Flower Market in Germany Business Report 2010 by qjo17459

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									          The technical regulation of
          the refrigeration market in
                    Europe

                               Dr.- Ing. Rainer M. Jakobs
                           DMJ Consulting Breuberg, Germany
                              Board Member of the German Society
                          of Refrigeration and Air-conditioning DKV e.V.


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     Agenda

     Environmental challenges
     Global policies

     Energy facts in Europe
     EU policies

     The European legislation landscape

     Conclusion


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     Environmental Challenges
Ozone Depletion:
         1987     Montreal Protocol: Phase Out CFC, HCFC  HFC, Natural Fluids

Sustainability:
         1992     Rio Conference
                  based on 1972 Report Club of Rome “Limits to Growth”
                            1987 Report Brundtland “Environment and
                                 Development” established in its Agenda 21”       and
                                 in the “Climate Convention”

          the request for a sustainable development and Eco-Efficiency

     Sustainable Development means a permanent improvement of quality of mankind
     within the possibilities of natural environment.

Global Warming
         1997     Kyoto Protocol: HFC (Refrigerant) and
                                           CO2 (Energy) Emission Control




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    Global Policies

     1987: Montreal Protocol
     phase out ozone depleting substances




      1997: Kyoto protocol &                                         The ozone hole
      post Kyoto agreements

      control of greenhouse gas emissions
      concern on high GWP refrigerants
      Opportunities for heat pumps


     Kyoto: -5% greenhouse gas emission by 2012                      Global warming
       Post Kyoto: -25% to -40% by 2020


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                           Total Warming Impact




                 Heat sink




                                                                         Primary energy
                                       End energy                       from non-renewable and
                                                                           renewable sources
    Heat source

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     Energy consumption in Europe

                 Energy Consumption (Primary Energy)                             Buildings

           Industry
                                                                             2015
                                                                            10- 25%
                                                                          10-25%
                         28%                         Comfort
                        28%            41%                                Hot Water
                                                     Cooling               Hot
                                                                         3% Water
                                                                                        50-60%
                                                                                        50-60%
                                                                             Others     Space
                                                                                        Space
                            31%                  Buildings                    20%       Heating
                                                                                        Heating

             Transport

                                                                                          CO2 equivalent emissions (%)
                       Buildings consume > 40% of EU energy                                                [EU 25 : 2003]

                       50-60 % is used for cooling and heating                          Non Energy
                                                                                                                     Energy
                                                                                                                     41%
                       Share of cooling may increase in future                                       20%

                                                                                                              61%
                                                                                      Energy for 19%
                             Source: Eurostat 2004                                     Transport

                                                                      80% of CO2 eq. emissions is by energy consumption

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      Drivers for using less energy and
      EU policies

 Global
Warming                                                               Economy
                                                                         20 % less
20 % less CO2                                                            primary energy
equiv. by 2020                                                           use compared
                                                                         by 2020



                                     ENERGY
                                                                         Security of
                                                                           supply
                                                                      20 % share of
                                                                      Renewable Energy
                                                                      sources by 2020

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       EU policies 20-20-20-2020

Energy Policy for Europe                                        Targets by 2020

20% increase in energy efficiency                                           10- 25%
                                                                          10-25%
                                       41%                                 Hot
                                                                         3% Water
                                         50-60%
                                        50-60%
 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2020
                                        41%                                           Space
                            31%                                                       Heating
      20% share of renewables in overall energy consumption

        10% biofuel component in vehicle fuel by 2020




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                             EU Energy mix & detail of
                          Renewable Energy sources (RES)
                                                                The target : 20% RES by 2020 is 3 times
                                                                higher compared to 2005
                                                                    drastic improvement is required




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     Utilization of renewable energy sources




                                                 Heat Pump




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                           Contribution to EU targets
      Heat pumps installed in single family houses alone can contribute to
      the 20/20/20 % EU-targets by 2020
      to approximately 20 % to….       - reduce primary energy consumption
                                        - reduce greenhouse gas emissions
                                        - increase the share of renewables.

        EU policy for 2020                     EU target            potential of heat    HP-share of EU
        concerning…                                                 pumps                targets

        Primary energy                             - 20%                -902 TWh              20.6 %
        Renewable energy                             20%                774 TWh                 22 %
        Greenhouse gas                             - 20%                -230 Mto              21.5 %

       - Without regarding the potential for heat pump use in public and
         commercial sectors                                                             Source: European Heat Pump Action Plan

       - Without regarding the potential for cooling and air conditioning




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       The European legislation landscape


       Renewable energies                                                        Building
                                                      RES
            COP                   EuP                                  EPB
     SPF                                                                     Eco labelling
       SCOP               RoHS
                                     Heating system
     Heat pumping systems
        Refr. AC HP
                            Renewable electricity production
          Energy Statistics
                                        Heat source
      F-Gas             WEEE

               Regulations                                              Directives
                                                  Labels
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      Energy saving policies 1
                                                                                 • Energy Labelling
      Energy Performance of Buildings Directive                                  • Ecodesign directive

                                                             European Ecolabel


 Building                  Selection                        Installation         Manufacturing
 construction              HVAC & Refr                      HVAC & Refr          HVAC & Refr




 Minimize need Focus on energy Regular energy                                    Increase Energy
 for cooling & efficient       inspection of                                     efficiency of
 heating       solutions       installations                                     equipment

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       Energy saving policies 2

                                                                       European ecolabel : pull
                                                                       customers towards the
                                                                       most environmentally
                                                                       friendly equipment
                                                                       (voluntary programme)
     Energy labelling :
     push industry & pull
     customers towards
     more efficient
     products by ranking                                                      Ecodesign for Energy
     them (mandatory)                                                         using products : push
                                                                              industry towards more
     Also for buildings                                                       efficient products by
     (EPBD)                                                                   banning less efficient
                                                                              products from the market
                                                                              (mandatory – now under
                                                                              preparation)


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                  What is the European Eco-label?

                            The European Ecolabel, also known as 'The Flower' is…

                             an official environmental label for products and
                            services established by the EU Commission in 1992 in
                            cooperation with national member states.

                             used by more than 300 licenced companies on more
                            than 2000 products

                             The EU Eco-label guarantees that the awarded
                            products meet EU-wide valid strong environmental criteria

                             Compliance is checked during a certification procedure
                            led by a national Competent Body.




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      What is EUP?

 EUP = Ecodesign Requirements for Energy Using Products



           HIGH
                  efficiency




                                                                                 Minimum efficiency
                                                                                    requirements

            LOW                                                           BAN


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                            Framework directive 2005/32/EC

PREPARATORY STUDIES:

 1. Boilers (HP)                     10.Airconditioner<12kW             19. Domestic lighting

 2. Waterheaters (HP)                11. Motors, fans,..                20. Local room heating prod.

 3. PC                               12. Comm. Refriger.                21. Central heat. prod hot air

 4. copiers                          13. Dom. Refriger.                 22. ovens

 5. TV, …                            14. dishwashers                    23. Hobs & grills

                                      15. Fossil fuel burner            24. prof.washing machines,
 6. Stand by loss
                                                                        dryers, dishwashers
 7. Battery charger                   16. Laundry driers                25. Non tertiary coffee mach.

 8. Office lights                     17. Vacuum cleaners               26. Networked stand by loss

 9. Street lights                     18. Set top boxes                 27. dom. Uninterr. Power sup.


   FINAL RESULT = regulation for each product group New studies; Also expected are:
                                                    Refrigeration & airconditioners
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      Importance of the study
                     Product definition, standards & legislation

  Economics &                             Consumer &                                  Technical
                                                                                    analysis-existing
          market                            infrastructure
                                                                                        technology


      definition of basecase (representative model of the market)
 Technical analysis of BAT                                              Improvement potential

                    Policy report, impact & sensitivity analysis



                                                                      BAT: best available technology

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       Estimated timeline* for each study
                                                                                *Based on different information
                                2006         2007        2008        2009       2010     2011      2012      2013

1. Boilers (HP)
2. Waterheaters (HP)

10. Air conditioners
<12kW


6. Stand by losses


11. Fans


12. Refrigeration


New workplan


                    Consultation        Committee                  Adoption
  Study                                                                           Publication       Implementation
       12/03/2009
                    forum
                      Jakobs
                                        vote                       Parliament
                                Regulation European Refrigeration market
  19                                                                                     CholodExpo Rossija 2009
     EuP Ecodesign Requirements for Energy Using Products
 Tendencies :
 • Europe aims to be top runner in the world
 • standardise method for LCCA + LCA
 • air conditioning, ventilation and refrigeration are priority product groups
 • main focus on energy efficiency improvements
 • energy labeling (ELD) will be reviewed based on results of EUP study

                                Opportunities :
                                • better evaluation of BAT, e.g. inverter
                                • competitive advantage for energy efficient
                                  products



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       EUP – lot 10 – Airconditioner <12kW



      Present energy                                     LOT 10 - proposal     Cooling only
           label                                                                products
                                                                       SEER
              EER                                                              Heating only
                                                                       SCOP     products
              COP
                                                                       APF       Reversible
       FULL LOAD                                              PART LOAD           products


                                               Includes stand by & off mode
*SEER= seasonal energy efficiency ratio (cooling performance)
*SCOP= seasonal coefficient of performance (heating performance)
*APF = annual performance factor (combining cooling & heating)

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                    Is there a relation between
                  Ecolabel and Ecodesign / EuP ?
                  high                                                                                     Ecodesign
                                                                                         Ecolabel
                         Environmental performance                                       = Award for top
                                                                                           market
                                                                                         = Voluntary       = Setting the
                                                                                                           minimum
                                                                                                           environmental
                                                                                                           requirements for CE
                                                                                                           marking
                                                                                                           = Mandatory

                                                                  Product ban
                  low
                                                             e.g. Heat pump market

             Objective of Ecolabel is different from Ecodesign / EuP !




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       EPBD
       Directive 2002/91/EC on the Energy Perfomance of Buildings (EPBD)
Tendencies :
• better insulated buildings result in reduced demand for cooling&heating
• regular inspection > 12 kW : increase service cost, less running costs
• Energy label buildings : air conditioning negative, heat pump positive
  evaluation. Need for part load data – SEER/SCOP
• very national approach

                               Opportunities :
                               • Service business / building energy management
                               • Competitive advantage for energy efficient cooling,
                                 heating & ventilation
                               • Opportunity for heat pump sales


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         Preparation                                Enforcement                         Review
                                              ‟06    ‟07         ‟08         ‟09           ‟10      „11
             Dir. (2002/96/EC) waste
WEEE         electrical & electronic equip.
             Dir.(2002/95/EC) Restriction
RoHS         of Hazardous Substances
             Reg.(2037/2000/EC) Ozone
ODS          layer depleting Substances
             Reg. (842/2006/EC) certain
F-Gas        Fluorinated gases
             Dir. (2002/91/EC) energy
EPBD         Performance of buildings
             Framew. Dir. (2005/32/EC)
EuP          ecodesign for energy using                    Framework Directive     Product groups
             products
             Dir. (2002/31/EC) on energy
ELD          Labelling of household air
             conditioners
             Framew. Dir. Registration
REACH        ,evaluation and                           EU Agency
             authorisation of chemicals                  set up

ECOLabel eco-label award for heat
         pump systems
Batteries    Dir. (2006/66/EC) batteries
             and accumulators
                          packaging
Packaging Dir.(94//62/EC) waste
          and packaging
       WEEE
       Directive 2002/96/EC on Waste Electrical & Electronic Equipment
Tendencies :
• For the moment there is no common scope in Europe. Most countries
exclude “fixed installations” from the scope but some countries include such
as Italy, Portugal, Greece and Malta. Netherlands is reconsidering. The
tendency is to include the parts of fixed installations in the scope.
• As the replacement market is still relative small, the amount of
airconditioners to recycle is small but will increase .
• The F-gas regulation influences the recycling process.

                       Opportunities :
                       • open & competitive market for waste treatment will reduce
                       costs. Easy recycling products and recycling knowledge will
                       create the most competitive recycling scheme.
                       • improve refrigerant recovery in view of F-gas regulation

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         RoHS
         Directive 2002/95/EC on the Restriction of Hazardous Substances
Tendencies :
• RoHS directive is spreading to other areas, e.g. China. More and
more manufacturers extend the scope on voluntary basis.
• European customer is very sensitive for hazardous substances.
                                                                            -Lead (Pb)
• if WEEE scope is reviewed, RoHS scope will follow                        -Cadmium (Cd)
                                                                           -Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6+)
                                                                           -Mercury (Hg)
• exemptions will be reviewed on regular base                              -Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB)
                                                                           -Polybrominated diphenylether
                                                                           (PBDE)
                              Opportunities :
                              • Cost reduction of RoHS parts because of increasing
                              demand on wider scale
                              • Voluntary implementation on products “out of scope”
                              helps to attain eco-labelling & competitive advantage.
                              •Development of alternatives for todays exemptions


   26   12/03/2009   Jakobs     Regulation European Refrigeration market     CholodExpo Rossija 2009
           Tendency European legislation
production
               Exhaust air-treatment, VOC agreement
               waste water, soil,…

product                                                                                                 batteries
                                   Packaging and Packaging waste
                 Dangerous substances                                                                         EUP
                              batteries                    ROHS                                          F-gas
                                        Ozone depleting substances                                        Ecolabel
Product use in total system
                                                  Energy labeling              Limit of available energy
                                                                 Energy performance of buildings
                                                                                                  F-gas

 End of life treatment
                                                                                                        batteries
                                                                                                          F-gas
                                                                              WEEE


             1970        1980     1990       2000         2001         2002   2003   2004      2005     2006     2010
  FOCUS of environmental legislation shifts from production facility and product towards
                   the product use phase and end of life treatment
    27    12/03/2009     Jakobs    Regulation European Refrigeration market                 CholodExpo Rossija 2009
      Conclusion
         Provide ecological & energy efficient
         technologies:
                  - HVAC & R energy efficient solutions
                  - Contribute with Heat Pumps and Heat Recovery in
                    Refrigeration applications to the reduction of CO2 emissions
                  - Optimize use of renewable energy sources
                  - Solutions for energy demand control
                           (eg ice or heat storage during night, peak load limitation control)
                   - Total life cycle optimization, incl. containment of fluorinated
                     greenhouse gases, waste prevention
                  - Performance improvement of systems during the
                     entire cooling & heating season (incl. part load conditions)
         The stock of buildings and Refrigeration and Air
         Conditioning plants are the keys for the reduction of
         primary energy + CO2 emissions

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     End

     Thank you for your attention




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      Mobile A/C

                                                                       MAC Industry
                                                                          Actions
                                                                        9 December
                                                                           2008
                                                                        Washington




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      MAC Industry Actions
      9 December 2008




R-744 Way forward under VDA
Publish detailed findings for public review
Reach global agreement with environmental & safety authorities on safe passenger
exposure limits, test methods, and assumed interior CO2 baseline(s)
Submit vehicle safety mitigation strategy for regulatory review
Pursue SNAP conditional listing to open global markets respecting US EPA judgment
Cooperate to resolve any problems identified



R-1234yf Way forward under SAE
Publish detailed findings for public review
Identify technology for near-zero refrigerant emissions and high energy efficiency
 systems -Superior LCCP, reliable systems, safely serviced-
Put in place standards that can be referenced in SNAP and/or state approval
of R-1234yf
Cooperate to resolve any problems identified




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