Organizational Congruence Model

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					 Bu 604 Session 4


Interpersonal Dynamics &
         Teams
                     Agenda

• Introduction and Lessons from Last Day

• Discussion of Interpersonal Communications in
  Organizations and Teams

• Carter Racing

• Revisiting the Question of Team Effectiveness

• Case: Dividing the Pie
Examples of National Cultural Values
             Competing Values Framework

                      Flexibility
Internal Focus




                        Control
                           Exhibit 1-2
                 Skills in the New Workplace

                                 Flexibility

                             Mentor     Innovator




                                                             External Focus
Internal Focus




                  Facilitator                       Broker

                   Monitor                     Producer

                         Coordinator     Director


                                  Control
Three-Component Model of Organizational
            Commitment

                Involves: Emotional attachment
  Affective     to, identification with,
 Commitment     involvement in the organization


                Belief that it is one’s moral
   Normative
                obligation to remain with the
  Commitment
                organization


                Reflects perceived cost
  Continuance
                associated with discontinuing
  Commitment
                employment
                      Responses to
              Job Satisfaction - EVLN Model

                          Active

                 Exit
                                    Voice
               Sabotage
Destructive                                    Constructive


               Neglect               Loyalty


                          Passive
           Communication Problems?
• People spend nearly 70 percent of waking hours
  communicating—writing, reading, speaking, listening

• WorkCanada survey of 2039 Canadians in six industrial and
  service categories found
   – 61% of senior executives believed they communicated
     effectively with employees

   – 33% of managers & department heads believed that
     senior executives were effective communicators.

   – 22% of hourly workers, 27% of clerical employees, and
     22% of professional staff reported senior execs did a
     good job communicating with them

• Canadians reported less favourable perceptions about their
  company’s communications than did Americans
Communications Process
            Communication Terms


• Communication
   – The transfer of meaning among people

• Sender
   – Establishes a message, encodes the message,
     and chooses the channel to send it

• Receiver
   – Decodes the message and provides feedback
     to the sender
             Communication Terms

• Message
  – What is communicated.

• Encoding
   – Converting a message to symbolic form.

• Channel
   – The medium through which a message travels

• Decoding
   – Retranslating a sender’s message.
               Choosing Channels


• Channels differ in their capacity to convey
  information.

• Rich channels have the ability to
   – Handle multiple cues simultaneously
   – Facilitate rapid feedback
   – Be very personal
               Exhibit 7-2
     Hierarchy of Channel Richness

 Channel    Type of        Information
 richness   message          medium
Richest     Nonroutine,      Face to face
            ambiguous            talk

                             Telephone


                             Computer


                               Memos,
                               letters

                          Flyers, bulletins
Leanest      Routine,     general reports
              clear
              Communication Flows in
                 Organizations

• Downward
   – Communication that flows from one level of a group to a
     lower level
       • Managers to employees

• Upward
   – Communication that flows to a higher level of a group
      • Employees to manager

• Lateral
   – Communication among members of the same work
     group, or individuals at the same level
 Barriers to Effective Communication

• Filtering
  – Refers to a sender manipulating information
    so that it will be seen more favourably by the
    receiver.


• Selective Perception
  – Receivers in the communication process
    selectively see and hear based on their
    needs, motivations, experience, background,
    and other personal characteristics.
   Barriers to Effective Communication


• Defensiveness
  – When individuals interpret another’s message
    as threatening, they often respond in ways that
    retard effective communication.


• Language
  – Words mean different things to different
    people.
 Communication Flows in Organizations

• Downward: communication that flows from one
  level of a group to a lower level
   – managers to employees

• Upward: communication that flows to a higher
  level of a group
   – employees to manager

• Lateral: communication among members of the
  same work group, or individuals at the same level
    Communication Questions for Consideration


                Questions for Consideration
• How does communication flow in organizations?

• What helps and inhibits communication in an
  organization?

• How can we improve communication?

• Are there gender and ethnic differences in
  communications?
                    Networks


• Connections by which information flow
  – Formal
     • Task-related communications that follow
       the authority chain
  – Informal
     • Communications that flow along social
       and relational lines
                   Networks and Their Effectiveness
                            Chain     Wheel     All-Channel




                   Speed   Moderate    Fast       Fast
                Accuracy   High        High       Moderate
Emergence of a leader      Moderate    High       None
   Member satisfaction     Moderate    Low        High
                      The Grapevine

• 75 percent of employees hear about matters first through
  rumours on the grapevine

• Grapevine: the organization’s informal network

• Grapevine has three main characteristics
   – Not controlled by management
   – Most employees perceive it as being more believable
     and reliable than formal communiqués issued by top
     management
   – Largely used to serve the self-interests of those people
     within it
              Purpose of Rumours


• To structure and reduce anxiety

• To make sense of limited or fragmented
  information

• To serve as a vehicle to organize group members,
  and possibly outsiders, into coalitions

• To signal a sender’s status or power
      Reducing the Negative Consequences of
                    Rumours

1. Announce timetables for making important decisions.

2. Explain decisions and behaviours that may appear
   inconsistent or secretive.

3. Emphasize the downside, as well as the upside, of current
   decisions and future plans.

4. Openly discuss worst case possibilities; it is almost never
   as anxiety provoking as the unspoken fantasy.
            Nonverbal Communication


• Messages conveyed through body movements, facial
  expressions, and the physical distance between the sender
  and the receiver

   – Kinesics
      • The study of body motions, such as gestures, facial
        configurations, and other movements of the body

   – Proxemics
      • The study of physical space in interpersonal
        relationships
  Communication Barriers Between Men
             and Women

• Men use talk to emphasize status, women use it
  to create connection

• Women and men tend to approach points of
  conflict differently
  Communication Barriers Between Men
             and Women

• Men and women view directness and indirectness
  differently
   – Women interpret male directness as an
     assertion of status and one-upmanship
   – Men interpret female indirectness as covert,
     sneaky, and weak

• Men criticize women for apologizing, but women
  say “I’m sorry” to express empathy
       Cross-Cultural Communication
                Difficulties

• Sources of barriers
   – Semantics
   – Word connotations
   – Tonal differences
                Culture Contexts

• Cultures differ in how much the context makes a
  difference in communication

   – High-context cultures
      • Cultures that rely heavily on nonverbal and
        subtle situational cues in communication.

   – Low-context cultures
     • Cultures that rely heavily on words to
       convey meaning in communication
High- vs. Low-Context Cultures



        High     Chinese
       context
                 Korean
                 Japanese
                 Vietnamese
                 Arab
                 Greek
                 Spanish
                 Italian
                 English
                 North American
                 Scandinavian
        Low      Swiss
       context   German
      Cross-Cultural Communications:
              Helpful Rules
• Seek out guidance and mentoring from competent
  individuals who will tell you what you need to hear

• Assume differences until similarity is proven, but
  test out these assumptions.

• Emphasize description rather than interpretation or
  evaluation.

• Practice empathy.

• Treat your interpretations as a working hypothesis.
        Making Feedback More Effective

• Feedback to those being evaluated should be anonymous
  and aggregated

• Raters should only evaluate employee behaviour that they
  know about and have experienced first-hand

• Raters should receive orientation and training to do the
  evaluations

• Recipients should receive guidance on how to interpret the
  feedback
                   Effective Listening

• If you want to improve your listening skills, look to these
  behaviours as guides
    – Make eye contact.
    – Exhibit affirmative head nods and appropriate facial
      expressions.
    – Avoid distracting actions or gestures.
    – Ask questions.
    – Paraphrase.
    – Avoid interrupting the speaker.
    – Don’t over talk.
    – Make smooth transitions between the roles of speaker
      and listener.
            Communication Questions


• What types of difficulties have you experienced when
  communicating with someone from a different culture than
  yours?

• How do you let the other person know you have heard what
  they are saying? How often do you do this?

• Describe an example of communication breakdown. What
  led to the breakdown?
     HR Implications


Providing Performance Feedback
     When to Use 360-degree Feedback


• For employee development rather than for
  personnel decisions

• As part of a formal goal-setting system

• On a regular basis and not just once
         The Conflicts in Performance
                  Appraisal

• Organizational Goals:
  – To allocate rewards and make personnel
    decisions.
  – To develop and grow individuals

• Individual Goals:
   – To obtain performance feedback in order to
     improve.
   – To maintain self image and increase rewards.
       Factors Contributing to the
     Effectiveness of P.A. Interviews

• Skills in communications

• Preparation
   – By Superior: organization and job goals,
     standards of performance
   – By Subordinate: organization and job goals,
     own assessment of strengths and
     weaknesses, personal development plan

• Process: +ve attitude by both parties

• Substance: action plan; future targets;
  relationship development
           The Politics of Appraisal

• Downgrade appraisals to “keep up the
  motivation”

• Softening the assessment since it is part of a
  permanent record

• Inflating/deflating assessments to maximize or
  minimize raises

• Inflating / deflating appraisals to keep / get rid of
  subordinates

• Deflating ratings to teach a lesson or to make a
  case for dismissal
       The Case Against Performance
         Appraisal - Peter Scholtes

• Any employee’s work is tied to many systems but
  performance evaluations focus on individuals.

• Most work is the product of a group. Performance
  evaluation encourages “lone ranger” behaviour.

• Superior only performance evaluation ignores
  valuable data but 360 feedback is cumbersome
  and time consuming.
• Performance evaluations assume predictable
  systems -- something that is increasingly untrue.

• Performance evaluation requires objective,
  consistent, fair processes. Such objectivity and
  consistency do not exist.
     Goal Systems vs the Reality of Work


• Reality of work              • Goal Systems Need
   – Many activities, short       – Advance planning
     duration
   – Ad hoc informal              – Formal meetings and
     interactions                   sessions
   – Non-routing and lots of      – Prescribed systems,
     variety                        schedules, forms
   – Legitimate authority         – Coach, counsellor
   – Low priority to many         – Sponsored by HR staff
     human resource tasks
     If you need to do peer evaluation….

• Remember that the purpose is both to improve
  performance AND strengthen the group. You will
  need time!

• One process: decide on 5-7 criteria of
  performance (eg. preparation, attendance,
  helpfulness, effort, etc)

• Rate everyone, including yourself, collect the
  ratings on each person and share them (make
  them public)
• Person by person discuss the ratings.

• Start with each person’s self assessment, then
  each person discuss their evaluation. That will
  probably be easier.

• Be descriptive and as behavioural as possible.
  Avoid blaming. Use “I” messages and lots of
  listening

• Move to agreement on behaviours.
   Summary and Implications: Communication

• A common theme regarding the relationship between
  communication and employee satisfaction
   – The less uncertainty, the greater the satisfaction
   – Distortions, ambiguities, and incongruities all increase
     uncertainty

• Less distortion in communication equals
   – More goal attainment, and better feedback
   – Reduction in ambiguity and distortion

• Ambiguity between verbal and nonverbal communiqués
  increase uncertainty and reduce satisfaction

• The goal of perfect communication is unattainable

• The issue of communication is critical to motivation
           Assignment for Next Week



• Ch 4 and 13

• Case: The Well Paid Receptionist

• Bring along a copy of the job description for the
  least motivating job in your organization
Teams & Team Decision
       Making
    Teams Are Not Always the Answer

A critical look at four of the assumptions:
• Mature teams are task oriented & successfully
  minimize the negative impact of other group forces.

• Individual, group, and organizational goals can all be
  integrated into common team goals.

• Participative or shared leadership is always effective.

• The team environment drives out the subversive
  forces of politics, power, and conflict that divert
  groups from efficiently doing their work.

           Are these true all the time?
 Stages of Group Development

                      Stage I
Prestage 1           Forming




  Stage II           Stage III
 Storming            Norming




 Stage IV            Stage V
Performing          Adjourning
        Team Model - Forrester & Drexler


                   Formation                           Vitality



                               Note: F & D argue
Dependability                   that this is not a                  Impact
                                 developmental
                                      Model
                Focus
                                                     Coordination



                                     Buy-In
                           Team Based Model


• Formation                               • Composition, Fit and support



• Dependability                           • Trust: Information Sharing,
                                            Follow Through and Reciprocity




• Focus                                   • Direction, Measurement,
                                            Accountability




From: Forrester & Drexler, A Model for Team Based Organization Performance
             Team Based Model (cont.)

• Buy-In           • Balanced Power, Resources, Values



• Coordination     • Plans, Communications, Integrating
                     Mechanisms


• Impact           • Innovation, Flexibility, Results



• Vitality         • Enthusiasm, Openness, Learning
                  The Punctuated-Equilibrium Model


              (High)
Performance




                                              Phase 2
                        First                               Completion
                       Meeting
                                               Transition
                             Phase 1

              (Low)      A                                       B
                                       Time
         Group Performance Factors


  Composition                            Size




      Norms                         Cohesiveness


Environment, Supervision, Resources & Nature of Task
                  Team Roles

•TASK ORIENTED ROLES
 – Agenda Setter, Analyzer, Co-ordinator, Evaluator,
   Information Giver...Seeker, Initiator

•MAINTENANCE ROLES
 – Encourager, Follower, Gatekeeper, Group
   Observer, Harmonizer, Standard Setter

•INDIVIDUAL ROLES
 – Avoider, Blocker, Clown, Dominator, Recognition
   Seeker
                        Groupthink
1) Illusion of invulnerability
2) Construct rationalizations

3) Morality of position is unquestioned
4) Stereotypes--distort image of other parties

5) Pressure applied to those who express doubts about
   the group’s position
6) Self-censorship--deviations from consensus are avoided
7) Illusion of unanimity
8) Mindguards--leaders and fellow members
   protected from adverse information
        Warning Signs of Groupthink

• Teams isolating themselves from external sources of
  information through mindguards
• Feeling under pressure
• Exhibiting defensiveness - e.g., stereotyping others
• Feeling they are doing what is moral or “right”
• Minimizing the public expression of doubt
• Having strong leaders that intentionally or
  unintentionally discourage input and real debate
• Creating the illusion of unanimity by self-censorship
• Creating the illusion of invulnerability
                       The Groupthink Process
 Initial Conditions                   Characteristics of   Groupthink Leads
                                        Groupthink            to Defective
                                                           Decision Making in
•High Cohesiveness                                              Terms of
                                      •Illusion of
•Insulation of team                   invulnerability      •Incomplete survey
from outsiders                                             of alternatives
                                      •Collective
•Lack of methodical                   rationalization      •Incomplete survey
procedures for                                             of goals
search & appraisal                    •Belief in the
                         Conformity   inherent morality    •Failure to examine
•Directive                - Seeking   of the team          risks of preferred
leadership                Tendency                         choice
                                      •Stereotypes of
•High stress with         of Group    other groups         •Selective bias in
low hope for finding                                       processing
a better solution                     •Self-censorship
                                                           information at hand
than one favoured                     •Illusion of
by the leader or                                           •Failure to
                                      unanimity
other influential                                          reappraise
person                                •Self-appointed      alternatives
                                      “mind guards”
•Complex/changing                                          •Failure to work out
environment                                                contingency plans
           Remedies to Groupthink

1 Assign & encourage the role of critical evaluator in
  each group member

2 Leaders should avoid stating preferences & adopt an
  impartial stance

3 Use multiple groups to work on the same questions

4 Protect security, but seek outside council & insight

5 Invite outside experts & have experts challenge the
  views of core members
       Remedies to Groupthink (cont.)

6 When discussing alternatives, at least 1 person should
  be assigned the “devil’s advocate” role, to fully
  evaluate options

7 Take time to address how enemies may respond -
  develop scenarios

8 When evaluating policy alternatives, break up into
  small groups & then reform to sort through differences

9 After reaching a preliminary consensus, group should
  hold a second-guess meeting
10 The behaviour of the leader is key
   CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE
        EXECUTIVE TEAMS

• A CLEAR ELEVATING GOAL

• MINIMUM   POLITICS AND PERSONAL AGENDAS

      AND ACCOUNTABILITIES UNDERSTOOD &
• ROLES
ACCEPTED

• EMPHASIS   ON FACT BASED JUDGMENT
  – LOTS OF DISCUSSION & PARTICIPATION
  – LEADER DOES NOT DOMINATE OR DEFER
 CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE
    EXECUTIVE TEAMS (cont.)

•A   CLIMATE OF TRUST AND SUPPORT
     – RISK TAKING IS ENCOURAGED
     – CRITICISM IS CONSTRUCTIVE & NO
       PERSONAL ATTACKS

• STANDARDS    OF EXCELLENCE

• PRESENCEOR ACCESS TO REQUISITE SKILLS
AND DIVERSITY

• PRINCIPLED   LEADERSHIP
         GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE
                CONSENSUS
1) COMMIT TO THE PROCESS AND SEARCH FOR “BEST SOLUTIONS”

2) AVOID VIEWING THE PROCESS IN WIN / LOSE TERMS

3) STATE YOUR POSITION CLEARLY, BUT LISTEN CAREFULLY TO ALL

4) ATTEMPT TO INVOLVE ALL IN DECISION MAKING PROCESS
   CONFLICT (PROPERLYMANAGED) ENHANCES DECISION MAKING

5) AVOID SIMPLISTIC TECHNIQUES TO RESOLVE DISPUTES

6) BUDGET TIME SO ALL IMPORTANT ASPECTS ARE INVESTIGATED,
   PROBLEM DEFINITION AND STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT ARE N.B.

7) MANAGE MAINTENANCE AND TASK FUNCTIONS IN THE GROUP
    YOU CAN ACCOMPLISH ANYTHING IF YOU DON’T CARE
                WHO GETS THE CREDIT.
Use Individual Decision Making When:
1. You have the information to make a good decision
2. The situation is urgent
3. Subordinates are already committed or their
   commitment doesn’t matter

Use Groups For Decision Making When:
1. No one knows the answer or the expertise is in the group
2. You want to increase the commitment of subordinates
3. The situation is not urgent in the sense that it requires an
   immediate response
4. You, as manager, can live with choice
       The Psychological Contract



• Psychological Contract

  – it is a person’s set of expectations
    regarding what he or she will
    contribute to the organization and
    what the organization, in turn, will
    provide to the individual.
               Team Contract


• What would it look like if the
  psychological contact existing between
  team members was made more explicit in
  the team charter and used by the group to
  help it actively manage its development
  and the outcomes achieved?
                  Dividing the Pie


• What is your assessment of the underlying
  problem in the case and your analysis of the
  situation?

• What are the consequences if it is not resolved?

• What would you recommend they do and how
  would you proceed?
                       Organizational Congruence Model

                               TRANFORMATION PROCESS

                                                                   OUTPUT
   INPUT
                                        INFORMAL
                                       STRUCTURE
                                                                   SYSTEMS
ENVIRONMENT                S           & PROCESS
                                                                    LEVEL
  (P.E.S.T.)               T
                           R
                           A    WORK                   FORMAL     UNIT/GROUP
RESOURCES                                             STRUCTURE     LEVEL
                           T
                           E
                           G
  HISTORY/                                                        INDIVIDUAL
                           Y           INDIVIDUAL
  CULTURE                                                           LEVEL



    Strategic Leadership               Nadler, 1987
    Program

				
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