Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

Food Spec Sheet Template - PowerPoint by jpc31938

VIEWS: 887 PAGES: 40

Food Spec Sheet Template document sample

More Info
									Functional Analysis and
       Allocation
   Wally Tubell and David Swinney
   Defense Acquisition University
           March 4, 2009
             Functional Analysis and
                Allocation (FA/A)



• Describe FA/A
• Distinguish between functional
  analysis, functional allocation, and
  functional architecture
• Introduce basic tools of FA/A
         Systems Engineering
               Process

P
R
O                                     Systems Analysis
C                                       and Control
E   Requirements                         (Balance)
S     Analysis
S
              Requirements
                 Loop
I                        Functional Analysis/
N                             Allocation
P
U                                Design
        Verification
T                                 Loop
        Loop                                Synthesis




                                                   PROCESS OUTPUT
         Systems Engineering
               Process
P
R
O
C
E
                                            Technical
                                        Systems Analysis
S
                                           Management
                                          and Control
S   Requirements                           Processes
    Development
I
N             Requirements
P                Loop
U                            Logical Analysis
T
                                   Design
        Verification
                                    Loop
        Loop                                     Design
                                                Solution



                                                      PROCESS OUTPUT
                FA/A Definition


• Examination of a function to identify all
  sub-functions necessary to accomplish
  that function
• Identification of functional
  relationships and interfaces
• Capturing functional relationships in a
  Functional Architecture
                FA/A Main Tasks



•   Analyze Functions
•   Provide functional descriptions
•   Allocate performance
•   Establish technical architecture
                      Functional
                  Analysis/Allocation

1. Decompose higher functions
                                           What must the
2. Develop functional descriptions          system do?

3. Allocate performance from higher
   to lower functions
                                            To what extent
4. Perform Technical Architecture          must the function
   analysis                                    perform?



                                          Identification of
                                      standards and interface
                                           specifications.
Marine Troop Transport Requirement

PRACTICAL EXAMPLE
            Marine Troop Transport
                 Requirement
• The Marine Corps has a requirement to transport
  troops in squad level units a distance of 50 km
  within 90 minutes. The troops must be combat-
  ready and able to travel over land ranging from
  desert to arctic terrain.
• Throughout the trip, the vehicle must be able to
  communicate with headquarters, and the internal
  vehicle temperature must be maintained between
  60° and 80°F.
                Stakeholder Requirements
                        Definition
•   What is the system supposed to do?
•   Where will the products of the system be used?
•   Under what conditions will the products be used?
•   How often? How long?
•   Who will use the products of the system?
                  Requirements Analysis:
                  Marine Troop Transport

•   Transport personnel            Questions
•   Squad level units              • How many troops in a squad?
•   50 km                          • How much equipment/gear?
•   90 minutes                     • Out and back or one-way trip?
•   Combat gear                    • Day and night? Weather?
•   Traverse sand, ice, and snow
                                   • Who will operate transporter?
•   Communication with HQ
•   60º-80º F
                      Functional Analysis
                       (Logical Analysis)
  •   Analyze functions
  •   Decompose higher level functions to lower
      level functions
  •   Allocate performance requirements to the
      functions




This step answers
the question: “HOW?”
using “Action Verbs”
        Functional Analysis:
       Marine Troop Transport




Which action verbs describe the requirements?
          Functional Analysis:
         Marine Troop Transport

COMMUNICATE   TRANSPORT   CONTROL TEMP
          Functional Analysis:
         Marine Troop Transport

COMMUNICATE      TRANSPORT          CONTROL TEMP




       What „sub‟ functions make up the
       “Transport” system level function?
            Functional Analysis:
           Marine Troop Transport

  COMMUNICATE      TRANSPORT           CONTROL TEMP




LOAD     START        MOVE           STOP         UNLOAD




       The start of a “Functional Architecture”
               Functional Allocation:
               Marine Troop Transport
                           90 min

                       TRANSPORT




  LOAD       START        MOVE          STOP         UNLOAD


 10 min      2 min        72 min        1 min      5 min


• Allocation of requirements, i.e., “within 90 minutes”
• “Derived” requirements, i.e., “required speed” 42 Km/Hr
• What tradeoffs could be made?
                      Requirements Loop




•Ensure all requirements are covered by
at least one function
•Ensure all functions are justified by a
valid requirement (no unnecessary
duplication)
              Functional Analysis:
             Marine Troop Transport
       FUNCTION:                  TRANSPORT


                     LOAD    START MOVE       STOP    UNLOAD
REQUIREMENT:




  Requirements Traceability Matrix
  (Stakeholder Requirements to Functional Architecture)
                  Functional Analysis:
                 Marine Troop Transport
         FUNCTION:                  TRANSPORT


                       LOAD   START MOVE    STOP    UNLOAD
REQUIREMENT:
Transport personnel
 50 km in 90 minutes    X       X      X        X     X
Transport gear
                        X       X      X        X     X
Traverse sand
                                X      X        X
Traverse ice
                                X      X        X
Traverse snow                   X      X        X
                         Design Solution

  • Define the physical architecture
     – Each part must perform at least one function
     – Some parts may perform more than one function




What performs the function(s)?

   NOUNS
(hardware and/or software elements)
         Design Solution: Marine
            Troop Transport
                   VEHICLE




ENGINE      BODY      WHEELS   BRAKES   RADIO


   Seats           Hatch


   Heater          Cooler




            Physical Architecture
                            Design Loop




• Ensure all functions are covered
 by at least one hardware or
 software element
• Ensure all elements of physical
 architecture are justified by a
 valid functional requirement
 (no unnecessary duplication)
                             Design Solution: Marine
                                Troop Transport
                                  BODY

FUNCTION             DOOR    SEATS HEATER COOLER   ENGINE WHEELS BRAKES RADIO

            LOAD
                      X       X
            START
                                                   X
TRANSPORT




            MOVE                                   X      X
            STOP
                                                    X     X       X
            UNLOAD
                      X      X
    COMMUNI-
    CATE
                                                                         X
     CONTROL
     TEMP.
                                    X       X

                          Verbs and Nouns must all be covered
                          (Crosswalk of functional and physical architectures)
              Challenges of FA/A

• Warfighter not continuously involved
• Unknown or undefined requirements
• Changing requirements over time
• Competing / Conflicting Requirements
• Changing technology (e.g. standards,
  interfaces, etc)
• Lack of understanding of technical issues
• Unrealistic budgets, schedules, or technical
  requirements
• Lack of effort
             FA/A Documentation
                   Tools


•   Functional Flow Block Diagrams
•   Timeline Sheets
•   Requirements Allocation Sheet
•   Requirements Traceability Matrix
INCOSE Tools Database
                                                                                   Other Tools
                                                                                                                        1.3.1                                                          1.3.3                                                                 1.3.7


            1. Functional Flow Block                                                                          REF
                                                                                                              1.2.6
                                                                                                                      Boost & Guide
                                                                                                                         Missile
                                                                                                                                                                O
                                                                                                                                                                OR               Abort Missile
                                                                                                                                                                                 Flight Mission
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Detonate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Warhead



               Diagram (FFBD)                                                                                           1.3.2
                                                                                                                         Correct
                                                                                                                                                                                       1.3.4
                                                                                                                                                                                        Continue
                                                                                                                        Mid-Course                              OOR
                                                                                                                                                                                         Inertial
                                                                                                                         Guidance                                                       Guidance
                                                                                                                                                                                                         G                                                   1.3.6

            2. Time Line Analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Correct
                                                                                                                                                                                        1.3.5
                                                                                                                                                                                          Acquire                                                            Terminal
                                                                                                                                                                                           Laser                               G                             Guidance
                                                                                                                                                                                       Illumination

                                                                                                                        TIME LINE SHEET            FUNCTION                                                    LOCATION                        TYPE OF MAINTENANCE




            3. Requirements Allocation
                                                                                                                                                                   Launch Missiles

                                                                                                                       Function                                                                                     Time (minutes)
                                                                                                                         No.                 Function Name                              5                 10                  15                    20                 25
                                                                                                                        1.1.3     Extend hydraulic feet                                   (5:00)
                                                                                                                        1.1.4     Remove missile shrouds                                       (1:00)




               Sheet
                                                                                                                        1.1.5     Start electrical generators                 (2:00)
                                                                                                                        1.1.6     Establish telecommunications                (2:00)
                                                                                                                        1.2.1     Receive firing orders                              (1:00)
                                                                                                                        1.2.2     Insert pre-launch data                                        (3:30)
                                                                                                                        1.2.3     Orient launch platform                                            (1:00)
                                                                                                                        1.2.4     Elevate launcher                                                       (1:00)
                                                                                                                        1.2.5     Crew moves to remote location                                              (2:00)

•   Function Number & Name                 Performance Requirements / Constraints                                       1.2.6
                                                                                                                        1.2.6
                                                                                                                                  Launch missile (1)
                                                                                                                                  Launch missile (2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                              (:30)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (:30)
•   1.0     Accomplish Mission                                                                                          1.2.6     Launch missile (3)                                                               (:30)

•   1.1     Position Vehicle               Strategic position: remote and protected.                                    1.2.6     Launch missile (4)                                                                  (:30)
                                                                                                                                   For Multiple Targets
•                                          Carrier: tracked vehicle.                                                    1.2.2     Insert pre-launch data                                                                      (3:30)
•   1.1.1   Receive move order                                                                                          1.2.3     (Re)Orient launch platform                                                                       (1:00)

•   1.1.2   Drive to Location              Speed: Up to 70 kph over unimproved roads.                                   1.2.6     Launch missile (2)                                                                                   (:30)
                                                                                                                        1.2.2, 1.2.3 Insert data/Orient platform                                                                                    (4:30)
•                                          Swim Capability: 5 knots.                                                    1.2.6     Launch missile (3)                                                                                                 (:30)     (4:30)

•                                          Fuel Requirements: for 350 kilometers, cruising at 50 kph.                   1.2.2, 1.2.3 Insert data/Orient platform
                                                                                                                        1.2.6     Launch missile (4)                                          FA/A-14                                                          (:30)
•                                          Crew Provisions: Food and water for crew for 1 week.
•                                          Crew Protection: Against small arms fire to within 8 km of FLOT.
•   1.1.3   Extend Hydraulic Feet          Time: 5 minutes
•   1.1.4   Remove Missile Shrouds         Time: 1 minute
•   1.1.5   Start Electrical Generators    Time: 2 minutes
•   1.1.6   Establish Telecommunications   Time: 2 minutes
•   1.1.7   Hold Alert Conditions
•   1.2     Launch Missile                 Missile Parameters
             Functional Flow Block Diagram
                Traceability & Indenture


            6.0     5.0      3.0         2.0           1.0

                                   4.0
Top Level



             1.1     1.2           1.3                  1.6      1.7     2.6     2.8

1st Level                                                                2.7
                             1.4          1.5




                                                                         1.5.6   1.5.7
            1.4.1    1.4.2          1.4.3                1.4.6   1.4.7
2nd Level
                               1.4.4           1.4.5
                              Functional Flow Block
                               Diagram - Example

            Ref 1.6, Provide Guidance
                                                       Functional Title/Description
                        Summing
            Function
                          Gate        1.6.2
            Number                                                              Go Flow

1.3             1.6.1                                         1.6.5      G                  1.6.6
        &                    &                                                                         1.7.1
Ref                                      Parallel                                                       Ref
                                        Functions
                                      1.6.3                      G
                            OR
                                                                       1.6.7                           1.7.4.2
                                                                                      OR
                                         Alternative                                                    Ref
1.5.7                                    Functions
 Ref                                                                                       1.6.8
            Leader Note               1.6.4
                                                         No Go Flow
                             Sys.
                             Malf.                                    Ancillary Function



                                                                                              2nd Level
   Abbreviations/Notes:                                    Flow Level Designator           Functional Flow
     “&” / ”AND” Gate: Parallel Functions
     “OR” Gate: Alternate Functions                     Title Block & Diagram No.          Block Diagram
                                                                                              Format
                       Functional Flow Block
                            Diagram / 1
Function block:
Each function on diagram should be separate and be represented by single
   box (solid line).
Each function needs to stand for definite, finite, discrete action to be
   accomplished by system elements.
Function numbering:
Each level should have consistent number scheme and reflect function origin.
   (e.g. top level - 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, etc; first indenture (level 2) - 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, etc;
   second indenture (level 3) - 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 1.1.3, etc)
Functional reference:
Each diagram should contain a reference to other functional diagrams by
   using a functional reference (function # in brackets).
Flow connection:
Lines connecting functions should only indicate function flow and not a lapse
   in time or intermediate activity.
                     Functional Flow Block
                          Diagram / 2
Flow direction:
Diagrams should be laid out so that the flow direction is generally from left to
   right (top to bottom).
Summing gates:
A circle is used to denote a summing gate and is used when AND/OR is
   present. AND is used to indicate parallel functions and all conditions must
   be satisfied to proceed. OR is used to indicate that alternative paths can
   be satisfied to proceed (may be exclusive or inclusive).
GO and NO-GO paths:
G and bar G (G) are used to denote go and no-go conditions. These symbols
   are placed adjacent to lines leaving a particular function to indicate
   alternative paths.
                                 Timeline Analysis
           Function 3.1 Establish & M aintain Vehicle Readiness T-35 Hrs to T-2 Hrs

                   Function                                          Hours

Number                Name                        35 30 25 20 15 10        5         4         3    2

3.1.1    Provide Ground Power
3.1.2    Provide Vehicle Air Conditioning
3.1.3    Install & Connect Batteries                   2.5
3.1.4    Install Ordnance                                    7.5
3.1.5    Perform Voltage Checks & Connect Ordnance             2.5
3.1.6    Load Fuel Tanks                                             7.5
3.1.7    Load Oxidizer Tanks                                               7.5
3.1.8    Activate Guidance System                                              2.5
3.1.9    Establish Propulsion Flight Pressure                                            1.0
3.1.10   Telemetry System “On”                                                                           2.5
3.1.11   Perform Tracking/Range Safety Checks                                            0.5
3.1.12   Perform Vehicle Verification                                                              1.5
                                                      Timeline Sheet
 TIME LINE SHEET            FUNCTION                                                    LOCATION                        TYPE OF MAINTENANCE
                                            Launch Missiles

Function                                                                                     Time (minutes)
  No.                 Function Name                              5                 10                  15                    20               25
 1.1.3     Extend hydraulic feet                                   (5:00)
 1.1.4     Remove missile shrouds                                       (1:00)
 1.1.5     Start electrical generators                 (2:00)
 1.1.6     Establish telecommunications                (2:00)
 1.2.1     Receive firing orders                              (1:00)
 1.2.2     Insert pre-launch data                                        (3:30)
 1.2.3     Orient launch platform                                            (1:00)
 1.2.4     Elevate launcher                                                       (1:00)
 1.2.5     Crew moves to remote location                                              (2:00)
 1.2.6     Launch missile (1)                                                          (:30)
 1.2.6     Launch missile (2)                                                              (:30)
 1.2.6     Launch missile (3)                                                               (:30)
 1.2.6     Launch missile (4)                                                                  (:30)
            For Multiple Targets
 1.2.2     Insert pre-launch data                                                                      (3:30)
 1.2.3     (Re)Orient launch platform                                                                      (1:00)
 1.2.6     Launch missile (2)                                                                                   (:30)
 1.2.2, 1.2.3 Insert data/Orient platform                                                                                    (4:30)
 1.2.6     Launch missile (3)                                                                                                 (:30)   (4:30)
 1.2.2, 1.2.3 Insert data/Orient platform
 1.2.6     Launch missile (4)                                          FA/A-14                                                        (:30)
                    Requirements Allocation
                          Sheet (RAS)
Requirements          Functional Flow Diagram Title and No.                       Equipment
  Allocation          1.6.8 Provide Guidance Compartment                         Identification
    Sheet                            Cooling
Function Name      Functional Performance and Design               Facility   Nomen     CI or Item
   and No.                    Requirements                         Rqmnts     clature   Spec No.
1.6.8 Provide     The temperature in the guidance
Guidance          compartment must be maintained at the
Compartment       initial calibration temperature of +0.2 Deg F.
Cooling           The initial calibration temperature of the
                  compartment will be between 66.5 and 68.5
                  Deg F.
1.6.8.1 Provide   A storage capacity for 65 gal of chilled
Chilled Coolant   liquid coolant (deionized water) is required.                Tank      26-2764
(Primary)         The temperature of the stored coolant must
                  be monitored continuously. The stored
                  coolant must be maintained within a
                  temperature range of 40-50 Deg F. for an
                  indefinite period of time. The coolant
                  supplied must be free of obstructive
                  particles 0.5 micron at all times.
                           Requirements Allocation Sheet

Function Number & Name                      Performance Requirements / Constraints
1.0 Accomplish Mission
    1.1 Position Vehicle                    Strategic position: remote and protected.
                                            Carrier: tracked vehicle.
       1.1.1 Receive move order
       1.1.2 Drive to Location              Speed: Up to 70 kph over unimproved roads.
                                            Swim Capability: 5 knots.
                                            Fuel Requirements: for 350 kilometers, cruising at 50 kph.
                                            Crew Provisions: Food and water for crew for 1 week.
                                            Crew Protection: Against small arms fire to within 8 km of FLOT.
       1.1.3 Extend Hydraulic Feet          Time: 5 minutes
       1.1.4 Remove Missile Shrouds         Time: 1 minute
       1.1.5 Start Electrical Generators    Time: 2 minutes
       1.1.6 Establish Telecommunications   Time: 2 minutes
       1.1.7 Hold Alert Conditions
   1.2 Launch Missile                       Missile Parameters
                                            Range: 30-350 kilometers
                                            Weight: 2500 kg (Nuclear); 2700 kg (HE)
                                            Length: 8 meters
                                            Diameter: 0.8 meter (less fins)
                 Trace Requirements to
                 Functional Architecture
         FUNCTION:                  TRANSPORT


                       LOAD   START MOVE    STOP    UNLOAD
REQUIREMENT:
Transport personnel
 50 km in 90 minutes    X       X      X        X     X
Transport gear
                        X       X      X        X     X
Traverse sand
                                X      X        X
Traverse ice
                                X      X        X
Traverse snow                   X      X        X
                          Functional Architecture to
                            Physical Architecture
                                 BODY

FUNCTION             DOOR   SEATS HEATER COOLER   ENGINE WHEELS BRAKES RADIO

            LOAD
                      X      X
            START
                                                  X
TRANSPORT




            MOVE                                  X      X
            STOP
                                                   X     X       X
            UNLOAD
                      X     X
    COMMUNI-
    CATE
                                                                        X
     CONTROL
     TEMP.
                                   X      X
                  Summary

• Description of Functional analysis and
  allocation
• Differences between functional
  analysis, functional allocation, and
  functional architecture
• Common tools of FA/A

								
To top