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									  Unlocking the Potential of WIA Training Services:
 Unlocking the Potential of WIA Training Services:
         The Key Questions to Ask…and Answer!
        The 5 7 Key Questions to Ask…and Answer
                                      A Workbook for Advocates and
                               Disability Customers Employment and
            A Workbook for theOne-Stop Community onwith Disabilities
        Skills Training Opportunities Under the Workforce Investment Act




         Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Workforce
       Investment & Employment Policy for Persons with Disabilities

                  Law, Health Policy & Disability Center
                    University of Iowa College of Law
                    http://disability.law.uiowa.edu/

Funded by the U.S. Department of Education, NIDRR Grant H133B980042-99.


    Unlocking the Potential of WIA Training Services:
2
      Unlocking the Potential of WIA Training Services:
             The 5 Key Questions to Ask…and Answer!
         A Workbook for the Disability Community on Employment and
     Skills Training Opportunities Under the Workforce Investment Act




INTRODUCTION                                                   7




               PART ONE:
               THE BASICS                                      11


CHAPTER 1      What (and Where) Are One-Stop Centers?          13
               Worksheet 1: The One-Stop and Workforce
               Investment Board in My Community                17

CHAPTER 2      What Services Do One-Stop Centers Offer?        21

               A. Sequential Services                          23
                 Worksheet 2A: The Sequential Services Rule    25

               B. Core Services                                27
                 Worksheet 2B: Core Services at the
                 One-Stop Center                               31

               C. Intensive Services                           33
                 Worksheet 2C: Intensive Services at the
                 One-Stop Center                               37

               D. Supportive Services                          41
                 Worksheet 2D: Supportive Services at the
                 One-Stop Center                               43




                                  3
            PART TWO:
            TRAINING SERVICES                                 47



CHAPTER 3   Who Is Eligible for Training?                     49

            A. Individuals With Skills & Qualifications
               to Successfully Participate in Training        50
              Worksheet 3A: Skills and Qualifications         53

            B. Individuals Who Have Chosen Training
               That Will Lead to Self-Sufficiency             55
              Worksheet 3B: Self-Sufficiency                  59

            C. Individuals Who Have Chosen Training in
               Demand Occupations OR Who Are Willing
               to Relocate                                    61
              Worksheet 3C: Demand Occupations                63

            D. Individuals Who Do Not Have Access
               to Other Public Funding for Training           65
              Worksheet 3D: Access to Other Training
              Funds                                           67

            E. Individuals Who Meet Additional
               Eligibility Rules Set by LWIBs                 69
              Worksheet 3E: Additional Eligibility Criteria   71

CHAPTER 4   What Training Services Does Your One-Stop
            Center Offer?                                     73

            A. Types of Training                              73
               Worksheet 4A: Training Services at the
               One-Stop                                       75




                                4
            B.   Individual Training Accounts                77
                 Worksheet 4B: Individual Training
                 Accounts (ITAs)                             81

            C.   Eligible Training Providers                 85
                 Worksheet 4C: Eligible Training Providers   87

            D.   When You Don’t Need Individual Training
                 Accounts to Get Training                    91
                 Worksheet 4D: Training Without ITAs         93




            PART THREE:
            NEXT STEPS


CHAPTER 5   Who Else Wants to Know How the One-Stops
            Are Doing on Training?                           95




APPENDIX    Complete set of Workbook Forms                   97




                                5
6
 Unlocking the Potential of WIA Training Services:
     The 5 Key Questions to Ask…and Answer!
      A Workbook for Advocates and Adults with Disabilities
        On Employment and Skills Training Opportunities



                           INTRODUCTION

T
      he Workforce Investment Act of 1998 formalized the creation of One-Stop
      Centers, the physical locations where individuals could access a wealth of
      employment, education and human services information, activities and
resources. People with disabilities that want to start or return to work, advance
their careers, or pursue entrepreneurial activities now have a broader range of
employment training opportunities through their local One-Stop Centers.

Getting all the information that‟s needed to make informed decisions and choices
about job and skills training services – and knowing what questions to ask in the
first place – can be challenging for individuals with disabilities and advocates
who may be dealing with the generic employment and training systems in their
states and communities for the first time. This Workbook is designed to make
that task easier.

The Workbook includes “fill-in-the-blank” worksheets that will facilitate
collecting the information needed to access WIA training services. Each
chapter‟s “Plain English” descriptions are followed by questions to guide readers
in gathering the specifics on training services and dollars. When completed, you
will have at your fingertips the details you need to make sure that people with
disabilities in your community can gain the skills they need to increase their
employment opportunities and access to good jobs, and ensure long-term self-
sufficiency, community participation and economic independence.

Each chapter includes Actions, stating the specific question(s) that must be
answered; Comments, background information and details on how the question
relates to accessing and utilizing training dollars; and Tips, additional guidance
on specific issues people with disabilities might face.

In addition, most chapters include a section on Resources, with links and
references to One-Stops and Workforce Investment Boards that have handled the
subject being covered in a competent, promising and/or innovative way.
We‟ve also included as a resource some of the official WIA rules. When checking
out how a particular Federal law is implemented in your community, it can be


                                         7
helpful to know exactly what that Federal law said. The Department of Labor
enforces the Workforce Investment Act and they have rules and regulations on
each of the topics covered in this Workbook. When you see numbers like this –
20 C.F.R. § 663.150 – that means the rule is printed in Volume 20 of the Code of
Federal Regulations in Section 663.150. For those of you who want all the
details, both the Workforce Investment Act statute and the WIA regulations are
available online at: www.doleta.gov/usworkforce/asp/act.cfm.

At the end of each section and chapter, you will find a Worksheet to fill out.
Some of the questions will be very easy to get answered. But some may take
some digging around and a ton of phone calls. Once you have a Worksheet filled
in, transfer all the information to the end of the Workbook (See Appendix). By
the time you finish all the Worksheets, you will have a completed resource guide
to employment and skills training services, completely personalized and tailored
to your One-Stop, community and State. Or, in the alternative, you‟ll have a real
good idea of what questions you need to be out there asking!

Before you start, many of you already know the basic WIA background and
administrative structure. But for those of you who don‟t, below are the basic
background points you should keep in mind throughout. Happy digging!



          The Workforce Investment Act of 1998 and
              Job Training Dollars and Services

                               ~ Key Facts ~


     The Federal government provides money to assist American workers in
      increasing their job-related skills, employment opportunities, and earnings
      through the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998.

     The money for these employment services and programs is made available
      through State and Local Workforce Investment Boards (SWIBs and
      LWIBS).

     The WIBs can make certain choices about how they implement parts of the
      Workforce Investment Act. This means it can be difficult to figure out the
      details of how these workforce policies and programs work in each state
      and locality because of all the variations the Federal law allows.

     People who want to know exactly what employment services and supports
      are available to them must go to the “one-stop” center in the community.


                                        8
   People with disabilities that need employment services or supports have
    historically gone to the state vocational rehabilitation (VR) agencies.
    The One-Stop Centers now offer employment services that can add to
    and/or complement what‟s available from VR.

   Since One-Stops are still relatively new and unfamiliar to many people, the
    disability community will have to be very proactive in most communities to
    find out all the relevant details:

            Where are the nearest One-Stops?
            Are they physically and programmatically accessible?
            What decisions have the State and Local Workforce Investment
             Boards made that affect people with disabilities?
            What are the specific services, programs and supports available?




                         Workforce Investment Act of 1998
                              U.S. Department of Labor



            State Workforce                               Local Workforce
                                  One-Stop Center
           Investment Board                              Investment Board
                 (LWIB)                                       (LWIB)



                                      Core
                  Support            Services
                  Services


                                     Intensive
                  Support            Services
                  Services


                                      Training
                  Support             Services
                  Services




                JOB


                                           9
 What many consider to be the most important services offered at One-Stop
  Centers are training services. Yet they are the least utilized and certainly
  least known of all the services the One-Stops offer – not many people seem to
  either know about One-Stop training resources or have accurate information
  about how to access the available training dollars.

 This means training money may be going unused in your local Workforce
  Investment Area. Even where training money is being spent, not much of it is
  being tapped by people with disabilities who want to start or return to work.

 WIA changed how people access job training and how states/localities pay for
  job training. It also changed the rules on who can provide the training. This
  means it’s a whole new ballgame for everyone … and there are still a lot of
  details to be worked out.

 Two important new terms/concepts – ITAs and ETPs:

            Most training is provided through Individual Training Accounts
             (ITAs), a voucher payment system.

            The entities providing the services are usually Eligible Training
             Providers (ETPs).

 Congress said that they wanted Individual Training Accounts to give people
  more choices and greater control over their career direction, training
  selections, and expenditure of funds.

 Knowledge is definitely power! The key to tapping into WIA training dollars,
  and eliminating or moving past existing barriers, is knowledge of two things:

            The Workforce Investment Act‟s guidelines and rules related to
             training services and

            The specific choices your state and locality has made related to the
             various training options WIA gives them.


       Once you’ve got this information, you’ve got the tools
         to ensure equal access to WIA training dollars.




                                        10
                         PART ONE:
                       THE BASICS



CHAPTER 1   What (and Where) are One-Stop
            Centers?




CHAPTER 2   What Services Do One-Stop
            Centers Offer?

                Core Services
                Intensive Services
                Training Services
                Supportive Services




                  11
12
                               CHAPTER 1
   What (and Where) are One-Stop Centers?



T
      he first step in accessing the job and skills training services available in your
      community is getting basic information about the nearest One-Stop Center.
      One-Stops are the physical locations where you can find the full array of
employment, training, educational and other human resource programs and
funding streams. Ideally, this system is supposed to result in “seamless” service
delivery that increases access to all the services and ultimately improves long-term
employment outcomes.

Each “local workforce area” must have at least one comprehensive One-Stop, a
“full service” center with all core services available at that one location. Additional
affiliated or satellite sites/centers have only some of the services available and
those sites are linked by computer to the comprehensive One-Stop. There are 1,932
One-Stop Centers and they are located in each of the 50 states, Washington D.C.,
Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.


A    ctions – Find the address and contact information for the comprehensive
     One-Stop nearest you. (If relevant, you may want to find the affiliated or
satellite One-Stops in your community.) Also find the address and contact
information for your State and Local Workforce Investment Boards (SWIBs and
LWIBs). They decide many of the rules and policies that One-Stops have to
follow, so you may need to contact them to find out information needed to
complete this Workbook.


C    omments – Finding the local One-Stop can be trickier than you might think
     since many One-Stops do not actually use the term “One-Stop” as part of
their name! One-Stop Centers often do not actually have the word “One-Stop” in
their names, which can make things difficult if you‟re trying to find it in your
local phone book. For example, in the State of Washington One-Stops are called
WorkSource Centers. In Louisiana they are Job Centers. Even within the same
state there may not be consistency – Northern Virginia has One-Stops with
different names, including the SkillSource Center, JobLink, and Employment
Center. Sometimes the best place to start is with your State employment
agency, but those names also vary: Louisiana Department of Labor, Virginia
Employment Commission, Wisconsin Department of Workforce Development,
and Michigan Department of Career Development.


                                          13
T   ips – If you have a computer, there are two easy ways to find the One-Stop(s)
    in your community:

       Go to www.servicelocator.org to either locate the nearest One-Stop or
        to link to your State‟s employment agency, which will in turn link you to
        all the One-Stops in your state; OR

       Go to www.doleta.gov/usworkforce/onestop/onestopmap.cfm and
        click on the U.S. map to go to your State‟s One-Stop Web Site.

If you don‟t have a computer, look in the State government pages of your phone
book (government pages are blue in most phone books) under “Employment.”
The State employment agency listed should ultimately help you find your local
One-Stop. To see an example of a Web site that is particularly helpful, go to
California‟s www.edd.ca.gov/ONE-STOP/osfile.pdf. It lists all California One-
Stops by county with information on each as to (1) whether it is a location is a
comprehensive, affiliated, specialized or kiosk One-Stop; (2) the operating hours;
and (3) the Web site address.

Once you locate the One-Stop, you should also find out whether it is physically
and programmatically accessible. Section 188 of the Workforce Investment Act
requires all One-Stop Centers and affiliated sites to provide physical,
communication, and program access for persons with disabilities. Find out
whether your One-Stop publicizes resources and the availability of
accommodations for customers with disabilities.

The resources below will help you address accessibility issues and provide
information on things One-Stops are proactively and creatively doing to address
the employment needs of people with disabilities.




                                        14
                              Resources


   The National Center on Workforce and Disability/Adult (NCWD)
    provides training, technical assistance, policy analysis, and information to
    improve access in the workforce development system. Go to
    www.onestops.info/. NCWD‟s areas of expertise include: Accommodations
    & assistive technology; developing employer relationships; helping
    customers find jobs; job-related support; legal requirements and
    guidelines; partnerships and funding; disability policy; and marketing and
    outreach.

   Department of Labor’s Work Incentive Grants (WIGs) – DOL‟s
    Employment and Training Administration awards Work Incentive Grants to
    public and private nonprofit organizations working with state or local
    workforce investment boards to improve access to and coordination of
    information, benefits, and services at One-Stops for people with
    disabilities.

    For more information on the WIGs and a list of grantees, go to:
    wdsc.doleta.gov/disability/htmldocs/wiggrants.htm.

   See how your One-Stop rates: One-Stop Accessibility: A Nationwide Survey
    of One-Stop Centers on Services for People with Disabilities (February 2002),
    done by the Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers
    University in New Jersey. Go to:
    www.heldrich.rutgers.edu/Resources/Publication/34/FINAL ACCESSIBILITY
    REPORT.doc.

   One-Stop Toolkit for Serving People with Disabilities – Descriptions
    of and links to resources and organizations that can provide background
    information, guidance, strategies, interpretation of legal rights,
    equipment and services related to including people with disabilities in
    the workforce development system. Go to:
    www.onestoptoolkit.org/tools.cfm.




                                      15
16
                      WORKSHEET 1
                The One-Stop and Workforce
             Investment Board in My Community



State:



State Employment Agency:



     Address:


     Phone (Voice):                     Phone (TTY):


     Web Site:


     Other Contact Info:



State Workforce Investment Board (SWIB):



     Address:


     Phone (Voice):                     Phone (TTY):


     Web Site:


     Other Contact Info:



                                   17
Town/City/Community:



Closest One-Stop Center:



      Address:



      Phone (Voice):                        Phone (TTY ):



      Web Site:



Important One-Stop Information

      Is This One-Stop a Comprehensive Center? If Not, Where is the Closest
      Comprehensive One-Stop?




      Hours:



      Is an Appointment Needed or Are “Walk-ins” OK?



      What are the Registration Procedures?




Copy this form for each additional One-Stop in your community.



                                       18
Town/City/Community:



Closest One-Stop Center:



      Address:



      Phone (Voice):                        Phone (TTY ):



      Web Site:



Important One-Stop Information

      Is This One-Stop a Comprehensive Center? If Not, Where is the Closest
      Comprehensive One-Stop?




      Hours:



      Is an Appointment Needed or Are “Walk-ins” OK?



      What are the Registration Procedures?




Copy this form for each additional One-Stop in your community.



                                       19
Is the One-Stop Fully Accessible? (Detail any disability-specific One-Stop
resources and/or programs.)




Local Workforce Investment Board (LWIB):



     Address:



     Phone (Voice):                        Phone (TTY):



     Web Site:



     Other Contact Info:



     When and Where Are Meetings of the LWIB Held?



     How Involved is the Disability Community with the LWIB?




                                      20
                               CHAPTER 2
         What Services Do One-Stops Offer?


      nce you find your local One-Stop, you need to find out exactly what services

O     and resources it offers. One-Stops must offer four types of services for
      adults – Core, Intensive, Training, and Supportive – and you need to know
about them all, even if your only interest is training.

Why? Because Federal rules say that you must use at least one Core Service
and one Intensive Service before you can participate in Training Services. It’s
called the “sequential services” requirement – you have to use the services in
sequence, meaning in that exact order. Supportive services can actually be used at
any time. They cover a range of things (including housing, transportation, and
child care) that you might need in order to participate in the Core, Intensive, and/or
Training Services.

You should also find out about your One-Stop’s registration procedures. Generally
Core Services that are informational and/or self-service do not require registration.
Those that involve One-Stop staff will probably require registration (mostly
meaning extra paperwork). Individuals always have to register for Intensive and
Training Services. The main purpose of registration is so that One-Stops can keep
track of their successes.

First, a little more on the sequential services rule and then on to the different types
of services . . .




                                          21
22
                     2A ~ Sequential Services


The sequential services rule is very straightforward – to get to Training Services
you must first use at least one Core Service and then at least one Intensive
Services. And in that exact order. It’s important to look at the sequential services
rule separately to make sure you don’t overlook any related policies a One-Stop
might use.


A   ction – Find out how One-Stop customers move on from Core Services and
    Intensive Services so that they can access Training Services in your One-
Stop Center. Also find out how long this can take.


C   omments – In order to receiving training services, a customer must first
    have used at least one core service and one intensive service and been
unsuccessful in obtaining or retaining employment despite use of these core and
intensive services. This means it‟s important to understand how customers in
your One-Stop move from one level of service to another.

There are no WIA or Department of Labor rules requiring a minimum amount of
time a person must participate in a core or intensive service before they move on.
The WIA rules also say there is no approved list of services that are prerequisites
to receiving training, such as extensive job searches.

      This means that technically an individual could come in to a One-Stop,
      have an assessment, prepare an Individual Employment Plan, and sign up
      for Training Services all in the same day.

But since Local Workforce Investment Boards (LWIBs) have the discretion and
the decision-making power to determine who can to move from Core to Intensive
to Training services, this rarely happens. Instead, some LWIBs have policies
where:

           Individuals must spend at least three weeks searching for a job and
            documenting their attempts at finding employment before being able
            to receive Training Services;

           Individuals must complete a certain number of tasks, such as
            documenting 12 unsuccessful job applications or five case
            management appointments, before moving to the next level of
            service; or



                                         23
            Individuals must use three types of Intensive Services before moving
             on to Training Services.

In some communities, the Still others facilitate certain “special populations”
moving straight to training services, knowing that this is the specific need.


T    ips – In developing local policies to implement sequential eligibility, LWIBs
     had to balance spreading limited funds among all the people who want
Training Services with making sure that people were not blocked from receiving
training for better jobs simply because they might be able to find low-wage
employment. Some LWIBs have handled that better than others, and you need
to find out how your One-Stops specific policies for moving sequentially through
the different service levels.

The number of activities required prior to eligibility for an ITA may have both
attrition and “creaming” effects, i.e., those with the greatest ability or resources
to complete the activities are most successful in accessing training. Advocates
and individuals with disabilities need to be vigilant in ensuring that these
requirements don‟t result in unintentional discrimination against individuals
based on disabilities.




                                         24
                            WORKSHEET 2A
                      The Sequential Services Rule




In your One-Stop, how does a customer move from Core Services to Intensive
Services? (Provide details. If the policy is in writing, you should attach a copy.)




List the specific assistance the One-Stop provides to help customers meet this
requirement?




                                         25
In your One-Stop, how does a customer move from Intensive Services to Training
Services?




List the specific assistance the One-Stop provides to help customers meet this
requirement?




How do Supportive Services offered by your One-Stop facilitate moving from one
level to another, particularly so that customers can successfully access Training
Services?




                                       26
                         2B ~ Core Services


Core Services are those services universally available to all adults who seek
employment assistance at a One-Stop. There are no additional eligibility criteria
and many of the Core Services are “self-serve” with no staff interaction or intake
procedures. Some Core Services require registration so that One-Stop’s can keep
relevant data on who is seeking and/or receiving services.



A   ction – Compile a detailed list of all the Core Services your One-Stop offers
    and information on how individuals can find out about each service.



C    omments – Remember, though, that many of the One-Stops don‟t actually
     use the term “core” (although some do). However, the resources and/or
self-service activities at One-Stops that fall into the “core” services category
typically include the following:

         Initial assessment of needs, abilities, and skill levels;

         Orientation to the self-service resources available;

         Job search and placement assistance;

         Labor market information and statistics for the local area, including job
          vacancies, job skills requirements, and information on occupations that
          are in demand;

         Assistance with eligibility for other Federal, State, or local programs;

         Staff assisted career counseling;

         Information on and referral to available supportive services (such as
          child care, transportation, or housing);

         Staff assisted job development;

         Informational workshops and job clubs; and

         Follow-up services to help obtain or maintain employment.




                                          27
T   ips – At first glance, some of these “services” may actually not seem very
    helpful if what you‟re looking for is specific skills training. For example, how
useful are labor market statistics if you want to know how to improve your
computer skills?

Well, they might actually be more useful than you would expect. Training must
be in “specific, demand occupations” and labor market information and statistics
can help you figure out which occupations those might be in your State or
community. So, it‟s good advice for individuals to use the core service that helps
them reach their training goals.

In addition, resume preparation and some of the general “career exploration”
classes One-Stops offer as Core Services can help prepare for the questions
people will get later on about why they want certain types of training.

To see how labor market information can be helpful, check out the following:

           Alabama‟s Comprehensive Labor Market Information System
            (ALCMIS) by going to www2.dir.state.al.us/default.HTM. Click on
            “Job Seeker” and go to the self-directed job search function. ACLMIS
            has specifics on state and local job markets, identifies likely
            employers, and profiles 664 occupations (job duties, wages,
            industries and employers, training and education, occupation
            profile, licensing requirements, and employment outlook).

            For example, in 2003 Alabama will have 1,225 openings for registered
            nurses, 380 openings for computer operators, and only 5 for film
            editors. Guess which of those three is a “demand occupation” in most
            parts of Alabama! Other excellent site features: it’s accessible (Bobby-
            approved) and in English and Spanish.

           The Workforce Center in Mankato, Minnesota has a number of Core
            Services for individuals that give an idea of how they can relate in a
            positive way to training: www.mnwfc.org/mankato/seekerser.htm.

                  Job Search Workshops – Free, four hour workshops that
                   include managing feelings with dealing with change, making
                   ends meet, goal setting, organizing a job search, where the
                   jobs are, identifying skills, resumes and cover letters, job
                   search tools, how employers hire, networking, and job
                   interview preparation.

                  Career Exploration – What if you want training but don‟t know
                   what kind or where to start? The Mankato One-Stop has
                   Choices CT, a self-help career exploration computer program


                                         28
                  that helps customers build a personalized “road map” to make
                  informed career decisions and “successfully navigate the new
                  world of work.”

Moving from Core to Intensive Services – The Federal guidelines for moving
from one level of service to the next are very general. It‟s actually your Local
Workforce Investment Board that generally decides the specific rules for moving
from one level of service to the next. For example, the St. Lawrence County One-
Stop Career Center in Canton, New York “Advancement Criteria” says that to
move from Core to Intensive Services, participants must satisfy the following
guidelines:

           The participant is unemployed and has received at least one Core
            Service as established by the Initial Assessment or the individual is
            unable to obtain employment through the Core Services provided and
            he/she has been determined to be in need of Intensive Services to
            obtain or retain employment; or

           The participant is employed and has received one Core Service but
            does not meet the locally defined standard for self-sufficiency and has
            been determined to be in need of Intensive Services to obtain/retain
            employment.

(Note: The self-sufficiency standard is discussed in more detail later in the
Workbook.)




                                        29
                                  CORE SERVICES
Federal regulations (20 CFR 663.150) say that at a minimum, all of the Core Services
listed below must be provided in each local area through the One-Stop system:

     1. Decisions about whether a person is eligible for services under WIA.

     2. Outreach, intake, and orientation to the information and services available.

     3. Initial assessment of skill levels, aptitudes, abilities, and supportive service needs.

     4. Job search and placement assistance, and if appropriate, career counseling.

     5. Employment information for local, regional, and national labor market areas:

               Job vacancy listings;
               Job skills needed to obtain the listed jobs; and
               Information on local occupations in demand, and the earnings and skill
                requirements for each of those occupations.

     6. Program performance and cost information on eligible providers of the following:

               Training services;
               Youth activities;
               Adult education;
               Postsecondary vocational education; and
               Vocational rehabilitation program activities.

     7. Performance information on the One-Stop delivery system in the local area.

     8. Information on the availability of supportive services, including available childcare
        and transportation, and referral to these services when appropriate.

     9. Information about filing claims for unemployment compensation.

     10. Assistance in applying for:

               Welfare-to-work activities in the local area; and
               Financial assistance for training and education programs not funded under
                WIA that are available in the local area.

     11. Follow-up services and job counseling for those who obtain work in unsubsidized
         employment, for at least 12 months after the first day of the employment.




                                            30
                       WORKSHEET 2B
             Core Services at the One-Stop Center




Name of One-Stop Center:

All Core Services Offered (Include detailed descriptions and information on
whether or not registration is required; attach additional sheets if necessary):




Are the Core Services listed in printed information at the One-Stop? On the One-
Stop‟s web site? Is the information available in any alternate formats? Give
details.




                                         31
Do “frontline” One-Stop staff know what customers are referring to when they
ask about Core Services? How did you check this out?




Additional information regarding Core Services at this One-Stop –




                                       32
                      2C ~ Intensive Services


Once you’ve completed a Core Service you cannot receive Training Services from
the One-Stop until you’ve also participated in at least one activity at the next level,
Intensive Services. As mentioned in the previous section, there are two categories
of adults who can receive Intensive Services:

       Adults who are unemployed, have received at least one Core Service and
        are unable to obtain employment through Core Services, and are
        determined by the One-Stop operator to be in need of more intensive
        services to obtain employment; and

       Adults who are employed, have received at least one Core Service, and
        need of intensive services to obtain or retain employment that leads to
        “self-sufficiency.”


A   ction – Compile a detailed list of all the Intensive Services your One-Stop
    offers and information on how an individual can find out about each service.


C  omments – Intensive Services are available for people who are unemployed
   and not able to find jobs through core services alone and for some employed
workers with low wages who are in need of intensive services to get a job:

         Comprehensive assessments of skill levels, e.g., diagnostic testing;
         Individual or group career counseling;
         Development of an individual employment plan;
         Short-term prevocational services;
         Out-of-area job search assistance and relocation assistance;
         “Basic” skills training (such as GED, language, math or computer
          skills);
         Work experience (e.g., a planned, structured learning experience in a for
          profit, nonprofit, or public sector workplace, for a limited period of time,
          paid or unpaid; and
         Internship assignments.

An individual must receive at least one Intensive Service before receiving Training
Services, such as individual counseling and career planning, or development of
an individual employment plan with a case manager [NOTE: The WIA rules define
an individual employment plan as an “ongoing strategy jointly developed by the
participant and the case manager that identifies the participant's employment



                                          33
goals, the appropriate achievement objectives, and the appropriate combination of
services for the participant to achieve the employment goals.”]

As with the Core Services, there is no requirement that individuals must
participate for a particular period of time in Intensive Services before receiving
Training Services.

What is the self-sufficiency standard? The WIA rules say that even if you
already have a job you can get Intensive Services IF you need them in order to
obtain or retain employment that leads to self-sufficiency.

Who defines “self-sufficiency?” This term will come up again in the Training
chapters, but it makes sense to review it here also since it can determine whether
or not an individual is eligible for Intensive Services.

WIA rules say that “at a minimum, [the One-Stop‟s self-sufficiency] criteria must
provide that self-sufficiency means employment that pays at least the lower living
standard income level, as defined in WIA [see the box at the right]…” The rules go on
to say “the special needs of individuals with disabilities or other barriers to
employment should be taken into account when setting criteria to determine
self-sufficiency.”

      The Department of Labor publishes the annual LLSIL each year in the
      Federal Register. Go to: wdsc.doleta.gov/llsil/llsil02.asp. On the next
      page we have a chart with the 2002 figures for families of one and four. (Go
      to the Web site for the dollar amounts for different family sizes.)

Most One-Stops will have a similar chart available if this is what they use to
determine self-sufficiency, but it can be hard to figure out what all the numbers
are really saying related to eligibility for training services.

      As a “plain English” example, what this means is that for customers who
      live in New York City, who want training services, the training they choose
      must lead to employment with a salary of $11,110. For a customer living
      in rural Mt. Morris, Illinois who wants training services, the training
      chosen by the individual must lead to employment with a salary of $9,680.

Not a tough standard to meet in terms of eligibility, although it‟s questionable
whether these are really salaries that will provide self-sufficiency.

Remember, though, that the LLSIL figures are the minimums states must set.
Some states use higher dollar amounts to determine self-sufficiency and some
use different methods (other than the LLSIL) to come up with a definition of self-
sufficiency. (See the Training chapter for additional ways states have done this.)




                                         34
        2002 Lower Living Standard Income Level (By Region)

           Region                 Family of 1                 Family of 4
NORTHEAST

(CT, ME, MA, NH, NJ, NY, PA,
RI, VT)

  Metro (Urban)                      $11,110                     $30,850
  Non-Metro                          $10,930                     $30,350
MIDWEST

(IL, IN, IA, KS, MI, MN, MO,
NE, ND, OH, SD, WI)

  Metro                           $10,320                        $28,640
  Non-Metro                       $ 9,680                        $26,870
SOUTH

(AL, AR, DE, DC, FL, FL, GA,
KY, LA, OK, SC, MD, MS, NC,
TN, TX, VA, WV)

  Metro                              $ 9,690                     $26,900
  Non-Metro                          $ 9,140                     $25,380
WEST

(AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NV, NM,
OR, UT, WA, WY)

  Metro
                                  $11,160                        $30,990
  Non-Metro
                                  $10,800                        $29,980




T    ips – First (and by now this shouldn‟t be a surprise), the term “Intensive
     Services” is not used by all One-Stops, so you may have to do some digging
to find exactly which services at your One-Stop have this label. For One-Stops
that make it clear which services are “Intensive” (which is helpful given that you
have to have one before you can get Training) check out these:

          The St. Lawrence County (Canton, New York) One-Stop Web Site at
           www.slconestop.com/is/intensive.html. At “Individual Services”




                                        35
         click on Intensive Services where you‟ll find a clear and comprehensive
         list of what kinds of Intensive Services are offered.

        At the New Mexico Workforce Connection Web site at
         www.jobs.state.nm.us/assistance.asp, One-Stop services are first
         listed by more familiar terms rather than WIA terminology: Career
         Services, Job Seeker Services, Education, Financial Services,
         Community, Labor Market, Unemployment, Youth, and Staff-Provided
         Services. Once you click onto “Staff-Provided” you‟ll see the familiar
         terms Core, Intensive and Training.

Second, it‟s very important to remember that One-Stops with limited funds for
Intensive Services must give priority to individuals receiving public assistance
through cash benefits (which includes SSI benefits) and other low-income
individuals, defined in the WIA rules as those who have income under the
Federal poverty standard or under 70 % of the “living standard” income level,
whichever is higher. In 2002, this roughly translates to a range of $25,000 to
$31,000 for a family of four, depending on where you live. Note that adults with
disabilities who individually meet the income limits will qualify, even if their
combined family income exceeds the limits.

Moving from Intensive to Training Services - Again, to move on to
Training Services, participants have to deal with some additional rules. It‟s
important that your One-Stop provide guidance on this. Again, look at the St.
Lawrence County One-Stop in New York – their “Advancement Criteria” is clearly
worded, and available (and very visible) on their Web site:
                       www.slconestop.com/is/intensive.html.

In order to advance from Intensive to Training Services, participants must:

        Have met the eligibility requirements for Intensive Services, have
         received at least one Intensive Service and have been determined to be
         unable to obtain or retain employment through such services; and

        After an interview, evaluation or assessment, and case management,
         have been determined to be in need of training services and to have the
         skills and qualifications to successfully complete the selected training
         program; and

        Select a program of training services that is directly linked to the
         employment opportunities either in the local area or another area to
         which the individual is willing to relocate; and

        Be unable to obtain grant assistance from other sources to pay the cost
         of such training.



                                       36
                          WORKSHEET 2C
                 Intensive Services at the One-Stop



Name of One-Stop Center:




All Intensive Services Offered (Include Descriptions):




                                        37
Are the available Intensive Services listed in printed information at the One-
Stop? On the One-Stop‟s web site? Is the information available in any alternate
formats? Give details.




Do “frontline” One-Stop staff know what customers are referring to when they
ask about available Intensive Services? Give details.




                                      38
Does your One-Stop have limited funds for Intensive Services? Detail the source
of information.




If funds are limited, is the One-Stop giving priority to low-income people?
How did you find this out? (e.g., Does the One-Stop publicize this information in
any way?)




                                       39
What definition of “low income” is the One-Stop using?




                                      40
                    2D ~ Supportive Services


Before going on to Training Services, a few words about services that individuals
can use at any step of the way – Supportive Services. WIA defines these as
services One-Stop customers need in order to participate in any of the Core,
Intensive and/or Training services.


A   ction – Compile a detailed list of all the Supportive Services your One-Stop
    offers and information on how an individual can find out about each service.


C   omments – Funds allocated to a local One-Stop may also be used to provide
    Supportive Services for individuals who are utilizing Core, Intensive, or
Training Services if they are unable to obtain such services through other
programs. They include the following:

         Transportation;
         Child care
         Dependent care
         Housing; and
         Needs-related payments, providing financial assistance to participants
          so they can participate in training activities.

Some states also help people access consumer and credit counseling, health
care, accommodations, and energy and utility assistance.


T   ips – Remember, one of the Core Services at One-Stops is information about
    Supportive Services. Local Workforce Investment Boards are also supposed
to develop Supportive Services policies that ensure service coordination in the
local area and provide procedures for referrals. The LWIBs may establish limits
on Supportive Services (including guidelines for exceptions to those limits on a
case-by-case basis) or give One-Stops the authority to establish limits, including
a maximum amount of funding and maximum length of time the Supportive
Services are available to participants.

On some One-Stop Web sites you have to really search to find Supportive
Services. Sometimes individual services are listed (such as links to “Child Care”)
but not the whole range of Supportive Services. There are States that explain the
range of Supportive Services as well as their purpose in easy-to-read and
understand language. For example, the Minnesota Workforce Center in Bemidji
puts it like this: “Sometimes barriers occur for persons going to school or seeking
employment. Financial help for childcare, emergency car repairs, clothing or travel


                                        41
can help smooth the way to a training or employment goal. When paying the
tuition costs for an individual in a training program, we can also pay for necessary
test or certification fees…”

One of the most important (but least known) supportive services One-Stops can
offer is “needs related payments.” The allowable payment level is set by the State
or Local Workforce Investment Board, which means you will probably have to
contact your SWIB or LWIB to get the information. There‟s a huge range in what
states and localities do in this area. For example, this is from the 2001-2002
Workforce Investment Board in West Virginia‟s Region IV: Due to limited WIA
funding, the Board will not authorize the payment of any needs-related payment to
any customer at this time. The Board will readdress this policy should funding
become available and/or when it can be determined customers cannot receive
training services due to non-availability of needs-related payments.

Now take a look at the Needs-Related Payment Policy from the New River,
Virginia Workforce Investment Board:

      Federal regulations provide that payments based on need (Needs Related
      Payments) may be provided to adults and dislocated workers who are
      unemployed and who cease to qualify for unemployment compensation. The
      purpose of these payments is to enable these individuals to participate in
      training programs under the WIA…. The Needs Related Payment Policy for
      adults is designed to provide payments to participants based upon
      individual documented need to enable the participant to participate in
      training. To be eligible to received needs related payments, an adult
      participant must have a documented need… The maximum needs related
      payment allowable for an adult participant is $125 per week. The minimum
      needs related payment allowed for an adult participant is $50 per week.

When looking into available Supportive Services, be sure to get as much detail as
possible (limits, preconditions, descriptions, etc.). For example, don‟t just write
down “Transportation” on the Worksheet. Pull together the detail so you can
share how the service really works. For example, here are some relevant
transportation details from the Workforce Development Board of Flagler and
Volusia Counties in Florida: Transportation will be provided in the form of a
gas card or bus passes. When issuing gas cards to customers, the case
manager will ensure that the expenditure is justified… A copy of the gas
card or bus pass will be made a part of the client desk file. The customer
will sign the gas log or bus log at the time of receipt of each gas card or
bus pass…

The more details you find the better – partly because you‟ll need to identify the
gaps in Supportive Services for people with disabilities.




                                         42
                        WORKSHEET 2D
               Supportive Services at the One-Stop




What Supportive Services does your One-Stop offer? Describe in detail and
attach any relevant information.




Does your Local Workforce Investment Board (LWIB) and/or One-Stop routinely
provide information to customers about Supportive Services as one of its Core
Services? If so, how?




                                      43
What are the LWIB‟s guidelines for how a One-Stop decides when Supportive
Services are necessary? What are the related policies for service coordination
and referrals? (Attach copies of any relevant policies.)




Has your LWIB established limits on Supportive Services or has it given the One-
Stops the authority to establish limits? What are those limits?




                                       44
What guidelines do your One-Stop use to decide the level of needs-related
payments? Are they publicized in any way?




How frequently does your One-Stop utilize and/or authorize Supportive Services?




                                       45
How frequently does your One-Stop utilize and/or authorize Needs-Related
Payments?




Any additional information on Supportive Services?




                                      46
                            PART
       2D ~ Sequential Services Rule:     TWO:
               A Final Word
             TRAINING SERVICES




CHAPTER 3       Who is Eligible for Training?

                       Skills and Qualifications
                       Self-Sufficiency
                       Demand Occupations
                       Public Funding
                       Additional Eligibility Rules


CHAPTER 4   Training Services at the One-Stop
            Centers

                       Types of Training Services
                       Individual Training Accounts
                       Eligible Training Providers
                       When You Don’t Need ITAs
                        To Get Training




                        47
48
                             CHAPTER 3
              Who Is Eligible for Training?



I ndividuals who use at least one core service and one intensive service at a
   One-Stop have met WIA‟s “sequential” services requirement for training.
However, to actually receive training services, One-Stop customers must meet
four additional requirements. They must:

      A.    Have the skills and qualifications to participate in the training
            services,

      B.    Choose training that will lead to self-sufficiency,

      C.    Choose training linked to “demand” occupations in the local area
            (OR linked to “demand” occupations in another area and they are
            willing to relocate), and

      D.    Not have other public funding available for the training.

This chapter, in Sections A – D, discusses each of these additional requirements
and details what answers you should get from your One-Stop so that customers
with disabilities will have the information they need to pursue training
opportunities. In addition, Section E explains why some Local Workforce
Investment Boards have added on even more eligibility criteria.

Although these may seem like a lot of additional hurdles, most One-Stops guide
customers through these requirements fairly quickly and almost at the same
time. Also, many customers will have already discussed with One-Stop their
training and employment goals at this point, and may have had an assessment
or developed an employment plan that addresses each of these requirements.




                                        49
   3A ~ Individuals With the Skills & Qualifications
         to Successfully Participate in Training


After individuals have used at least one Core and one Intensive service, and still
would like to receive some type of Training services, One-Stops must next decide if
they have the skills and qualifications to successfully participate in the selected
program of training services. Local One-Stops usually make this determination
after an interview, evaluation, or assessment and “case management” (a term
many of us in the disability community don’t like but which WIA uses to describe
the process of customers and One-Stop staff working at the employment plan
together). This means that eligibility for training services is affected greatly by the
significant discretion that staff members have in determining which customers
have the skills and qualifications to succeed in the training.


A   ction – Find out how your One-Stop defines and implements the skills and
    qualifications requirement. There are two key things you need to check:

         First, find out whether your One-Stop and/or Local Workforce
          Investment Board has any specific, written guidelines regarding skills
          and qualifications for training.
         In addition, find out what you can about any stereotypes One-Stop staff
          may have about the types of work customers with disabilities can do.
          This may require ongoing discussions with – and education of – One-
          Stop staff responsible for approving the skills and qualifications about
          how to avoid stereotyping (consciously or unconsciously) on the basis of
          any disability or diagnosis.


C   omments – Despite a diligent search, it was impossible to find a One-Stop or
    Local Workforce Investment Board that had special instructions and/or
guidance for this eligibility step. That doesn’t mean you shouldn’t ask.
We’re sure they’re out there somewhere! The biggest issue to keep an eye on
is how One-Stop case managers or other staffers make this determination. It is
important they don‟t decide for customers with disabilities what occupations they
do and do not have the skills to pursue.

When the WIA rules were published in final form, the Department of Labor (DOL)
said they had received numerous comments about how the eligibility criteria for
training would affect individuals with disabilities. People that sent in comments
were particularly concerned about the requirement that eligible individuals must
be found to have the skills and qualifications to successfully participate in the
selected program of training services.


                                          50
This concern is important, and response from DOL is worth knowing and
hanging on to – The agency said that although it would be “inappropriate to
enroll any individual, whether or
not they are disabled, into training
programs for which they did not                  Who Can Receive
have the skills to be successful,”              Training Services?
One-Stops need to be careful not to
“stereotype persons with barriers to    Federal rules at 20 CFR § 663.310 say that
employment, including disabilities,     training services must be made available
                                        to employed and unemployed adults who:
when evaluating their skills,
abilities, interests, and needs.” The       (a) Have met the eligibility require-
DOL comments continue, saying:                  ments for intensive services, have
                                                  received at least one intensive
Occasionally, some question may                   service…and have been determined
arise as to whether a particular                  to be unable to obtain or retain
individual – such as a person with                employment through such services;
disabilities – has the capacity to be
                                               (b) After an interview, evaluation, or
successful in a given training                     assessment, and case management,
program, taking into consideration                 have been determined by a One-
the availability of reasonable                     Stop operator or One-Stop partner,
accommodation or modification                      to be in need of training services
[under Federal law].                               and to have the skills and quali-
                                                   fications to successfully complete
An advantage of the One-Stop                       the selected training program;
service delivery structure is that
                                               (c) Select a program of training services
partner agencies with specialized                  that is directly linked to employ-
expertise will be available, when                  ment opportunities either in the
necessary, to assist with                          local area or in another area to
determinations as to what training                 which the individual is willing to
may fall within a particular                       relocate;
individual's skills and qualifications.
We encourage One-Stop operators                (d) Are unable to obtain grant
                                                   assistance from other sources to
and staff to take advantage of the
                                                   pay the costs of such training,
unique expertise of these partners                 including…Welfare-to-Work, State-
when serving individuals with                      funded training funds, … and
special needs.                                     Federal Pell Grants…or [they]
                                                   require WIA assistance in addition
We also note that individuals with a               to other sources of grant
disability, or any others, who feel                assistance…; and
they have been improperly assessed
                                          (e) …[A]re determined eligible in
by One-Stop staff regarding their
                                              accordance with the State and local
skills and qualifications may appeal          priority system, if any…
the decision using the appropriate
local grievance or complaints
procedures established in accordance with WIA…An individual who feels that


                                          51
he/she has been discriminated against because of his/her disability may file a
complaint in accordance with procedures for processing discrimination
complaints…

Remember, the important question to ask your One-Stop is whether relevant
One-Stop staff, when deciding whether customers with disabilities have the skills
and qualifications to successfully complete training programs, know about and
consider the following:
         The existence and availability of accommodations, supplementary aids
          and/or services that could make it possible for customers to meet this
          criteria; and
         The right of individuals to receive accommodations, aids and services to
          satisfy the “skills and qualifications” criteria.


T   ips – As mentioned above, we didn‟t find any examples of State or Local
    Workforce Investment Boards, or individual One-Stops, that have good
written guidelines on skills and qualifications used by One-Stops. If you find
some, let us know!

We do, however, have additional information for you about discrimination
complaints. Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements and
procedures, including complaint processing and compliance reviews, are
governed by the DOL regulations implementing Section 188 of the Workforce
Investment Act, and are administered and enforced by the DOL Civil Rights
Center. (If you want more information on the Section 188 nondiscrimination
rules, see the relevant materials in Appendix.)

Based on these regulations, State and Local Workforce Investment Boards have
developed guidance for One-Stops on making sure they are not discriminating on
the basis of disability and implementing policies for handling discrimination
complaints. Based on the DOL remarks above, you should have on hand a copy
of your One-Stop‟s procedures for processing discrimination complaints just in
case there is a problem at this point in the eligibility process. For two examples
of how states have written up guidance for customers and the One-Stops on their
policies for handling discrimination complaints, see:

     Idaho at www.jobservice.us/wia1/tags/complaintprocedurestag.doc
     New Mexico at www.wia.state.nm.us/WIA_EO.html




                                        52
                        WORKSHEET 3A
                     Skills & Qualifications


Does your One-Stop have any specific criteria and/or definitions it uses when
determining if an individual has the skills and qualifications to successfully
pursue training? If so, describe.




Does your One-Stop have specific guidelines for providing reasonable
accommodations for individuals with disabilities who want to pursue training
opportunities? If so, summarize the types of accommodations that can be
provided and/or attach the policy.




                                       53
Has your One-Stop staff and/or Local Workforce Investment Board participated
in any disability trainings that address the issue of stereotyping?




What process does your One-Stop have for processing discrimination
complaints? Where is it published/available?




                                     54
        3B ~ Individuals Who Have Chosen Training
             That Will Lead to Self-Sufficiency


The second eligibility guideline individuals must meet in order to qualify for
training services is that they must want training that will lead to “self-sufficiency.”
Self-sufficiency is defined in a general way in the WIA statute and regulations.
However, it is the State or Local Workforce Investment Board that designs the
details of the self-sufficiency guideline and the One-Stop staff that makes the
actual determination. (Note: Although the self-sufficiency information is also
covered in Chapter 2 because it relates to Intensive Services, we’re going to repeat
parts of it here.)


A   ction – Find out the exact self-sufficiency standard that your One-Stop uses
    for the current year.


C    omments – There are a couple definitions here that are important, although
     this can start to sound too technical. WIA rules say that “at a minimum, [the
One-Stop‟s self-sufficiency] criteria must provide
that self-sufficiency means employment that          From WIA, Section
pays at least the lower living standard income       101(24): “The term„ lower
level, as defined in WIA [see the box at the         living standard income
right]…” The rules go on to say “the special         level‟ means that income
needs of individuals with disabilities or            level (adjusted for
other barriers to employment should be               regional, metropolitan,
taken into account when setting criteria to          urban, and rural
determine self-sufficiency.”                         differences and family
                                                        size) determined annually
The Department of Labor publishes the annual            by the Secretary [of Labor]
                                                        based on the most recent
LLSIL each year in the Federal Register. Go to:
                                                        lower living family budget
wdsc.doleta.gov/llsil/llsil02.asp. On the next          issued by the Secretary.”
page we have a chart with the 2002 figures for
families of one and four. (Go to the Web site for the dollar amounts for different
family sizes.)

Most One-Stops will have a similar chart available if this is what they use to
determine self-sufficiency, but it can be hard to figure out what all the numbers
are really saying related to eligibility for training services. As a “plain English”
example, what it means is that for a customer who wants training services living
in New York City, the training desired must lead to employment with a salary of
$11,110. For a customer who wants training services living in rural Mt. Morris,
Illinois, the training chosen by the individual must lead to employment with a


                                          55
salary of $9,680. Not a tough standard to meet in terms of eligibility, although
it‟s questionable whether these are really salaries that will provide self-
sufficiency!



              2002 Lower Living Standard Income Level
                            (By Region)

          Region                   Family of 1                Family of 4

NORTHEAST
(CT, ME, MA, NH, NJ,
NY, PA, RI, VT)
  Metro (Urban)                      $11,110                    $30,850
  Non-Metro                          $10,930                    $30,350

MIDWEST
(IL, IN, IA, KS, MI, MN,
MO, NE, ND, OH, SD, WI)
  Metro                             $10,320                     $28,640
  Non-Metro                         $ 9,680                     $26,870

SOUTH
(AL, AR, DE, DC, FL, FL,
GA, KY, LA, OK, SC, MD,
MS, NC, TN, TX, VA, WV)
  Metro                              $ 9,690                    $26,900
  Non-Metro                          $ 9,140                    $25,380
WEST
(AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NV,
NM, OR, UT, WA, WY)
  Metro
  Non-Metro                         $11,160                     $30,990
                                    $10,800                     $29,980




                                        56
Remember, though, that the LLSIL figures are the minimums states must set.
Some states use higher dollar amounts to determine self-sufficiency and some
use different methods (other than the LLSIL) to come up with a definition of self-
sufficiency. For example, the Northeast Missouri Workforce Investment Board,
Inc. has a self-sufficiency definition that reads as follows:

      Family and individual “self-sufficiency” will vary depending on each individual
      situation. There is no real method for measuring the level of self-sufficiency
      attained by each customer participating in the workforce investment system.
      However we do know that increased knowledge and skills of an individual will
      aid in the process of moving them from their current situation to a level of self-
      sufficiency…. Consideration will be given to those with special needs such as
      individuals with disabilities or other barriers to employment when setting
      criteria to determine self-sufficiency. LLSIL is a floor to measure whether a job
      leads to self-sufficiency, and State and Local areas have broad discretion to set
      a standard above that floor.


T   ips – Be sure to find out whether or not your One-Stop and/or LWIB has any
    specific rules for people with disabilities and self-sufficiency, such as taking
into consideration additional costs related to personal care attendants or
assistive technology.

For additional ideas on how a State or Local Workforce Investment Board can
decide on a self-sufficiency standard, check out the Santa Cruz, California the
Local Workforce Investment Board. They use the Self-Sufficiency Standard
developed by an organization called Wider Opportunities for Women (WOW).

WOW determines the how much income working adults need to meet their basic
needs without subsidies of any kind. Unlike the federal poverty standard, this
self-sufficiency standard accounts for more variations in the costs of living and
working, family size and composition, and geographic location (it‟s calculated for
each county in California). The standard is available at the Six Strategies for
Family Economic Self-Sufficiency Web site at www.sixstrategies.org. Other
Local Workforce Investment Boards that have adopted this standard are the
Chicago, Philadelphia and Washington, D.C.




                                         57
                             SPOTLIGHT
                      On the Family Economic
                      Self-Sufficiency Project


The Family Economic Self-Sufficiency Project (at www.sixstrategies.org), the
group responsible for the development of the self-sufficiency standard mentioned
above, is worth a look from the disability community. Started in 1996, the
Project was a partnership between Wider Opportunities for Women, the
Corporation for Enterprise Development, the Ms. Foundation for Women, and the
National Economic Development and Law Center.

The original mission was to provide resources and technical assistance to
community-based advocates and states on human resource investment policies.
The four national organizations worked with state and local partners to build and
strengthen the capacity of coalitions to gain state support for six specific
strategies designed to improve the chances for self-sufficiency for low-income
families. These strategies are:

       Adopting a Self-Sufficiency Standard to measure how much income is
        needed to “make ends meet” and to assess the success of employment
        and training programs;

       Targeting higher-wage employment in the development and design of
        education, employment and training programs;

       Improving the success of adult education programs by integrating
        literacy and basic skills programs with occupational skills and family
        support programs;

       Increasing and improving access by low-income women to
        nontraditional training and employment;

       Training and support for microenterprise development; and

       Supporting the creation of individual development accounts, matched
        savings accounts leading to home ownership, higher education, and
        small business opportunities.

You can link to the Web sites of the active state family economic self-sufficiency
coalitions by going to www.sixstrategies.org/states/states.cfm.




                                        58
                          WORKSHEET 3B
                          Self-Sufficiency



What is the self-sufficiency definition used by your One-Stop and/or Local
Workforce Investment Board?




If your One-Stop uses the Lower Living Standard Income Level and/or the
Federal poverty amounts published by the Federal government, attach the chart
of the dollar amounts for the current year.




                                       59
What guidance and/or printed information, if any, does One-Stop staff use in
order to ensure that individuals understand the self-sufficiency eligibility rule?




Does your state have a state family self-sufficiency coalition? (Check the
www.sixstrategies.org/states/states.cfm Web site mentioned above) If so, is your
local and/or state disability community involved with their employment-related
efforts?




Any additional information regarding self-sufficiency guidelines?




                                         60
      3C ~ Individuals Who Have Chosen Training in
       Demand Occupations in the Local Economy
             OR Who Are Willing to Relocate


The Workforce Investment Act says that only individuals who are pursuing
demand occupations will receive training services. Limiting the use of training
services in that way is one of the ways WIA indicates its responsiveness to the
interests and needs of employers. Although the law emphasizes customer choice
throughout, the overarching goal is to strengthen the nation’s economy. This
means that the needs of the business community are vital and in some ways
dictate the employment and training choices for customers.


A   ction – Find a copy your One-Stop‟s “Demand Occupation” list and note
    how often it‟s updated.


C   omments – The Local Workforce Investment Board decides which
    occupations have a high potential for sustained growth. All LWIBs must
create and maintain a list of these occupations, generally in collaboration with
the State employment agency and their labor market information.

If individuals are interested in pursuing occupations that are not in demand in
their locality, but are in another community or state, the One-Stop can support
their relocation to pursue training. States have authority to create specific
policies regarding relocation. Here‟s the New Jersey State Workforce Investment
Board‟s guidance in this area:

      In cases where the client is seeking to enroll in a training program that is not
      in demand in the local WIB area but is in demand in another area, the
      counselor may approve such training if the client attests to his or her intent
      to accept employment in the area in which the program is in demand. In
      such a situation the client should prepare and sign an affidavit indicating a
      willingness to accept such employment.

Many states offer relocation allowances in addition to the other One-Stop
services, and the Department of Labor even has a Relocation Center on its Career
One Stop Web site (with a link where you can compare wages in different
metropolitan areas). Go to:
demo.careeronestop.org/RELOCATION/RelocationCenterHome.asp.




                                         61
Tips – The list of “demand” occupations for a particular area is usually only
updated once a year. If individuals want to pursue training in occupations that
are not on the current demand occupation list, they shouldn’t give up. Many
states have developed policies that try to balance customer choice with the
“demand occupation” requirement. For example, the New Jersey State WIB has
the following policy:

      If the counselor and client agree on a training program for an occupation, which
      is listed in A Guide to Labor Demand Occupations… no action by the WIB is
      necessary. If the client wishes to be trained for an occupation for which the
      training is not deemed to be “in demand” in the designated WIB area, then the
      counselor and/or the WIB, if it believes the training is appropriate, may
              initiate a request to have the program added to the demand list for the
      WIB area….

While gathering the basic information for the Worksheet, you may also want to
keep these questions in mind for future reference:

         Does responding to employer demand contradict customer choice?

         How can these two goals be coordinated and harmonized?

         Does your Local Workforce Investment Board focused only on a limited
          range of occupational skill needs or are they open to diverse and
          emerging needs?

The answers may not be clear-cut but they are good topics to discuss with your
One-Stop and Local Workforce Investment Board. As the answers evolve, you
can include them on your Worksheet.




                                        62
                           WORKSHEET 3C
                         Demand Occupations


What are the current “demand” occupations in your area? How did your Local
Workforce Investment Board determine which occupations are on the “demand”
occupation list? Provide relevant Internet links and attach any written guidance.




How often is the demand occupation list updated?




What procedures are in place for the One-Stop if a customer desires training in
an area that is not designated a “demand” occupation?




                                       63
Provide any relevant information your One-Stop uses concerning the possibility
of relocating to pursue a demand occupation, including available relocation
allowances.




How does the One-Stop publicize this information?




How many individuals have relocated under this policy?




                                      64
   3D ~ Individuals Who Do Not Have Access to Other
              Public Funding for Training


If an individual has access to other public funds for training, the One-Stop can
decide the person is not eligible for WIA training dollars. The goal is actually to
make sure that all possible funding sources are coordinated for individuals who
need and/or want employment or skills training. This is particularly important for
people with disabilities who may also be able to access funding from the State
vocational rehabilitation agency.


A   ction – Find out the guidelines your One-Stop has for deciding whether or
    not individuals are able to access other forms of funding for the training
they‟ve requested and whether or not the One-Stop and LWIB have policies for
coordinating funding opportunities.


C   omments – The Federal WIA rules say that training funds must be
    coordinated with other sources of funding for training, such as Pell grants or
vocational rehabilitation (VR) funds. Because many One-Stops refer to WIA
dollars as the “funding of last resort” for training, they may miss the incentives
and opportunities these dollars provide as a link to other training resources.
One-Stops and Local Workforce Investment Boards that coordinate their training
funds greatly maximize the dollars and support long-term training and lifelong
learning.

One Stops and LWIBs must understand the full range of resources available for
training if they are going to coordinate these funds and not just routinely deny
training on the basis that other funds might be available. This is particularly true
for individuals with disabilities who One-Stops may be inclined to just refer to
vocational rehabilitation.


T
    ips – The list of possible sources for training dollars is actually fairly
    extensive and diverse – and can seem intimidating: Pell grants; Trade
    Adjustment Assistance funds; State programs; Privately funded training,
such as bargained training funds; Welfare-to-Work; Housing and Urban
Development (HUD), Community Development Block grants; and Funding from
the U.S. Commerce Department's Economic Development Administration.

Coordinating these funds can be a complex task for One-Stop staff. However,
rather than dismissing these sources of funding as one big mass of confusion,
One-Stop and LWIBs (and the disability community) need to understand the



                                        65
                                                 scope of the available resources,
   Coordination of WIA Training                  aggressively pursue them for their
   Funds and Other Assistance                    communities, and develop good methods
                                                 for linking the different programs.
From the WIA rules at 20 C.F.R. §663.320:
                                                 Concerns have been raised by some One-
(a) WIA funding for training is limited to       Stops that the WIA rules need clearer
    participants who:                            and stronger guidance on how best to
                                                 coordinate the various training
   (1) Are unable to obtain grant                resources. One jurisdiction that has
       assistance from other sources to
       pay the costs of their training; or
                                                 worked very hard in this area to improve
                                                 coordination is Baltimore, Maryland.
   (2) Require assistance beyond that            For a report on their efforts, including
       available under grant assistance          examples of promising and innovative
       from other sources to pay the costs       practices, see Aligning Economic and
       of such training.
                                                 Workforce Development Activities in
Program operators and training providers         Baltimore at
must coordinate funds available to pay for       www.soros.org/baltimore/research.pdf:
training as described [below] in (b) and (c)…
                                                 The results of better coordination are
(b) Program operators must coordinate            significant, for workers and employers:
    training funds available and make
    funding arrangements with One-Stop
    partners and other entities to apply the     Coordinating or, at minimum, more closely
    provisions of paragraph (a)… Training        aligning the functions of workforce and
    providers must consider the availability     economic development activities generates
    of other sources of grants to pay for        multiple “wins” – for employers, public-
    training costs such as Welfare-to-Work,
    State-funded training funds, and             sector agencies, and workers – by linking
    Federal Pell Grants, so that WIA funds       public workforce education and training
    supplement other sources of training         with the skill needs of employers seeking to
    grants.                                      relocate to grow operations in a city.
(c) A WIA participant may enroll in WIA-
    funded training while his/her                In these communities, employers’ on-the-
    application for a Pell Grant is pending      ground knowledge of the city’s workforce
    as long as the One-Stop operator has         capacity informs economic development
    made arrangements with the training          decisions, and the needs of employers drive
    provider and the WIA participant             workforce development decisions. To the
    regarding allocation of the Pell Grant, if
    it is subsequently awarded. In that          extent that these cities have linked
    case, the training provider must             workforce development activities with high-
    reimburse the One-Stop operator the          wage, high-growth sectors of the economy,
    WIA funds used to underwrite the             closer coordination has led to
    training for the amount the Pell Grant       reductions in poverty and
    covers. Reimbursement is not
    required from the portion of Pell Grant      unemployment, as well as to increased
    assistance disbursed to the WIA              employment retention.
    participant for education-related
    expenses.




                                                 66
                       WORKSHEET 3D
                Access to Other Training Funds


What policies do your One-Stop and Local Workforce Investment Board have in
place regarding the coordination of multiple training funds?




Have policies been put in place to encourage multiple agencies to support
individuals with disabilities?




                                       67
In some local areas, the Vocational Rehabilitation agency has agreed to pay for
support services or accommodations to enable a job seeker with a disability to
access an ITA. VR support can pay for transportation to a training site or
technology needed by an individual. What policies are in place to encourage this
type of resource sharing?




                                       68
            3E ~ Individuals Who Meet Additional
                Eligibility Rules Set by LWIBs


Since States have a limited amount of training funds, the Local Workforce
Investment Boards (LWIBs) can prioritize how the training dollars are distributed
What this means is that they can create and add on even more eligibility criteria
that One-Stop customers must meet before receiving training services.


A   ction – Find out if the One-Stop has established additional criteria that a
    person must meet before receiving training services and/or an Individual
Training Account. If so, get a copy of the written criteria and find out how
customers are made aware of the additional eligibility criteria.


C    omments – Hard to believe there‟s even more eligibility criteria but it‟s true.
     One-Stop Centers can also establish additional eligibility criteria for an ITA.
Here are some of the ways States and localities use these criteria. Some are
fairly easy to meet but others could pose definite barriers to individuals with
disabilities trying to receive training services.

       In Denver, Colorado specific barriers to employment that have been
        identified must be addressed before an individual can receive any
        training.

       In Northern Virginia individuals must meet residency requirements.

       In Charlotte, North Carolina individuals must interview for, and be
        denied employment in, at least three jobs before they can receive
        training services.

       In Baltimore, Maryland individuals must submit an application for
        training services, which is then given to a review panel that rates them.
        Only individuals with a rating of 80 or above receive an Individual
        Training Account.

       The Snohomish (Washington) Workforce Development Council will not
        approve training services for adults unless individuals have received at
        least three Intensive Services.

Some Local Workforce Investment Boards use the poverty guidelines as an
additional way of prioritizing who receives training services, which then serves as



                                         69
an additional eligibility standard individuals must meet in order to receive
training. For example, in November 2001 the Northern Virginia Workforce
Investment Board changed its eligibility rules for training services. The original
policy was aimed at “maximizing training services while ensuring increased
opportunities to the most at-risk Adult and Dislocated Workers. This policy was
adopted based on several factors, most notably the limited funding under WIA for
[the] local area…and the overall health of the local economy at that time.” The
new, amended policy takes into consideration the reality of the economy in 2002
and 2003. Note that both reference the Lower Living Standard Income Level,
discussed earlier in this chapter, using different percentages of the LLSIL as a
guide.

      Former Policy for Adults – Training funds were divided as follows:

            70% of the available funds were designated for households with less
             than 100% of the Lower Living Standard Income Level (LLSIL) –
             $31,020 for a family of four; and

            30% of funds were designated for households between 100% and
             200% of the LLSIL – approximately $62,000 for a family of four).

      Amended Policy for Adults

             There is no percentage breakout of funds. All Adult participants who
             fall below 200% of the Lower Living Standard Income Level are
             eligible for training funds under WIA. Priority will be given to
             recipients of public assistance and other low-income individuals per
             Federal law – 200% of the LLSIL for a family of four in the
             Washington, D.C. Metro area is approximately $62,000.

Note that some additional eligibility criteria could actually be used to benefit
customers with disabilities. For example, the Northwest Georgia Workforce
Investment Board policies on training eligibility state, “employment barriers
unrelated to skills are additional eligibility criteria considered at [the training]
level.” This means that individuals with disabilities who face a range of barriers
to employment (technology, discrimination, etc.) could be a priority for Northwest
Georgia and its use of training funds.


T  ips – The best advice here is to just get the details on additional eligibility
   criteria and, if they aren‟t widely know, encourage your One-Stop to take
them out of hiding.




                                         70
                          WORKSHEET 3E
                    Additional Eligibility Criteria


List any additional eligibility criteria your One-Stop and/or Local Workforce
Investment Board has created that individuals must meet before they are eligible
for training services.




                                       71
Have priorities been set that give preferences to certain types of skills training for
individuals seeking career advancement? Describe.




Have priorities been set that would be beneficial in some way to customers with
disabilities who want Training Services?




                                         72
                                CHAPTER 4
                What Training Services Does
                Your One-Stop Center Offer?


OK, so once a One-Stop customer is finally eligible for Training Service, what
exactly does that mean? What kinds of training are available and how does the
One-Stop pay for them? Who provides the training?

First, you need to understand the different types of training available through your
One-Stop, because the type of training is generally linked to how it’s paid for and
who the provider is. Secondly, we’ll look at Individual Training Accounts (ITAs),
the usual method of paying for training. And last, we’ll look at when ITAs are not
needed, which can sometimes be a benefit to customers with disabilities.




                         4A ~ Types of Training



A   ction – Compile a detailed list of all the types of Training your One-Stop
    offers and information on how an individual can find out about each service.


C   omments – Don‟t forget the basic concepts: Training Services must be
    directly linked to opportunities in the local labor market and are available for
people who cannot find employment even after utilizing core and intensive
services. The Training Services offered by a One-Stop are supposed to include, at
a minimum, one or more of the following services:

    Occupational Skills Training (e.g., vocational training through
     community colleges), including training for “nontraditional employment.”

    On-the-Job Training – A contract for training may be developed between
     an area employer and the One Stop Career Center for the training and
     hiring of a WIA customer for a specific job. The contract outlines the training
     to be provided, length of training, money to be given to the employer for
     training, as well as rate of pay.


                                        73
    Customized Training – Customized training is conducted with a
     commitment by an employer or a group of employers to employ an
     individual upon successful completion of the training: This is training,
     conducted by an employer or group of employers, who guarantee to hire,
     promote, and/or retain all those individuals who successfully complete the
     training.

    Entrepreneurial Training, related to starting a small business or
     microenterprise.

    Skill Upgrading and Retraining - Employed workers, who are registered
     WIA customers, may receive training, paid by the One Stop Career System
     from their present employer or another training agency. The training must
     be designed to increase skills for job retention or a better job that provides
     more wages or salary.

    Job Readiness Training – For individuals who are job hunting or looking
     for a better job, workshops and possible work experience programs are
     provided at One Stops and by Partner agencies.

    Programs Combining Workplace Training with Related Instruction,
     which may include “cooperative education” programs. At times a One-Stop
     customer's career goal is one that demands a combination of classroom
     instruction and worksite training (for example, Licensed Practical Nurse
     Training which requires a worksite job-related internship).


T   ips – A number of States have developed specific policies around training
    that tie in the need for core and/or intensive services as a prerequisite –
not because the WIA statute says there must be prerequisites but because it
makes sense in terms of a person‟s career path.

For example, New Hampshire‟s ITA policy basically prescribes which Intensive
Services you need if you want to receive an Individual Training Account to
purchase Training Services:

      Participants will receive assessment, counseling, and development of an
      individual employment plan through intensive services prior to issuance of
      an ITA. The individual employment plan will define the purpose of training
      (occupational goal) and the amount of the Individual Training Account. The
      employment plan should demonstrate the customer’s interest and capacity.

Other states de-emphasize the categories of service (Core and Intensive) and
just present services in general that are good preparation for individual who
want to pursue training opportunities. For example, on the Charlotte County,
Virginia Workforce Center‟s Web site at www.charlottejobs.org/.



                                        74
                         WORKSHEET 4A
                 Training Services at the One-Stop



Name of One-Stop Center:


List All Training Services Offered:




Are the available Training Services listed in printed information at the One-Stop?
On the One-Stop‟s web site? Is the information available in any alternate
formats? Give details.




                                        75
Do “frontline” One-Stop staff know what customers are referring to when they
ask about available Training Services? How do they respond? Give details.




How does your State Workforce Investment Board define “special participant”
and “hard to serve” populations for purposes of training?




                                      76
                  4B ~ Individual Training Accounts


Although many people use the term Individual Training Account (ITA) as if it is a
specific type of training, the ITA itself is not a type of training – it is actually the
method used to pay for most types of Training Services. An ITA is essentially a
voucher that usually has a set dollar amount and time limit that an individual
can use to purchase approved training from an Eligible Training Provider (ETP).
However, not all types of training have to be provided by an ETP. (More on that
later.


A   ction – Find out exactly how your One-Stop sets up Individual Training
    Accounts, including the dollar and time limits.



C    omments – Most training will be provided through an Individual Training
     Account. In some One-Stops, individuals are encouraged to determine their
training goal first – then One-Stop staff work out the payment issues. However,
in many others, the dollar and time limits for training are set first, and then
individuals must fit their training goals into those limits.

                Individual Training Accounts ~ Key Facts

     ITAs are accounts set up on behalf of One-Stop customers to provide
      training dollars and opportunities. WIA says that ITAs are the primary
      mechanism for paying for training.

     Basically an “Individual Training Account” refers to the method used to
      allocate training funds to individuals. ITAs can actually take different
      physical forms, depending on what the state or locality has decided, such
      as a voucher, credit, or even debit card.

     Adults are eligible for ITAs if

             They have completed at least one core and intensive service (and
              meet any additional eligibility requirements) and

             They are unable to find employment because they have little or no
              work history or face other significant barriers to employment and
              would significantly benefit from training or



                                           77
            They are currently working but unable to achieve family self-
             sufficiency or advance in their careers without additional training.

     States and local areas certify various types of employment and skills
      training programs offered by approved providers (called “Eligible Training
      Providers”). ITAs can be used to purchase any training program or class
      that is offered on the state‟s Eligible Training Provider List (ETPL)

     ITAs can also be used to pay for individual courses chosen to build skills
      needed to become “employable or self-sufficient” that are not on the ETPL,
      although this is not a commonly known fact.

     After an individual chooses the training he or she wants, it is paid for out
      of the funds set aside in the person‟s personal Individual Training Account.

     ITAs can be used to pay for tuition, fees, books, supplies and equipment
      required for training.

     If an individual needs training that doesn‟t fit into what ITAs cover, on-the-
      job training and customized workforce training are still options (see the
      previous chapter) and these do not require the setting up of an ITA.

     While states may develop some guidelines for ITAs, the LWIB will have
      responsibility for deciding what an ITA will fund, the amount of funding
      allowed, and the length of training that can be provided using an ITA.

ITA Funding and Limits – Each State‟s WIA plan indicates the total amount
of funding available for training. Some states decide how much they will spend
on training based on what‟s left over after they fund core and intensive services.
Other states, such as Florida, require that a certain amount of WIA funds must
be used for training.

Local Workforce Investment Boards also can (but don‟t have to) establish time
limits on the training period and/or limits on the dollar amount for each
Individual Training Account. The amount of time allowed for training ranges
from six months to two years and usually is based on the type of training. Most
local boards have set a dollar range for ITAs, ranging from $1,000 to $10,000
with an average of $5,000. Some states have also established a lifetime limit on
WIA training available for participants.

Tips – Initial research on the ITA/ETP system indicates that some One-Stop
centers are hesitant to provide training services through ITAs. While the
majority of One-Stop centers visited in the evaluative study had a large number
of customers using ITAs, some One-Stops with hundreds of customers had “no



                                        78
more than a dozen customers” using an ITA. You may also want to find out
exactly how many ITAs your One-Stop has established.

The time and dollar limits are supposed to be listed in either the state or local
plan. The WIA rules lay out two approaches that state or local boards can use
for determining the amounts of ITAs:

         The ITA amount is based upon the needs of the customer as identified
          in their Individual Employment Plan OR

         The Local Board has established a range of amounts and/or a
          maximum amount applicable to all participants who have ITAs.

Note that state and local ITA policies can also establish exceptions to the
time and dollar limits for specific individuals. Even if the haven‟t, don‟t forget
that if an individual with a disability needs additional time as a reasonable
accommodation, the One-Stop must allow it – but it will probably not happen
automatically or without additional paperwork.

In setting the amounts for ITAs, the LWIB needs to strike a balance between
maximizing the number of people it can provide training to and maximizing the
amount of training any one individual can receive. ITAs for low amounts will
probably not offer most people an opportunity for very meaningful training. In
addition, though, your One-Stop needs to make sure it is accessing other
training resources that can be linked with an ITA, such as Pell grants, Welfare-
to-Work funds, state funds and, particularly for many individuals with
disabilities, vocational rehabilitation funds.

Existing research shows that longer-term education and job/skills training has a
far greater impact on individuals sustaining good jobs and income than short-
term training programs. However, it can be very difficult for participants to
participate in longer-term training if it means giving up any work income during
that time period. This means it is particularly important at this point to make
sure that individuals know about available support services and needs-based
payments through the One-Stop. These can help ensure that a person enrolled in
longer term training will be able to complete the training.

Promising Practices – The Department of Labor has looked at a One-Stops to
identify promising or innovative programs. CTWorks, in Bridgeport, Connecticut
is one of those DOL identified as having set up ITAs in a user-friendly, positive
way. Given that they‟ve established hundreds of ITAs for One-Stop customers, it
helps give some idea of their potential (and perhaps ideas on what your LWIB
could be doing).




                                        79
                             SPOTLIGHT
                      on the CTWorks One-Stop



For those of you wondering if Local Workforce Investment Boards are really using
ITAs, look no further. In 2001, this LWIB set a goal of 547 Individual Training
Accounts, based on the needs of employers in the area and the training funds
available. Nine months into the year they had written over 300 ITAs and 100
more were in progress (in addition to the over 200 WorkPlace Scholarships that
were in place, which are privately funded training grants). The nice thing about
CTWorks‟ ITA policy is that the process is very clear and organized, with easy-to-
follow steps, supportive workshops and staff that facilitate each step.

        The steps to developing individual training accounts follow a predictable
         sequence. First, the greeter informs the customer of the availability of
         training services. Next, a membership coordinator determines the
         customer’s initial eligibility and refers him/her to a counselor to make a
         final eligibility determination.

        The customer then participates in a job search workshop that includes
         instruction on resume preparation, among other things, after which
         he/she has an interview with an ITA counselor to determine his/her
         eligibility for training services.

        Next, the customer participates in an ITA workshop. In this workshop,
         extra time is spent teaching customers how to find a suitable training
         vendor. Time is also spent emphasizing the importance of the customer
         visiting the training facilities, evaluating the environment, checking class
         schedules, determining placement resources, and checking
         transportation.

        After the ITA workshop, the customer goes to an ITA counselor to make
         another assessment, and to develop an individual employment plan. The
         counselor reviews the information on training schools obtained by the
         customer and completes a referral to the selected training vendor.

        While the customer is attending school/training, the counselor follows up
         with the training vendor to monitor the customer’s progress.

        Ultimately, the training vendor places the customer in a job and receives
         payment.



                                         80
                         WORKSHEET 4B
                   Individual Training Accounts


How has your Local Board and/or One-Stop structured ITAs? For example, are
there specific time requirements for the training? Is there a set dollar limit?




Can the amount be customized or is the same amount available to everyone
regardless of individual circumstances? If there are exceptions, attach the
written policy.




                                       81
What do ITAs cover and/or include? E.g., Can an ITA cover tuition and other
related needs such as textbooks, or tuition only?




Can a customer receive more than one ITA? If so, is there a limit on the number
of ITAs a customer can have in a lifetime?




                                      82
How do customers access their ITAs? Are there accounts with statements,
checkbooks, debit cards, paper vouchers, or other mechanisms? Is there an on-
line mechanism?




How are ITAs being connected to other sources of financial aid?




                                       83
Is there a fair system in place for distributing ITAs?




Is there an appeals process in place for workers who are denied ITAs or who
receive inadequate funding?




Are all customers provided individual counseling before making an ITA decision,
or is technology substituting for training counseling?




                                         84
                 4C ~ Eligible Training Providers


Once customers have met all the eligibility guidelines, and the One-Stop operators
have determined them eligible for training, and Individual Training Accounts have
been established on their behalf, then they can choose training services. Unlike
the pre-WIA days, providers are no longer selling their “wares” to employment
services staff. Instead, they must market their services directly to customers. This
is intended to increase competition and, ultimately, improve and increase
consumer choice. This means the approval and availability of training providers
are a key aspect of Training Services in a community.

Local Workforce Investment Boards must approve training providers if they want to
be included on the “approved” statewide list. Entities offering training programs or
course offerings are given the Eligible Training Provider “label” only if approved
by the LWIBs. They then can receive reimbursement for Training Services through
the customer’s ITA. State Workforce Investment Boards collect a list of ETPs from
each One-Stop center and maintains a statewide list, distributing the entire list
(usually online) back to all the One-Stop centers. Creating this comprehensive list
entails identifying providers, informing them of various aspects of the WIA One-
Stop system and training services, persuading them to become a part of the
workforce system, gathering their information, and loading it into a manageable
system.


A   ction – Find your local list of Eligible Training Providers and the State list of
    Eligible Training Providers (and note the last time it was updated). In
addition to the number of ETPs, find out if there is a broad range of types of
providers and if any of them specialize in serving people with disabilities.


C    omments – The number (and variety) of ETPs in the community served by
     your One-Stop can significantly affect how successful customers are in using
Individual Training Accounts to meet employment goals. Local Workforce
Investment Boards are responsible for ensuring a large number and variety of
training providers. In fact, WIA states that consumer choice is adversely affected
if there are few ETPs: A small number of ETPs undermines WIA’s vision of
consumer choice and competition between providers.

Early reports on the ITA/ETP system indicate training providers do not have
sufficient incentives to participate in the program, particularly compared with
the perceived burdens, e.g., the complexity of the data collection required on



                                         85
program success for both WIA and non-WIA participants, a lack of training
regarding the performance measures, and the need for more Federal guidance.

Note that Eligible Training Providers are also supposed to provide performance
information to customers in a way that enhances informed choice. The
information can come from a variety of sources – such as customer surveys,
training provider records, and state wage record systems.


T   ips - It is particularly important for advocates and consumers to recognize
    (and address) both the challenges and the opportunities for collaboration
between the State‟s vocational rehabilitation agency and providers and other
One-Stop training providers. It is important that there is overlap between the
two lists, and advocates may need to evaluate their local One-Stop‟s ETP list and
talk with their Local Workforce Investment Boards about improving coordination
regarding providers.


WIA also requires One-Stops to give customers access to performance
information (such as rate of placement in jobs related to the training and starting
wages) related to each specific Eligible Training Provider. This “Consumer
Report” is a fundamental element of WIA‟s focus on consumer choice.
Unfortunately, reviews of most state‟s consumer reports indicate they have
become more a list of providers than an “information-rich document that
customers can use to make informed decisions regarding training programs.”
Which means that although they may be useful tools for identifying local training
programs, they are not yet showing their full potential as a way of supporting
informed customer decisions.

Two examples:

       Arkansas‟ Consumer Report System at arkansascrs.soicc.state.tx.us/
        has an up-to-date list of providers, and some useful workforce links,
        but does not include detailed program and performance information.

       New Jersey‟s Training Sources, the State‟s online guide to training and
        education programs, includes extensive detail on the Eligible Training
        Providers, with performance information and information on the
        availability of child care, physical accessibility of buildings, and whether
        or not Spanish is spoken.




                                        86
                           WORKSHEET 4C
                      Eligible Training Providers



Has your State Workforce Investment Board made the list of Eligible Training
Providers easily available? Is it online? Up-to-date?




Does your State provide a consumer report with the list of Eligible Training
Providers? If so, what kind of information is in the consumer report?




                                        87
If not, did your State receive a waiver of this requirement? For what reason?




Do the consumer reports include any information related to the accessibility of
training programs, such as architectural accessibility and the availability of
auxiliary aids availability?




                                       88
Does your One-Stop provide customer training on how to use the consumer
report system when selecting training programs?




Do your State‟s Eligible Training Providers make their performance results
available at all? If so, is it done in a way that allows One-Stop customers to
“comparison shop” among providers?




                                        89
If not, did the State receive a waiver of this requirement?




How do Eligible Training Providers in your State measure and report customer
satisfaction?




                                         90
             4D ~ When You Don’t Need Individual
            Training Accounts (ITAs) to Get Training


Although the term “Individual Training Account” is sometimes used as if it applies
to all types of training under WIA, there are actually situations when WIA’s non-
ITA training guidelines might be more appropriate. It’s important to find out what
your State and locality have written regarding the other ways they can offer
training services.



A   ction – Find out how your State and/or locality handles the exceptions to
    ITAs and get the written policies for this.


C   omments – Training Services can be provided through a contract instead of
    an Individual Training Account (ITA) in a limited number of circumstances:

        The Training Services are provided through customized training or
         through on-the-job training provided by an employer.

        The Local Workforce Investment Board decides there are not enough
         Eligible Training Providers in the local area to accomplish the
         purposes of the ITA system – a problem facing many rural areas.

        The Local Workforce Investment Board decides that there is a training
         program of “demonstrated effectiveness” offered in the local area by a
         community-based organization or another private organization to serve
         special participant populations that face multiple barriers to
         employment.

In each of the above three circumstances an ITA can be used, but is not required.


T    ips – There are many rural areas with limited numbers of Eligible Training
     Providers, greatly limiting the training choices that can be accessed through
an Individual Training Account. However, in this circumstance, LWIBs can
assess whether there are other qualified providers in nearby workforce regions. If
so, it may be useful to create a contract training policy (and increase funding for
participants' transportation costs) to allow them to access a larger number of
providers.

The term “special participant population” generally includes individuals who are
homeless or who have difficulty speaking and/or understanding English.


                                        91
However, States and localities can add additional groups of people to the “special
participants” definition.

A number of State and Local Workforce Investment Boards have added people
with disabilities as individuals facing multiple barriers. For example,
Montgomery County in Maryland includes individuals with disabilities in its
definition of special participant populations. The Oregon Workforce Investment
Board‟s policy on “special participants” is even more specific, covering individuals
with “substantial” disabilities, including adults with learning disabilities and
individuals with “substantial mental health issues.”
See www.workforce.state.or.us/rap/pdf/owib/PolicyHardServePopulations.pdf.

Customers with disabilities can definitely benefit from being designated as “hard-
to-serve” or “special participant populations” by a LWIB. With that “label,” (as
unappealing as the terminology may be) the local One-Stop then has more
options and more flexibility as to who can provide Training Services – and they
aren‟t confined to just using the Eligible Training Providers on the State‟s list.

      For example, if there aren’t any “generic” Eligible Training Providers that can
      meet the specific training needs of a special participant population, such as
      those of customers with disabilities, a One-Stop could contract with a center
      for independent living that specializes in job skills training.

To contract with a specific program that wants to provide Training Services to
this “special participant population,” the program or organization must have
“demonstrated effectiveness,” particularly as it applies to the specific group of
people to be served. The LWIB is supposed to develop a definition of this term,
and most have included in their criteria the financial stability of the
organization, demonstrated program performance, and how the program relates
to the local workforce needs.




                                         92
                          WORKSHEET 4D
                       Training Without ITAs



What types of customized training does your One-Stop offer?




What employers does your One-Stop have contracts with to provide “on-the-job”
training?




                                      93
Does your One-Stop cover rural areas (or other areas) where there are not
enough Eligible Training Providers? If yes, has the One-Stop contracted with
other community organizations?




How does your Local Workforce Investment Board define “special participant
populations that face multiple barriers to employment”? If people with
disabilities are not included, what opportunities are there to work with your
LWIB to change this?




                                       94
                                              PART THREE:
                                               NEXT STEPS




CHAPTER 5                Who Else Wants to Know How the
                         One-Stops Are Doing on Training?




There are three answers to this last question…and they’re short and sweet!

First of all, we want to know! Yes, those of us that put together this Workbook.
Once you find out the answers to your questions (and hopefully share them far
and wide with the disability community in your One-Stop area), we‟d like you to
share them. Send us a copy of your completed Workbook pages so we can share
the information with others in the disability community. In addition, we‟d like to
hear real live stories about adults with disabilities who have used, tried to use, or
are currently using any type of Training Services through your One-Stop. Email
your information to Michael Morris, Director of the Rehabilitation Research and
Training Center on Workforce, Investment & Employment Policy for Persons with
Disabilities at mmorris@ncb.com.

Secondly, in addition to sharing the information with the disability
community and advocates in your State, be sure to share them with your
State and Local Workforce Investment Boards. It‟s important that they know
what‟s working and what‟s not for people with disabilities that are trying to
access services through the One-Stops. In fact, speaking up can result in
positive changes to policies that aren‟t working or aren‟t inclusive enough.




                                         95
And last, but not least, share what you find with policymakers. The
Workforce Investment Act will be reauthorized in the coming year. The
information you gather about how Training Services are really being implemented
in your community for One-Stop customers with disabilities, is invaluable to the
Federal agency staff and policymakers who will be looking closely at WIA and
trying to decide what works and what doesn‟t – and how to fix the rules that
aren‟t working very well.

           For ongoing, up-to-date information about the reauthorization
            process, go to the Department of Labor Web site at
            www.doleta.gov/usworkforce/reauthorization/.

            In addition, you may want to review an excellent summary of the
            June 2002 WIA Reauthorization Forum on One-Stop Services to
            Persons with Disabilities where participants came from all over the
            country to talk specifically about people with disabilities and the
            One-Stop Centers. Go to:
            www.doleta.gov/usworkforce/reauthorization/DC2.pdf.



In the process of completing the Workbook, you will have
learned a lot. Don’t stop there – use this information and
experience to speak up and inform policy implementation at the
local, State and Federal levels, and create positive changes for
adults with disabilities who want to work.




                                       96
                      APPENDIX –
   COMPLETE TRAINING SERVICES WORKSHEET/TEMPLATE



       WIA Job Training Services in My
     Community for Adults with Disabilities


                          BASIC INFORMATION


Town/City/Community and State:



One-Stop Center:



     Address:



     Phone (Voice):                        Phone (TTY ):



     Web Site:



Is It a Comprehensive One-Stop Center? If Not, Where is the Closest
Comprehensive One-Stop?




Hours:




                                      97
Is an Appointment Needed or Are “Walk-ins” OK?



What are the Registration Procedures?




Is the One-Stop Fully Accessible? (Detail any disability-specific One-Stop
resources and/or programs.)




State Employment Agency:


      Address:


      Phone (Voice):                         Phone (TTY):


      Web Site:


      Other Contact Info:




                                        98
State Workforce Investment Board (SWIB):


     Address:


     Phone (Voice):                        Phone (TTY):


     Web Site:


     Other Contact Info:


Local Workforce Investment Board (LWIB):



     Address:



     Phone (Voice):                        Phone (TTY):



     Web Site:



     Other Contact Info:



When and Where Are Meetings of the LWIB Held?



How Involved is the Disability Community with the LWIB?




                                     99
            MOVING FROM CORE TO TRAINING SERVICES


In your One-Stop, how does a customer move from Core Services to Intensive
Services? (Provide details. If the policy is in writing, you should attach a copy.)




List the specific assistance the One-Stop provides to help customers meet this
requirement?




                                        100
In your One-Stop, how does a customer move from Intensive Services to Training
Services?




List the specific assistance the One-Stop provides to help customers meet this
requirement?




                                      101
How do Supportive Services offered by your One-Stop facilitate moving from one
level to another, particularly so that customers can successfully access Training
Services?




List All the Core Services Offered (Include detailed descriptions and information on
whether or not registration is required; attach additional sheets if necessary):




                                        102
Are the Core Services listed in printed information at the One-Stop? On the One-
Stop‟s web site? Is the information available in any alternate formats? Give
details.




Do “frontline” One-Stop staff know what customers are referring to when they
ask about Core Services? How did you check this out?




Additional information regarding Core Services at this One-Stop –




                                      103
All Intensive Services Offered (Include Descriptions):




                                        104
Are the available Intensive Services listed in printed information at the One-
Stop? On the One-Stop‟s web site? Is the information available in any alternate
formats? Give details.




Do “frontline” One-Stop staff know what customers are referring to when they
ask about available Intensive Services? Give details.




                                      105
Does your One-Stop have limited funds for Intensive Services? Detail the source
of information.




If funds are limited, is the One-Stop giving priority to low-income people?
How did you find this out? (e.g., Does the One-Stop publicize this information in
any way?)




                                       106
What definition of “low income” is the One-Stop using?




What Supportive Services does your One-Stop offer? Describe in detail and
attach any relevant information.




                                      107
Does your Local Workforce Investment Board (LWIB) and/or One-Stop routinely
provide information to customers about Supportive Services as one of its Core
Services? If so, how?




What are the LWIB‟s guidelines for how a One-Stop decides when Supportive
Services are necessary? What are the related policies for service coordination
and referrals? (Attach copies of any relevant policies.)




                                       108
Has your LWIB established limits on Supportive Services or has it given the One-
Stops the authority to establish limits? What are those limits?




What guidelines do your One-Stop use to decide the level of needs-related
payments? Are they publicized in any way?




                                      109
How frequently does your One-Stop utilize and/or authorize Supportive Services?




How frequently does your One-Stop utilize and/or authorize Needs-Related
Payments?




Any additional information on Supportive Services?




                                     110
                           TRAINING SERVICES


Does your One-Stop have any specific criteria and/or definitions it uses when
determining if an individual has the skills and qualifications to successfully
pursue training? If so, describe.




Does your One-Stop have specific guidelines for providing reasonable
accommodations for individuals with disabilities who want to pursue training
opportunities? If so, summarize the types of accommodations that can be
provided and/or attach the policy.




                                       111
Has your One-Stop staff and/or Local Workforce Investment Board participated
in any disability trainings that address the issue of stereotyping?




What process does your One-Stop have for processing discrimination
complaints? Where is it published/available?




                                     112
What is the self-sufficiency definition used by your One-Stop and/or Local
Workforce Investment Board?




If your One-Stop uses the Lower Living Standard Income Level and/or the
Federal poverty amounts published by the Federal government, attach the chart
of the dollar amounts for the current year.




What guidance and/or printed information, if any, does One-Stop staff use in
order to ensure that individuals understand the self-sufficiency eligibility rule?




                                        113
Does your state have a state family self-sufficiency coalition? If so, is your local
and/or state disability community involved with their employment-related
efforts?




Any additional information regarding self-sufficiency guidelines?




                                        114
What are the current “demand” occupations in your area? How did your Local
Workforce Investment Board determine which occupations are on the “demand”
occupation list? Provide relevant Internet links and attach any written guidance.




How often is the demand occupation list updated?




                                      115
What procedures are in place for the One-Stop if a customer desires training in
an area that is not designated a “demand” occupation?




Provide any relevant information your One-Stop uses concerning the possibility
of relocating to pursue a demand occupation, including available relocation
allowances.




                                      116
How does the One-Stop publicize this information?




How many individuals have relocated under this policy?




                                     117
What policies do your One-Stop and Local Workforce Investment Board have in
place regarding the coordination of multiple training funds?




Have policies been put in place to encourage multiple agencies to support
individuals with disabilities?




                                      118
In some local areas, the Vocational Rehabilitation agency has agreed to pay for
support services or accommodations to enable a job seeker with a disability to
access an ITA. VR support can pay for transportation to a training site or
technology needed by an individual. What policies are in place to encourage this
type of resource sharing?




List any additional eligibility criteria your One-Stop and/or Local Workforce
Investment Board has created that individuals must meet before they are eligible
for training services.




                                      119
Have priorities been set that give preferences to certain types of skills training for
individuals seeking career advancement? Describe.




Have priorities been set that would be beneficial in some way to customers with
disabilities who want Training Services?




                                         120
List All Training Services Offered:




Are the available Training Services listed in printed information at the One-Stop?
On the One-Stop‟s web site? Is the information available in any alternate
formats? Give details.




Do “frontline” One-Stop staff know what customers are referring to when they
ask about available Training Services? How do they respond? Give details.




                                       121
How does your State Workforce Investment Board define “special participant”
and “hard to serve” populations for purposes of training?




How has your Local Board and/or One-Stop structured ITAs? For example, are
there specific time requirements for the training? Is there a set dollar limit?




                                      122
Can the amount be customized or is the same amount available to everyone
regardless of individual circumstances? If there are exceptions, attach the
written policy.




What do ITAs cover and/or include? E.g., Can an ITA cover tuition and other
related needs such as textbooks, or tuition only?




                                      123
Can a customer receive more than one ITA? If so, is there a limit on the number
of ITAs a customer can have in a lifetime?




How do customers access their ITAs? Are there accounts with statements,
checkbooks, debit cards, paper vouchers, or other mechanisms? Is there an on-
line mechanism?




                                      124
How are ITAs being connected to other sources of financial aid?




Is there a fair system in place for distributing ITAs?




                                        125
Is there an appeals process in place for workers who are denied ITAs or who
receive inadequate funding?




Are all customers provided individual counseling before making an ITA decision,
or is technology substituting for training counseling?




                                      126
Has your State Workforce Investment Board made the list of Eligible Training
Providers easily available? Is it online? Up-to-date?




Does your State provide a consumer report with the list of Eligible Training
Providers? If so, what kind of information is in the consumer report?




                                       127
If not, did your State receive a waiver of this requirement? For what reason?




Do the consumer reports include any information related to the accessibility of
training programs, such as architectural accessibility and the availability of
auxiliary aids availability?




                                       128
Does your One-Stop provide customer training on how to use the consumer
report system when selecting training programs?




Do your State‟s Eligible Training Providers make their performance results
available at all? If so, is it done in a way that allows One-Stop customers to
“comparison shop” among providers?




                                       129
If not, did the State receive a waiver of this requirement?




How do Eligible Training Providers in your State measure and report customer
satisfaction?




                                        130
What types of customized training does your One-Stop offer?




What employers does your One-Stop have contracts with to provide “on-the-job”
training?




                                     131
Does your One-Stop cover rural areas (or other areas) where there are not
enough Eligible Training Providers? If yes, has the One-Stop contracted with
other community organizations?




How does your Local Workforce Investment Board define “special participant
populations that face multiple barriers to employment”? If people with
disabilities are not included, what opportunities are there to work with your
LWIB to change this?




                                       132
Have you shared the information you‟ve gathered about WIA Training Services for
people with disabilities with the disability community? With your State and
Local Workforce Investment Boards? With policymakers?




                                     133

								
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