2000   2005



                                                                       27




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