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ABBREVIATION DERIVATION OF ABBREVIATION

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					ABBREVIATION DERIVATION OF ABBREVIATION                      BSDL          Boundary Scan Description Language
                                                             BTL           backplane transceiver logic
     2DD           double-side double density                BTRON         Business TRON
     2HD           double-side high density                  BUS           broadcast unknown server
     3D DDI        3 Dimensional Device Driver Interface     C&C           computer and communication
     4GL           4th generation language                   CA            conditional access
     4GT           4 GB Ram Tuning                           CA            certification authority
     A3D           Aural 3D                                  CAD           computer aided design
     ABI           application binary interface              CAD/CAM       computer aided design / computer aided
     ABS           air bearing surface                       manufacturing
     ACE           Advanced Computing Environment            CAE           computer aided engineering
     ACPI          Advanced Configuration and Power          CAE           common application environment
     Interface                                               CAE           Conditional Access Engine
     ACSM          Application Control State Machine         CAI           computer assisted (aided) instruction
     ADB           Apple Desktop Bus                         CAL           common application language
     ADE           automatic design engineering              CAL           computer assisted learning
     ADF           Auto Document Feeder                      CALS          Computer-aided Acquisition and
     ADO           ActiveX Data Objects                      Logistical Support
     ADSI          Active Directory Service Interfaces       CAM           computer aided manufacturing
     ADT           attribute definition table                CAM           content addressable memory
     AGP           Accelerated Graphics Port                 CAPI          Cryptographic API
     AIF           application integration feature           CASE          computer aided software engineering
     ALU           arithmetic logical unit                   CAT           computer aided testing
     AML           ACPI Machine Language                     CBQ           class-based queuing
     AMR           Audio/Modem Riser                         CDA           Compound Document Architecture
     AOAC          always on/always connected                CDB           Command Description Block
     API           application programming interface         CDC           Connected Device Configuration
     APIC          Advanced Programmable Interrupt           CDDI          copper distributed data interface
     Controller                                              CDE           Common Desktop Environment
     APM           Advanced Power Management                 CDF           Channel Definition Format
     APNIC         Asia Pacific Network Information Center   CDFF          Common Document File Format
     ARC           Advanced RISC Computing                   CDIF          Common Document Intermediate Format
     ASF           Active Streaming Format                   CDL           Class Definition Language
     ASL           ACPI Source Language                      CDP           Concept Description Plan
     ASP           active server page                        CDRA          Character Data Representation
     ASPI          Advanced SCSI Programming Interface       Architecture
     ATA           AT Attachment                             CDSA          Common Data Security Architecture
     ATAPI         AT Attachment Packet Interface            CEDR          Windows CE Driver Repository
     ATM           asynchronous transfer mode                CG            computer graphics
     ATM API       asynchronous transfer mode application    CGA           Color Graphics Array
     programming interface                                   CGA           column grid array
     ATMS          Automated Traffic Management Systems      CGI           Computer Graphics Interface
     AT-UD         Unimodem Diagnostics Command              CGI           common gateway interface
     ATX           AT eXtension                              CGM           Computer Graphics Metafile
     AUI           Attachment Unit Interface                 CHRP          Common Hardware Reference Platform
     AVGA          Advanced VGA                              CHS           cylinder head sector
     AVI           Audio Visual Interleaving                 CI            Component Instrumentation
     AWT           Abstract Window Toolkit                   CICS          Customer Information Control System
     BAR           base address register                     CID           Compatible ID
     BASIC         beginner's all-purpose symbolic           CIFS          Common Internet File System
     instruction code                                        CIM           computer integrated manufacturing
     BBS           bulletin board system                     CIM           Common Information Model
     bcc           blind carbon copy                         CIMOM         CIM Object Model
     BCL           bias compensation layer                   CINF          check (modem) INF tool
     BDA           BIOS Data Area                            CIS           card information structure
     BDC           backup domain controller                  CIS           customer information system
     BDK           Business Development Kit                  CISC          complex instruction set computer
     BIOS          basic input/output system                 CL            CAS(column address strobe) Latency
     BIPS          billion instructions per second           CLAD          cell assembler/disassembler
     BIS           boot integrity services                   CLDC          Connected Limited Device Configuration
     BLOB          Binary Large Object                       CLI           Call Level Interface
     BML           Broadcast Markup Language                 CLOS          Common Lisp Object System
     BMP           Basic Multilingual Plane                  CLP           cell loss priority
     BMP           Bit Map                                   CLUT          Colour Look-Up Table
     BMS           broadcast message server                  CMC           Computer Numeric Control
     BNF           Backup Naur Form                          CMIP          common management information
     BOF           beginning of file                         protocol
     BOOTP         bootstrap protocol                        CML           Caucus Markup Language
     BPB           BIOS Parameter Blocks                     CMM           color matching modules
     BPC           Broadcast PC                              CMM           Capability Maturity Model
     BPI           bit per inch                              CNR           Communication and Networking Riser
     BPI           bit per instruction                       COBOL         common business oriented language
     bpp           bits per pixel                            COCOMO        construction cost model
     BPR           business process reengineering            COM           Component Object Model
     bps           bit per second                            CORBA         Common Object Request Broker
     BRAN          Broadband Radio Access Networks           Architecture
     BRI           Basic Rate Interface                      COSE          Common Open Software Environment
COSS           Common Object Service Specification       DML           data manipulation language
CP/M           control program for a microcomputer       DMTF          Desktop Management Task Force
CPN            central processing node                   DMWG          Data Management Work Group
CPU            central processing unit                   DN            Distinguished Name
CRL            Certificate Revocation List               DNS           Domain Name System
CSEL           Cable SELect                              DOA           data oriented approach
CSMA/CA        carrier sense multiple access with        DOM           Distributed Operations Master
collision avoidance                                      DOMF          Distributed Object Management Facility
CSMA/CD        carrier sense multiple access with        DOP           Directory Operational Protocol
collision detection                                      DOS           Disk Operating System
CSN            Card Select Number                        DP            data parallelism
CSS            Contact Start Stop                        DPC           Deferred Procedure Call
CSV            comma separated value format              DPI           dot per inch(dpi)
CT             computerized tomography                   DPMI          DOS protected mode interface
CTI            Computer Telephony Integration            DPMS          Display Power Management Signaling
CTRON          central-TRON                              DRC           design rule checker
CTS            computerized typesetting system           DRDA          Distributed Relational Database
CTS            Clear To Send                             Architecture
DA             data administrator                        DRF           Data Recovery Field
DAA            Data Access Arrangement                   DRM           Digital Rights Management (System)
DAC            Design Automation Conference              DR-PI         design representation programming
DAP            Directory Access Protocol                 interface
DAS            dual attachment station                   DS            Directory Service
DASD           direct access storage device              DSA           Digital Signature Algorithm
DB             database                                  DSE           Development Software Engineer
DB2            Database 2                                DSM           digital storage media
DBA            database administrator                    DSM-CC        digital storage media-control command
DBC            Device Bay Controller                     DSO           Dynamic Shared Object
DBM            Dual Bit Map                              DSS           Microsoft Mail Directory Synchronization
DBMS           database management system                (dir-sync) Server
DC             device context                            DSS           decision support system
DCD            Data Carrier Detect                       DSSSL         Document Style Semantics and
DCE            Data Communications Equipment             Specification Language (ISO/IEC 10179)
DCE            distributed computing environment         DSU           digital service unit
DCF            Distributed Coordination Function         DTC           Distributed Transaction Coordinator
DCI            display control interface                 DTD           document type definition
DCL            Delay Calculation Language                DTE           data terminal equipment
DCLZ           data compression Lempel-Ziv               DTM           data transfer mechanism
DCOM           Distributed Component Object Model        DTP           desktop publishing
DDC2B          Display Data Channel Standard, Level      DTR           Data Terminal Ready
2B                                                       DVMCI         digital video media control interface
DDE            Dynamic Data Exchange                     DVO           Digital Video Output
DDF            Data Description Field                    DXF           drawing interchange file
DDFF           Distributed Disk File Facility            EA            extended attributes
DDK            Driver Developers Kit                     EAB           embedded array block
DDL            data definition language                  EAP           Extensible Authentication Protocol
DDM            design data manager                       EASI          embedded all-in-one system interface
DDM            Distributed Data Management               EBCDIC        extended binary coded decimal
DDML           Display Driver Management Layer           interchange code
DDoS           distributed denial of service             EBCOT         Embedded Block Coding with Optimized
DDS            Digital Data Storage                      Truncation
DDS            Distributed Data Server                   EDA           electronic design automation
DEF            Design Exchange Format                    EDD           Enhanced Disk Drive
DES            data encryption standard                  EDF           earliest deadline first
DFM            Distributed File Management               EDI           electronic data interchange
DFS            Distributed File System                   EDID          Extended Display Identification Data
DFT            Drive Fitness Test                        EDIF          electronic design interchange format
DFT            design for test                           EDO           extended data out
DIB            Device Independent Bitmap                 EDP           electronic data processing
DIB            Directory Information Base                EEMBC         EDN Embedded Microprocessor
DIFS           distributed access inter frame space      Benchmark Consortium
DIM            Device Interface Module                   EFS           Encrypting File System
DINA           Distributed Information Processing        EGA           Extended Color Graphics Array
Network Architecture                                     EGA           Enhanced Graphics Adapter
DIPS           Dendenkousha Information Processing       EHCI          Enhanced Host Controller Interface
System                                                   EHLLAPI       extended high level language application
DISA           Distributed Information Processing        programming interface
System Architecture                                      EIDE          Enhanced Integrated Device Electronics
DISM           Digital Interface Standards for Monitor   EIO           Extended I/O
DISP           Directory Information Shadowing           EISA          extended industry standard architecture
Protocol                                                 ELF           Extended Link Format
DIT            Directory Information Tree                EM            electronic mail
DLC            data link control                         EMB           Extended Memory Block
DLCI           datalink channel identifier               EMC           electro magnetic compatibility
DLL            dynamic link library                      EMF           Extended metafile
DME            Distributed Management Environment        EMM           Entitlement Management Messages
DMI            Desktop Management Interface
ENIAC        Electronic Numerical integrator And         GCP           Global Computation Platform
Calculator                                               GDA           Global Document Annotation
EOF          end of file                                 GDI           Graphical Device Interface
EPIC         Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing   GDT           Global Descriptor Table
EPP          Enhanced Parallel Port                      GFC           Generic Flow Control
E-R          entity-relationship                         GIDEI         General Input Device Emulation
ERC          electrical rule checking                    Interface
ERP          Error Recovery Procedure                    GIF           Graphics Interchange Format
ES           expert system                               GINA          Graphical Identification and
ESA          extended service area                       Authentication
ESA          Enterprise Systems Architecture             GKS           Graphical Kernel System
ESC/P        Epson Standard Code for Printer             GMR           giant magnetoresistive
ESCD         Extended System Configuration Data          GNU           general public license
ESCON        enterprise systems connection               GNU           GNU's Not Unix, "guh-NEW"
ESDI         enhanced small device interface             GPC           Graphics Performance Characterization
ESIOP        environment-specific inter-ORB protocol     GPIB          general purpose interface bus
ESS          extended service set                        GPIO          General Purpose I/O
ETK          Embedded Toolkit                            GPL           GNU Public License
EUC          Extended UNIX Code                          GSS-API       Generic Security Service Application
EUC          end-user computing                          Program Interface
EUI-64       Extended Unique Identifier                  GTF           Generalized Timing Formula
EVC          Enhanced Video Connector                    GVIF          Gigabit Video Interface
EWS          engineering workstation                     H/W           hardware
ExCA         Exchangeable Card Architecture              HA            home automation
FACS         Firmware ACPI Control Structure             HAA           Hitachi Application Architecture
FAPI         Fingerprint Aware Application Program       HAMR          Heat Assisted Magnetic Recording
Interface                                                HCI           Host controller Interface
FAT          file allocation table                       HCL           Hardware Compatibility List
FBAPI        Fingerprint Basic Aware Application         HDA           head disk assembly
Program Interface                                        HDC           hard disk controller
FCA          Fibre Channel Association                   HDCG          high definition computer graphics
FC-AL        Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop               HDD           hard disk drive
FCB          file control block                          HDL           hardware description language
FC-EP        Fibre Channel Extended Physical             HDLC          High Level Data Link Control procedures
FCP          Fibre Channel Protocol                      HDT           Host Digital Terminal
FCP          function control protocol                   HEC           Header Error Control
FC-PH        Fibre Channel Physical                      HEL           hardware emulator layer
FCS          frame check sequence                        HFS           hierarchical file system
FCSI         Fibre Channel Systems Initiative            HID           Human Interface Device
FD           floppy disc                                 HIPPI         high performance parallel interface
FDC          Floppy Disk Drive Controller                HLLAPI        high-level language application
FDD          floppy disc drive                           programming interface
FDDI         Fiber Distributed Data Interface            HMA           high memory area
FDIV         Floating (point) Divide                     HMI           Human Machine Interface
FDL          Facility Data Link                          HPC           high performance computation
FDO          Functional Device Object                    HPCCI         High-performance Computing and
FE           Framing Error                               Communications Initiative
FEAPI        Fingerprint Extended Aware Application      HPF           High Performance Fortran
Program Interface                                        HPFS          High Performance File System
FFOL         FDDI Follow on LAN                          HRTF          Head Related Transfer Function
FHN          Fiber HUB Node                              HSFS          High-Sierra File System
FiDO         Filter Device Object                        HSM           Hierarchical Storage Management
FIM          Function Component Interface Module         HSSI          High-Speed Serial Interface
FIQ          Fast Interrupt reQuest                      HSTP          High Speed Transport Protocol
FLP          fast link pulse                             HTPC          Home Theater Personal Computers
                                                          2
FMV          Full Motion Video                           IO            Intelligent Input/Output
FMV          fair market value                           IA-PC         Intel Architecture Personal Computer
FNA          Fujitsu Network Architecture                IBIS          I/O buffer information specification
FNO          Foreign Namespace Object                    ICC           integrated communication controller
FoIP         FAX over Internet Protocol                  ICCCM         Inter-Client Communication Conventions
FORTRAN formula translator                               Manual
FP           function point                              ICM           Image Color Management
FPA          function point analysis                     ICM           Image Compression Manager
FPU          floating-point processing unit              ICU           ISA Configuration Utility
FR           frame relay                                 IDAPI         Integrated Database API
FRS          File Replication Service                    IDE           integrated device electronics
FSB          Front Side Bus                              IDL           Interface Definition Language
FSD          File System Driver                          IDM           Interleaved Device Mode
FSF          free software foundation                    IDT           Internet Development Toolbox
FSRTL        File System Run Time Library                IDT           Interrupt Dispatch Table
FTAM         File Transfer, Access and Management        IE Internet Explorer
FTC          fault tolerant computer                     IF Implements Forum
FTP          File Transfer Protocol                      IFC           internet foundation class
FTS          fault tolerant system                       IFS           ICOT Free Software
FTTB         fiber to the building                       IFS           instable file system
FTTC         fiber to the curb                           IFSMGR        Instable File System Manager
GART         Graphic Address Re-mapping Table            IGES          Initial Graphics Exchange Specification
IHV           independent hardware vendor              LPE          layout parameter extraction
IME           Input Method Editor                      lpi          line per inch
IN            intelligent network                      LPT          line printer
Indeo         Intel Video Technology                   LSSD         level sensitive scan design
INN           InterNetNews                             LSTF         least slack time first
IOOM          the Ithaca Object-Oriented Methodology   LU           Logical Unit
IOS           I/O Supervisor                           LUN          logical unit number
IP interface protocol                                  LVE          Live Video Extensions
IPC           interprocess communication               LVM          logical volume manager
IPD           Integrated Program Decoder               MA           message area
IPI           Intelligent Peripheral Interface         MAC          media access control
IPL           Initial Program Load                     MADK         Microsoft ActiveX Development Kit
IrLAP         infrared link access protocol            MAOS         multi application operating system
IrLMP         infrared link management protocol        MAPI         Messaging Application Programming
IrMC          Infrared Mobile Communications           Interface
IrOBEX        Infrared Object Exchange Protocol        MAS          multiple-address space
IRP           I/O Request Packet                       MBONE        multicast backbone
IRQ           interrupt request                        MCA          multi-channel access
IrTA          infrared terminal adapter                MCA          Micro Channel Architecture
IrTran-P      Infrared Transfer Picture                MCD          Mini Client Driver
IrWW          Infrared Wrist Watch                     MCGA         Multi Color Graphics Array
ISA           Industry Standard Architecture           MCI          Media Control Interface
ISAPI         information server API                   MCI          Multimedia Control Interface
iSCSI         Internet SCSI (SCSI over TCP/IP)         MCT          Modem Compatibility Test
ISIS          Image and Scanner Interface              MCU          multipoint connection unit
Specification                                          MDD          multi-valued decision diagram
IS-IS         Intermediate System to Intermediate      MDI          Multiple Document Interface
System Infra Domain Routing Exchange                   MDK          Modem Developers Kit
    Protocol                                           MDL          memory descriptor list
ISM           Interface Subscriber Module              MESN         Media Event Status Notification
ISO/OSI       International Standards Organization     MF           more fragments (bit)
Open System Interconnection                            MF           media flexible
ISR           Interrupt Service Routine                MFP          multi-function peripheral
IST           interrupt service thread                 MFT          master file table
ISV           independent software vendor              MHS          message handling system
IT information technology                              MI           Management Interface
ITRON         Industrial TRON(The Realtime Operating   MIA          Multivendor Integrated Architecture
system Nucleus)                                        MIDI         musical instrument digital interface
IVD LAN       integrated voice and data LAN            MIDP         Mobile Information Device Profiles
IVV           Independent Verification & Validation    MIF          Management Information File
IX internet exchange                                   MIF          management information format
IXC           Inter Exchange Carrier                   MII          media independent interface
JAIN          Integrated Network APIs for the Java     MIMD         multiple instruction stream multiple data
Platform                                               stream
JAM           Java administration server               MIPS         million instructions per second
JAR           Java archive                             MIS          management information system
Java VM       Java Virtual Machine                     MMC          Microsoft Management Console
JCL           job control language                     MMHID        Multimedia Human Input Device
JCP           Java Community Process                   MMIO         memory-mapped I/O
JFC           Java Foundation Classes                  MMU          memory management unit
JIT           Just-In-Time                             MMX          multimedia extension
JLE           Japanese Language Environment            MNLS         Multi National Language Support
JNI           Java Native Method Interface             MNP          Microcom Networking Protocol
JOIS          JICST On-line Information System         MOD          movie on demand
KBM           knowledge based machine                  MOF          Management Object Format
KCC           Knowledge Consistency Checker            MOLAP        multi-dimensional online analytical
KDD           Knowledge Discovery in Databases         processing
KDT           keyboard definition table                MOM          message oriented middleware
KPA           key process area                         MOOD         Methodology for Object Oriented Design
KPS           key predistribution system               MP/M         multi-programming monitor
LA            laboratory automation                    MPC          Multimedia Personal Computer
LAN           local area network                       MPDU         MAC Protocol Data Unit
LAPM          Link Access Protocol, Modem              MPI          Message Passing Interface
LBA           logical block address                    MPIC         Multiprocessor Interrupt Controller
LBP           laser beam printer                       MPPE         Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption
LCC           levelized compiled code                  MPS          MultiProcessor Specification
LCF           Link Control Facility                    MR           Mixed Reality
LDAP          lightweight directory access protocol    MRCI         Microsoft Real-time Compression
LDI           LVDS Display Interface                   Interface
LEC           LAN emulation clients                    MSCDEX       Microsoft CD-ROM Extensions
LECS          LAN emulation configuration server       MSCS         Microsoft Cluster Server
LES           LAN emulator server                      MSDL         Microsoft Download Library
LFN           long file name                           MSDN         Microsoft Developer Network
LIM           Lotus-Intel-Microsoft                    MS-DOS       Microsoft disk operating system
LIP           Loop Initialization Primitive            MSDU         MAC Service Data Unit
LP            laser printer                            MSEN         Media Status Event Notification
LPC           Low Pin Count                            MSMQ         Microsoft Message Queue Server
MSO           multiple system operator                 ODS           operational data store
MTD           Memory Technology Driver                 ODSI          Open Directory Services Interface
MTE           Message Transfer Element                 OEX           OLE System Control
MTF           Microsoft Tape Format                    OFS           Object File System
MTS           Microsoft Transaction Server             OGI           Open Graphics Initiative
MTU           maximum transmission unit                OHCI          Open Host Controller Interface
MTU           Maximum Transfer Unit                    OID           Object ID
MUD           Master User Domain                       OLAP          on-line analytical processing
MUI           multimedia user interface                OLCP          on-line complex processing
MULTOS        multiapplication operating system        OLE           Object Linking & Embedding
MVEX          Minimal Video Extension to X             OLTP          on-line transaction processing
MVS           Multiple Virtual Storage                 OMA           Object Management Architecture
MVS/ESA       MVS/Enterprise Systems Architecture      OMAP          Open Multimedia Application Platform
NABTS         North American Basic Teletext System     OMG-IDL       Object Management Group Interface
NAPLPS        North American Presentation-Level-       Definition Language
Protocol Syntax                                        OMG-UNO Object Management Group Universal
NBDD          NetBIOS datagram distribution server     Networked Objects
NBNS          NetBIOS name server                      OMT           Object Modeling Technique
NC            naming context                           ONC           Open Network Computing
NC            Network Computer                         ONP           open network provision
NCB           network control block                    ONU           optical network unit
NCP           Netware Core Protocol                    OOA           object-oriented analysis
NCRP          Network Computer Reference               OOAD          object-oriented analysis and design
Specification                                          OOD           object-oriented design
NCS           Network Computing System                 OODB          object-oriented database
NCSS          non-comment source statements            OOP           object-oriented programming
NCU           network control unit                     OOPS          object-oriented programming system
NDD           Norton Disk Doctor                       OOPSLA        Object-Oriented Programming, Systems,
NDIS          Network Driver Interface Specification   Languages, and Application
NDPS          network distributed print system         OpenHCI       Open Host Controller Interface
NDS           Netware Directory Service                OPK           OEM preinstallation kit
NDS           Novell Directory Service                 OQL           object query language
NEEDS         Nikkei Economic Electronic Databank      OR            operations research
System                                                 ORB           Operation Request Block
Net PC        network personal computer                ORB           Object Request Broker
NetBEUI       NetBIOS Extended User Interface          ORDB          Object-Relational Database
NETBIOS       Network Basic Input/Outputs System       OS            operating system
NFS           network file system                      OSA           Open Scripting Architecture
NGIO          Next Generation Input/Output             OSF           Open Software Foundation
NIC           network interface card                   OSI           Open System Interface
NIT           Network Information Table                OSI           Open Systems Interconnection
NIU           Network Interface Unit                   OSPM          OS-directed Power Management
NLM           NetWare loadable module                  OSR           OEM service release
NLS           national language support                OTG           on the go
NNI           network node interface                   OTS           Object Transaction Service
NOD           News on Demand                           OVI           Open Verilog International
NOI           Notice Inquiry                           PA            Precision Architecture
NOS           Network Operating System                 PABX          private automatic branch exchange
NPI           Network provider Interface               PAC           Privilege attribute Certificate
NPR           Notice of Proposed Rulemaking            PAD           Program associated data
NREN          National Research and Education          PAD           packet assembler/disassembler
Network                                                PAD           Problem Analysis Diagram
nrt           non-real-time                            PARCOR        partial auto correlation
NSP           native signal processing                 PA-RISC       Precision Architecture-RISC
NT            New Technology                           PAS           Pre-Boot Authentication Service
NT            Network Termination                      PC            personal computer
NTDS          Windows NT Directory Service             PC            packet classifier
NTFS          NT File System                           PC-DOS        Personal Computer-Disk Operating
NTLM          Windows NT LAN Manager                   System
NTP           Network Time Protocol                    PCI           Peripheral Component Interconnect
NTS/E         Windows NT Server, Enterprise Edition    PCI PM        PCI Bus Power Management
NVOD          Near Video on Demand                     Specification
OADG          Open Architecture Developing Group       PCIC          PC Card I/O Cards
OAK           OEM Adoption Kit                         PCP           Printer Control Protocol
OAM           operation and maintenance                PCS           physical coding sublayer
OCMP          Open Computing environment for MIPS      PCT           Private Communication Technology
Platform                                               PCTE          portable common tool environment
OCN           Open Computer Network                    PDA           personal digital assistants
OCX           OLE Custom control                       PDC           primary domain controller
ODA           Open Document Architecture               PDC           Program Delivery Control
ODAPI         Open Database Application                PDC           professional developers conference
Programming Interface                                  PDEF          physical design exchange format
ODB           object-oriented database                 PDF           Portable Document File
ODBC          Open Database Connectivity               PDK           Peripheral Developers Kit
ODBMS         object(-oriented) database management    PDL           Process Design Language
system                                                 PDL           page description language
ODI           Open Datalink Interface                  PDM           product data management system
PDM          Primary Defect Map                        ROLAP          Relational online analytical processing
PDO          physical device object                    RPC            remote procedure call
PDQ          parallel data query                       RPE-LTP        Regular Pulse Excitation-Long Term
PDS          public domain software                    Predictive cording
PEX          PHIGS Extension to X                      RPG            Report Program Generator
PFS          Product Functional Specification          RSL            Rambus Signal Level
PGP          pretty good privacy                       RSX            Intel Realistic Sound eXperience
PHIGS        Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive     RT             remote terminal
Graphics System                                        RT             Real-Time
PIAM         Platform Independent Application Model    RTC            real-time clock
PIC          Personal Intelligent Communicator         RTF            Rich Text Format
PIC          Programmable Interrupt Controller         RTK            real time kinematic
PICS         Platform for internet Content Selection   RTOS           Real Time Operating System
PID          Program ID                                RTS            Request To Send
PID          packet identification                     RWS            Remote Winsock
PIF          program information file                  S/PDIF         Sony Philips Digital Interface
PIM          Parallel Inference Machine                S/W            software
PIO          programmed input/output                   SA             Structured Analysis
PIP          P Internet Protocol                       SAA            Systems Application Architecture
PIT          Programmable Interrupt Timer              SACCH          slow associated control channel
PKT          Partition Knowledge Table                 SAF            synthetic antiferromagnet
PL/1         Programming Language one                  SALT           Speech Application Language Tag
PLB          Picture Level Benchmark                   SAM            SCSI-3 Architecture Model
PLDA         Private Loop Direct Attach                SAP            secondary audio programming
PLI          programming language interface            SAR            segmentation and reassembly
PMA          physical medium attachment                SASI           Shugart Associates System Interface
PMC          PCI Mezzanine Card                        SBC            surrounded by complement
PMD          physical medium dependent                 SBC            SCSI-3 Block Commands
PMD          physical media dependent sublayer         SBE            software behavior estimation
PME          Power Management Event                    SBP            Serial Bus Protocol
PML          Physical Markup Language                  SBS            Smart Battery Specification
PNG          Portable Network Graphics                 SBS            Smart Battery Systems
POI          point of interface                        SC             Structured Chart
POP          point of presence                         SCA            single connector attachment for SCSI
POP          post office protocol                      Disk Drives
POPS         peta operations per second                SCAM           SCSI Configured Automatically
POSIX        portable operating system interface       SCD            SPARC Compliance Definition
POST         power-on self-test                        SCI            scaleable coherent interface
POWER        Performance Optimization with             SCID           Service Channel ID
Enhanced RISC                                          SCM            Software Configuration Management
pp           program parallelism                       SCP            Source Compatibility Package
ppm          pages per minute                          SCP            Service Control Point
PPP          Point-to-Point Protocol                   SCSI           small computer system interface
PPTP         point-to point tunneling protocol         SCSIFCP        SCSI Fibre Channel Protocol
PRM          Performance Report Message                SCSL           Sun Community Source License
PS/2         personal system/2                         SCT            Software Compatibility Test
PS2          Play Station 2                            SD             Structured Design
PSS          Product Support Services                  SD             shared disk
PSW          Program Status Word                       SDAS           System Development Architecture &
PVC          permanent virtual circuit                 Support facilities
PVM          Parallel Virtual Machine                  SDE            Software Development Engineer
PVP          Packet Video Protocol                     SDH            synchronous digital hierarchy
QBE          query by example                          SDK            software developer's kit
QCELP        Qualcomm code excited linear prediction   SDLC           Synchronous Data Link Control
QCIF         quarter common intermediate format        SDP            session description protocol
QIC          Quarter-inch Cartridge                    SDR            Sustained Data Rate
QRSL         Quad Rambus Signal Level                  SDU            Service Data Unit
QTVR         QuickTime VR                              SE             system engineer
QVGA         quarter video graphic array               SE             shared everything
RAD          rapid application development             SECC           Single Edge Contact Cartridge
RAID         Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks     SECE           secure electronic commerce
RAW          read and write                            environment
RDA          remote database access                    SES            solution exchange standard
RDB          relational database                       SETP           Stream Environment Transport Protocol
RDBMS        relational database management system     SFF            Small Form Factor
RDN          Relative distinguished Name               SFN            single frequency network
RFID         Radio Frequency Identification            SFS            stick-on free slider
RFT:DCA      Revisable From Text : Document            SFS            Shared File System
Content Architecture                                   SGML           Standard Generalized Markup Language
RID          Relative ID                               SI Service Information
RIFF         Resource Interchange File Format          SI system integration
RIMM         Rambus Inline Memory Module               SID            Subsystem ID
RIPL         Remote Initial Program Load               SIE            Serial Interface Engine
RISC         reduced instruction set computer          SIMD           single instruction stream-multiple data
RLC          Run Length Coding                         stream
RMI          remote method invocation                  SIPC           Simply Interactive Personal Computer
RNI          Raw Native Interface                      SIR            serial infrared interface
SIS            strategic information system              TWAIN          Technology Without Any Interested
SLCP           Software Life-Cycle Processes             Name
SLIC           subscriber line interface circuit         TwinVQ         transform domain weighted interleave
SLIP           Serial Line IP                            vector quantization
S.M.A.R.T.     Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting   TXD            Transmission Data
Technology                                               UAS            User Account System
SMB            server message block                      UBR            unspecified bit rate
SMBus          System Management Bus                     UCT            Universal Coordinate Time
SMDL           Standard Music Description Language       UDL/I          unified design language of integrated
SMI            system management interrupt               circuit
SMM            system management mode                    UDP            User Datagram Protocol
SMS            system management server                  UFS            UNIX file system
SNA            Systems Network Architecture              UHCI           Universal Host Controller Interface
SNA            Software Network Architecture             UI             UNIX International
SOF            start of frame                            UI             User Interface
SPA            Software Process Assessments              UI             Unit Interval
SPARC          Scalable Processor Architecture           UIMS           user interface management system
SPDL           Standard Page Description Language        ULP            upper layer protocol
SPEF           Standard Parasitic Exchange Format        UML            unified modeling language
SPF            standard parasitic format                 U-N            User to Network primitive
SPI            Serial Peripheral Interface               UNC            Universal Naming Convention
SPICE          Simulation Program with Integrated        UNI            user network interface
Circuit Emphasis                                         UP             Uniprocessor
SPID           Service Profile Identifier                UPC            Usage Parameter Control
SPMD           single program multiple data stream       UPF            Uni Picture Format
SPS            Shock Protection System                   URB            USB request block
SPSR           Stored Program Status Register            URL            Uniform Resource Locator
SPX            Sequenced Packet Exchange                 USB            Universal Serial Bus
SQL            structured query language                 USN            Update Sequence Number
SRB            Stream Request block                      UTMI           USB2.0 Transceiver Macrocell Interface
SRC            sample rate converter                     UTOPIA         Universal Test & Operations PHY
SRC            sampling rate change                      Interface for ATM
SSA            Serial Storage Architecture               U-U            User to User primitive
SSADM          Structured Systems and Design Method      UUCP           UNIX to UNIX Copy Program
SSC            Smart Signal Conditioning                 UVGA           Ultimate VGA (1024 x 768, 60fps)
SSDP           Simple Service Discovery Protocol         VAFC           Vesa Advanced Feature Connector
SSI            single system image                       VAN            value added network
SSL            Secure Socket Layer                       VB             Visual Basic
SSP            serial storage protocol                   VBA            Microsoft Visual Basic Programming
SSPI           Security Support Provider Interface       System Application Edition
SSTF           shortest seek time first                  VBE            VESA BIOS Extension
SSTV           slow scan television                      VBX            Visual Basic Extension
STD            State Transition Diagram                  VC             virtual channel
STEP           Standard for the Exchange of Product      VC             virtual circuit
STI            Still Image architecture                  VCCI           Voluntary Control Council for
STT            Secure Transaction Technology             Interference by Data Processing Equipment
SVC            switched virtual connection                   and Electronic Office Machines
SVG            Scalable Vector Graphics                  VCDFSD         Virtual CD-ROM File System Driver
SVGA           super video graphics array                VCI            Virtual Channel Identifier
SVID           System Vendor Interface Definition        VDD            Virtual Device Driver
(IDentification)                                         VDD            Version Description Document
SXGA           super extended graphic array              VDIF           Video display Information Format
SXVGA          super extended video graphics array       VDM            Virtual DOS Machine
TAPI           Telephony application programming         VDM            Virtual Device Manager
interface                                                VDMA           Virtual DMA
TBI            Ten Bit Interface                         VDMAD          Virtual DMA Device
TCL            Tool command Language                     VDO            Video Distribution Office
TD-CDMA        time division-code division multiple      VDP            video datagram protocol
access                                                   VDS            Virtual DMA Services
TDE            telephone data entry                      VDT            video display terminal/visual display
TDI            Transport Driver Interface                terminal
TE             terminal equipment                        VESA           Video Electronics Standard Association
TFTP           trivial file transfer protocol            VFS            virtual file system
TIFF           Tagged Image File Format                  VFW            Video for Windows
TLD            Top Level Domain                          VGA            Video Graphics Array
TLI            Transport Level Interface for UNIX        VHDL           VHSIC hardware description language
TM             transaction manager                       VI VHDL International
TMDS           Transition Minimized Differential         VIP            Video Information Provider
Signaling                                                VISCA          Video System Control Architecture
TMF            transaction monitoring facility           VITAL          VHDL Initiative toward ASIC Libraries
TOC            table of contents                         VL-Bus         VESA local bus
TREC           Texture and Rendering Engine              VLM            Very Large Memory
Compression                                              VM             Virtual Machine
TRON           The Realtime Operating system Nucleus     VM/CMS         Virtual Machine / Conversational Monitor
TSD            type-specific driver                      System
TSR            terminate-and-stay-resident               VM/ESA         Virtual Machine/Enterprise Systems
TSS            time sharing system                       Architecture
VME          versa module European                              ZM          zone marker
VMS          Virtual Memory System                              ZTAT        Zero Turn Around Time
VMTP         Versatile Message Transaction Protocol             ZVP         Zoomed Video Port
VOD          video-on-demand
VP           virtual path
VPE          Video Port Extension
VPI          virtual path identifier
VpicD        virtual programmable interrupt controller
device
VRML         virtual reality modeling language           Nawraj info solution
VSAM         virtual storage access method               dimapur Nagaland
VSD          Vendor Specific Driver
VUDA         VESA Unified Graphic Architecture
VUMA         VESA Unified Memory Architecture
VVIDD        VESA Video Interface for Digital Display
VxD          Virtual Device Driver
VXI          VMEbus extensions for instrumentation
WAIS         wide area information server
WBMP         Wireless Bitmap
WBS          work breakdown structure
WBT          Windows-Based Terminal
WC           write combining
WCEfA        Windows CE for Automotive
WD           working draft
WDCTRL       Western Digital-Compatible Hard Disk
Controller
WDI          Watchdog input
WDL          Windows Driver Library
WDM          Win32 Driver Model
WDMCSA       WDM Connection and Streaming
Architecture
WHIIG        Windows Hardware Instrumentation
Implementation Guideline
WHQL         Windows Hardware Quality Laboratory
WIA          Windows Image Acquisition
WIA          Wearable Internet Appliance
WIDE         Widely Integrated Distributed
Environment
WIFE         Windows Intelligent Font Environment
WinHEC       Windows Hardware Engineering
Conference
WINNLS       Windows National Language Support
WINS         Windows Internet Name Service
WinSock      Windows Sockets 2.0
WIPS         whetstone instructions per second
WLL          wireless local loop
WMA          Windows Media Audio
WMF          Windows Meta-File
WMI          Windows Management Instrumentation
WORM         write once, read many
WOSA         Windows Open System Architecture
WPS          Windows Printing System
WRAM         Window RAM
WRB          Web Request Broker
WS           workstation
WSH          Windows Scripting Host
WSP          WinSock Proxy
WSS          Windows Sound System
WWDU         Work With Display Units
XCOFF        eXtended Common Object File Format
XDR          external data representation
XFN          X/Open Federated Naming
XGA          eXtended Graphics Array
XHTML        eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language
XIMP         X Window System Input Method Protocol
XIP          eXecute-in-Place
XKP          Extended Kanji Processing
XMS          eXtended Memory Specification
XNS          Xerox Network System
XPC          extended processing complex
XPG          X/Open Portability Guide
XTP          express Transfer Protocol
Y2K          Year 2000
ZAK          Zero Administration Kit foe Windows NT
Workstation
ZAW          Zero Administration Windows
ZIP          Zone Improvement Plan

				
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