"Nanoscience and Nanotechnology"
Nanoscience Nanotechnology What is it? What exactly is Nanoscience? What exactly is Nanotechnology? Are they Different? Vials of Quantum Dots NOTE: What follows is my view of these subjects What is Nanotechnology? The Space Elevator? Ultra high strength materials allow tower to be built into space !(?) What is Nanotechnology? Tiny machines in your body curing cancer? What is Nanotechnology? DNA Computers in a beaker that vastly outperform our fastest supercomputers? Well …. Sort of…. Not Really…. • Some of these amazing views of the future have a grain of reality in them • We’ll take a look at advances in –Materials science –Nanobiotech –Molecular computing Nanotechnology TECHNOLOGIES APPLICATIONS Nanomaterials Super fast/small computers Nanolithography Super strong materials Scanning Probe Super Slippery Materials Microscopy Tissue Engineering Self-Assembly Drug Delivery Sensors Materials Science: Nanomaterials Human Made Biologically Materials made materials Carbon Nanotubes Buckminster Fullerene C60 Smalley, Curl, Kroto. Nobel Prize The Forms of Carbon Diamond Buckyball Graphite Nanotube Graphein: (Greek) to write Carbon Nanotubes: Cylinders of Sheet Lattices Nanotubes have chirality Multiwall CNT=Nested tubes What’s the big deal about carbon nanotubes??? • Amazing Mechanical Properties • Amazing Electrical Properties: – Can be conductors or semiconductors – Could be the building block of nanocomputing Applications: Composite Materials nanotubes poking out of fractured edge of polymer composite Applications: Electronics Crossed Nanotube Junctions M. S. Fuhrer,1 J. Nyg.rd,1 L. Shih,1 M. Forero,1 Young-Gui Yoon,1 M. S. C. Mazzoni,1 Hyoung Joon Choi,2 Jisoon Ihm,2 Steven G. Louie,1 A. Zettl,1 Paul L. McEuen1 * 21 APRIL 2000 VOL 288 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org Applications: Field Emission 1 Samsung prototype carbon nanotube display Applications: Field Emission 2 Otto Zhou. UNC Physics Cold Cathode X-ray machine The potential advantages of the future CNT X-ray devices are fast response time, programmable xray intensity, programmable spatial distribution (Figure 3), ultra-fine focal spot, rapid pulsation capacity, long lifetime, low energy consumption, miniaturization, and low cost. Quantum Dots Myosin V/ Actin Motor Myosin V Molecular Motors Use ATP to do Mechanical Work Advanced Techniques • Scanning ProbeMicroscopy • Lithography Nanoguitar Craighead Group, Cornell Nano Electronics and Computing • Molecular Electronics • DNA computing How big is a Nanometer? 1 nm = 10-9 m 1 nm = 0.000000001 m 1 nm = 0.000001 mm Individual Hair on Scott’s head Scott Paulson, Nanoscientist 100,000nm What is Nano?? • Nano refers to the scale of nanometers. • This is the scale of molecules, proteins, and other nano-objects that are the topics of this course. How big is nano? • Nano means one billionth (x 10-9) • Written another way: x 0.000000001 • One nanometer equals 0.000000001 meters (or 0.000000003 feet) One Nanometer H H O H H N N O O One Nanometer Water (H20) DNA Small Protein One Nanometer Water (H20) Carbon Quantum Nanotube Dot What is matter made of? Atoms Molecules What are atoms ? How big are they? How well can we “see” them? • Atoms are roughly 2-5 Angstroms in dimension 2-5 * 10 -10 m ~1Ǻ Take a millimeter and divide it into 1000 parts: micron 10-6 m Take one micron and divide it into 1000 parts: nanometer 10-9 m Take one nanometer and divide in 10 parts: angstrom 10-10 m Atoms Protons Electrons electrical charge= +e electrical charge= -e Neutrons Bohr Model Electronic Orbitals: The wave mechanical model of atoms S-Orbital D-Orbital F-Orbital P-Orbital S-Orbital D-Orbital F-Orbital P-Orbital Galactic Scale Nano: The Middle Ground “Macroscopic” Scale “Microscopic” Scale Nanoscale Subatomic scale: Nuclear Physics atoms Partical Physics Molecular / Atomic Scale Nano: The Middle Ground ? ? ? What is Nanoscience? How is nanoscience different than •Chemistry •Biology •Physics What distinguishes nanoscience from other Eigler et al. NATURE 363, 1993 sciences? The study of nanometer scale things? DNA Carbon Nanotubes Water Isn’t this just Biology and Chemistry?? YES … and NO. Chemistry done in beakers (many billions of molecules) Nanoscience • Studying INDIVIDUAL nanometer scale things Observation Experiment/Manipulation Can Scientists really do this now? Don Eigler, IBM Iron atoms on a copper surface Atomic Manipulation Scanning Probe Tip Atom Handmaking Molecules! Wilson Ho UC, Irvine. Nanoscience vs. Nanotechnology Nanoscience: exploring and studying the properties of the nanoscale Applying the unique properties of the nanoscale to technology Why Nano now? What has enabled Nanoscience? An incomplete list . . . . • Advances in Computing Power • New Generation of Scientific Instruments Scanning Probe Microscopes Scanning Tunneling Mic. (STM) Very Sharp Tip scans over sample surface Atomic Force Mic. (AFM) Magnetic Force Mic. (MFM) Near Field Scanning Optical Mic. (NSOM) ATOMIC RESOLUTION Scanning Probe Mic: Sharp tip Sharp tip moves over Scanning surface and Probe Tip measures some property Sample Sample STM, Nobel Prize 1986 Binnig and Rohrer STM images, Examples http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/hillchem3/medialib/media_portfolio/07.html AFM images: Adenovirus Viral DNA Atsuko Negishi UNC Mat. Sci. Titin unfolding Titin http://www.ks.uiuc.edu/Research /smd_imd/titin/ Pulling Titin 2 Images and Manipulation of DNA ! Departmento Física de la Materia Condensada UAM Asylum Research