# Formula for Calculating Repayment

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```					                                                                                          2.1 How the Rates are
What is a cohort default rate?
For schools having 30 or more borrowers entering repayment in a fiscal year,

Calculated
the school’s cohort default rate is the percentage of a school’s borrowers who
enter repayment on certain Federal Family Education Loans (FFELs) and/or
William D. Ford Federal Direct Loans (Direct Loans) during that fiscal year
and default (or meet the other specified condition) within the cohort default
period. For schools with 29 or fewer borrowers entering repayment during a
fiscal year, the cohort default rate is an “average rate” based on borrowers
entering repayment over a three-year period.

The phrase “cohort default period” refers to the two-year period that begins on
October 1 of the fiscal year when the borrower enters repayment and ends on
September 30 of the following fiscal year. This is the period during which a
borrower’s default affects the school’s cohort default rate.

Cohort default rates are based on federal fiscal years. Federal fiscal years
begin October 1 of a calendar year and end on September 30 of the following
calendar year. Each federal fiscal year refers to the calendar year in which it
ends.

The phrase “cohort fiscal year” refers to the fiscal year for which the cohort
default rate is calculated. For example, when calculating the 2004 cohort
default rate, the cohort fiscal year is FY 2004 (October 1, 2003 to September
30, 2004).

The phrase “other specified condition” occurs when, before the end of the
cohort default period, the school’s owner, agent, contractor, employee, or any
other affiliated entity or individual makes a payment to prevent a borrower’s
default on a loan that entered repayment during the cohort fiscal year. In such
a situation, the borrower is considered in default for cohort default rate
purposes. For the purposes of this Guide, the phrase “other specified
condition” will always refer to this situation.
Loans included in
default rate
Which types of loans are included in the cohort default                           calculation:
rate calculation?                                                                 • Federal Stafford
The FFELs included in the cohort default rate calculation are:                    • Federal SLS
• Direct
Stafford/Ford
 subsidized and unsubsidized Federal Stafford Loans (collectively
referred to as Federal Stafford Loans) and                                    NOT Included:
 Federal Supplemental Loans for Students (Federal SLS loans).                  • PLUS
• Perkins
Federal SLS loans have not been made since July 1, 1994. However, it is           • FISL
possible for a Federal SLS loan to be included in a current cohort default rate
calculation under certain circumstances.

The Direct Loans included in the cohort default rate calculation are:
Regulatory
citations:
34 CFR 668.182
34 CFR 668.183

Page 2.1 - 1
A school with a high
default rate may lose its
eligibility to participate in      Federal Direct Subsidized Stafford/Ford Loans and Federal Direct
the Federal Student Aid             Unsubsidized Stafford/Direct Loans (collectively referred to as Direct
programs. See Chapter               Stafford/Ford Loans).
2.4, “Cohort Default Rate
Effects,” for more
information on effects.         The following loans are not included in the cohort default rate calculation:
DRAFT rates are generally
sent to schools in
   Federal PLUS Loans;
February.                            Federal Graduate/Professional PLUS Loans;
OFFICIAL rates are sent              Federal Direct Graduate/Professional PLUS Loans;
by September 30.
   Federal Insured Student Loans (FISLs); and
See Chapter 2.2, “How                Federal Perkins Loans. (Please note that Federal Perkins Loans have
Schools Get the Rates &               separate cohort default rate calculations.)
Loan Data,” for more
information on the release
of the rates.                   Federal Consolidation Loans and Federal Direct Consolidation Loans are not
directly included in the cohort default rate calculation. However, the status of
a consolidation loan may affect the cohort default rate calculation. Please refer
to the section of this chapter entitled, “How do consolidation loans affect the
how consolidation loans may affect the cohort default rate calculation.

How does the Department calculate a school’s cohort
The cohort default rate
is based on the
default rate?
number of borrowers             The formula the Department uses for calculating a school’s cohort default rate
entering repayment,
not the number and
depends on the number of borrowers from that school entering repayment in a
types of loans entering         particular cohort fiscal year and the number of cohort default rates previously
repayment.                      calculated for the school.

Note that cohort default rates are based on the number of borrowers who
enter repayment, not the number and type of loans that enter repayment. A
borrower with multiple loans from the same school whose loans enter
repayment during the same cohort fiscal year will be included in the formula
only once for that cohort fiscal year.

The two types of formulas used to calculate a school’s cohort default rate are
the Non-Average Rate Formula and the Average Rate Formula. For each of
these formulas, the cohort default rate is obtained by dividing the numerator
by the denominator and then expressing the result as a percentage. The
number of borrowers included in the numerator and the denominator vary,
however, depending on the type of formula used.

Page 2.1 - 2
 Timeframes used in calculating cohort default rates
2- Year Time Period
Cohort                Borrowers in the Numerator                              (Numerator)
Fiscal Year            Borrowers in the Denominator                         1- Year Time Period
(Denominator)

Borrowers who entered repayment in 2002
2002                    and defaulted in 2002 or 2003                   10/01/2001 to 09/30/2003
Borrowers who entered repayment in 2002               10/01/2001 to 09/30/2002

Borrowers who entered repayment in 2003
2003                    and defaulted in 2003 or 2004                   10/01/2002 to 09/30/2004
Borrowers who entered repayment in 2003               10/01/2002 to 09/30/2003

Borrowers who entered repayment in 2004
2004                    and defaulted in 2004 or 2005                   10/01/2003 to 09/30/2005
Borrowers who entered repayment in 2004               10/01/2003 to 09/30/2004

Borrowers who entered repayment in 2005
2005                    and defaulted in 2005 or 2006                   10/01/2004 to 09/30/2006
Borrowers who entered repayment in 2005               10/01/2004 to 09/30/2005

Borrowers who entered repayment in 2006
2006                    and defaulted in 2006 or 2007                   10/01/2005 to 09/30/2007
Borrowers who entered repayment in 2006               10/01/2005 to 09/30/2006

Borrowers who entered repayment in 2007
2007                    and defaulted in 2007 or 2008                   10/01/2006 to 09/30/2008
Borrowers who entered repayment in 2007               10/01/2006 to 09/30/2007

Borrowers who entered repayment in 2008
2008                    and defaulted in 2008 or 2009                   10/01/2007 to 09/30/2009
Borrowers who entered repayment in 2008               10/01/2007 to 09/30/2008

The chart (above) outlines the timeframes used when calculating cohort default rates for schools with
30 or more borrowers in repayment for the cohort fiscal years 2002 through 2008. This chart does not
address average cohort default rates for schools with less than 30 borrowers in repayment. The first
column in the table shows the cohort fiscal year. The second column shows the borrowers included in
the cohort default rate calculation for that cohort fiscal year. The third column shows the time periods
used for the numerator and the denominator listed in the second column.

Borrowers in the denominator are those who entered repayment during the time period shown in the
third column. Borrowers in the numerator are those who entered repayment and who defaulted or met
the other specified condition during the time period shown in the third column.

In a mathematical formula, the numerator is always listed first and the denominator listed second; the
mathematical formulas in this Guide will be written this way. However, in the text of this Guide the
denominator will always be discussed before the numerator is discussed. This is because the
numerator is a subset of the denominator in all of the formulas contained in this Guide.

Page 2.1 - 3
Which formula does the Department use to calculate a
school’s DRAFT cohort default rate?
The Department always uses the non-average rate formula for calculating a
school’s draft cohort default rate. The draft rate is based only on a school’s
current cohort fiscal year data (the number of borrowers from that school
entering repayment in a particular cohort fiscal year and the number of
borrowers defaulting or meeting other specified condition during the
associated cohort default period). Therefore, schools with 29 or fewer
borrowers entering repayment cannot use the draft rate to anticipate their
official cohort default rate. Schools with 29 or fewer borrowers entering
repayment must perform a manual calculation using the average rate formula
to anticipate their official cohort default rate.

Which formula does the Department use to calculate a
An official cohort default
school’s OFFICIAL cohort default rate?
rate cannot be calculated     The Department uses the non-average rate formula or the average rate
for a school with 29 or       formula to calculate a school’s official cohort default rate, depending on the
fewer borrowers entering
repayment during a            number of borrowers entering repayment.
cohort fiscal year if the
school did not have an
official or unofficial rate
Which loans are placed in the denominator of the cohort
calculated for either or      default rate calculation?
both of the 2 previous
cohort fiscal years. Such
Borrowers are included in the denominator of the cohort default rate
a school will have an         calculation based on when their loans entered repayment. Except for an
unofficial rate calculated    average cohort default rate calculation, borrowers included in the
using the non-average
formula and current year
denominator of a cohort default rate calculation are the borrowers with
data. Unofficial rates        relevant loans that entered repayment during that cohort fiscal year.
don’t meet the statutory      Borrowers included in the denominator of an average cohort default rate
definition for cohort         calculation are the borrowers who entered repayment on relevant loans during
default rates and cannot
be used to
that cohort fiscal year or the prior two cohort fiscal years.
determine sanctions and
benefits.                     A Federal Stafford Loan or Direct Stafford/Ford Loan enters repayment under
the requirements applicable to the type of loan. In most cases, they enter
repayment after a 6-month grace period that begins when the borrower
separates (graduates or withdraws) from school or drops below half-time
enrollment. The official repayment date is the first day following the end of the
6-month grace period. Use of this date is dependent on the school providing
timely notification of any change in a student’s enrollment status to NSLDS or
the data manager. If the school does not provide timely notification, the data
manager will use the best information available to determine the repayment
date. This date will be used for purposes of calculating the school’s cohort
default rate.

A Federal SLS loan enters repayment on the day after the borrower separates
To prevent the                from school or drops below half-time enrollment, unless the borrower also has
possibility of double-
counting loans, any           a Federal Stafford Loan that was obtained during the same period of
Federal SLS loan that         continuous enrollment. In that event, the repayment date of the Federal SLS
was reported in a cohort      loan for cohort default rate purposes is the same as the repayment date for the
default rate prior to FY
1993 will not be
Federal Stafford Loan; generally, this is the first day following the end of the
reported in a later           6-month grace period.
cohort default rate.

Page 2.1 - 4
Non-Average Rate Formula
The Non-Average Rate Formula is used for a school with 30 or more
borrowers entering repayment during a cohort fiscal year.

Non-Average Rate Calculation: For this calculation, the denominator is
the number of borrowers who entered repayment in the cohort fiscal
year; the numerator is the number of borrowers who entered repayment
in the cohort fiscal year and who defaulted or met the other specified
condition in the cohort default period.

NUMERATOR: Number of borrowers in
denominator who defaulted or met other specified
condition during the 2-year cohort default period               Cohort

DEN OMINATOR: Number of borrowers who
=       Default
Rate
entered repayment in t he cohort fiscal year

Non-Average Rate Example: School A, a degree-granting school, had
90 borrowers enter repayment in the cohort fiscal year (denominator).
Of those, 8 borrowers defaulted in the cohort default period
(numerator). School A’s cohort default rate is calculated by dividing 8
by 90 (8÷90 = 0.088) and expressing the result (0.088) as a percentage
to produce a non-average cohort default rate of 8.8 percent (0.088 x
100 = 8.8).

Page 2.1 - 5
Average Rate Formula
The Average Rate Formula is used to calculate the official cohort default rate for a
school with 29 or fewer borrowers entering repayment during a cohort fiscal year if that
school had a cohort default rate calculated for the two previous cohort fiscal years.

Average Rate Calculation: The denominator for the average cohort default rate is the
number of borrowers who entered repayment in the cohort fiscal year and the two
preceding cohort fiscal years. The numerator for the average cohort default rate is the
number of borrowers who entered repayment in the cohort fiscal year and the two
preceding cohort fiscal years and who defaulted or met the other specified condition in
the cohort default period for the cohort fiscal year in which they entered repayment.

NUMERATOR: Number of borrowers in
denominator who defaulted or met other specified
condition during the 2-year cohort default period
for the cohort fiscal year in which they entered
repayment
Cohort

DEN OMINATOR: Number of borrowers who
=       Default
Rate
entered repayment in t he cohort fiscal year and the
2 preceding cohort fiscal years

Average Rate Example: School B, a degree-granting school, certified loans for the
following students: 29 borrowers who entered repayment in the cohort fiscal year (of
whom 2 defaulted in that cohort default period), 44 borrowers who entered repayment in
the fiscal year immediately preceding the cohort fiscal year (of whom 7 defaulted in the
associated cohort default period), and 50 borrowers who entered repayment in the fiscal
year two years prior to the cohort fiscal year (of whom 3 defaulted in the associated
cohort default period). The 123 borrowers (29 + 44 + 50 = 123) who entered repayment in
these three fiscal years constitute the denominator. The numerator consists of the 12
borrowers (2 + 7 + 3 = 12) who defaulted in the relevant cohort default periods. School
B’s cohort default rate is calculated by dividing 12 by 123 (12 ÷ 123 = 0.097) and
expressing the result (0.097) as a percentage to produce an average cohort default rate
of 9.7 percent (0.097 x 100 = 9.7).

Page 2.1 - 6
Which loans are placed in the numerator of the cohort
default rate calculation?
Borrowers must be included in the denominator of the cohort default rate
calculation in order to be included in the numerator of the cohort default rate
calculation. A FFEL or Direct Loan borrower is included in the numerator if
the borrower defaults or meets the other specified condition defined
previously in this chapter.

For cohort default rate purposes, a FFEL is considered to be in default only if
the guaranty agency has paid a default claim to the lender holding the loan.
The claim paid date, which is the date the guaranty agency reimburses the
lender for the defaulted loan, is used to determine if the borrower will be
placed in the numerator of the calculation. If the claim paid date falls within
the cohort default period, the borrower is included in both the denominator
and numerator of the cohort default rate calculation.

For cohort default rate purposes, a Direct Loan is considered to be in default
after 360 days of delinquency (or after 270 days if the borrower’s first day of
delinquency was before October 7, 1998). If the default date falls within the
cohort default period, the borrower will be included in both the denominator
and the numerator of the cohort default rate calculation.

How do consolidation loans affect the numerator of the
cohort default rate calculation?
Although Federal Consolidation Loans and Direct Consolidation Loans are not
directly included in the cohort default rate calculation, a defaulted
consolidation loan may cause a borrower to be included in the numerator of
the cohort default rate calculation. This occurs if the consolidation loan
defaults within the cohort default period that is applicable to the underlying
loan(s).

For example, Elizabeth entered into repayment on several Federal Stafford
Loans in January of the cohort fiscal year. Because Elizabeth entered into
repayment in January, she will be included in the denominator of the cohort
default rate calculation. After entering into repayment on the Federal Stafford
Loans, Elizabeth elects to consolidate the loans into a Federal Consolidation
Loan. Elizabeth fails to make payments on the Federal Consolidation Loan and
the loan defaults in June of the following calendar year. Even though the
underlying Federal Stafford Loan did not default, Elizabeth will be included in
the numerator of the cohort default rate calculation because a claim was paid
on the Federal Consolidation Loan during the cohort default period.

How does loan rehabilitation affect the numerator of
the cohort default rate calculation?
Student loan rehabilitation is a method by which a borrower may resolve the
status of defaulted loans. Prior to July 1, 2006, a borrower who wanted to
rehabilitate a defaulted loan was required to make 12 consecutive monthly
payments on the loan. Effective on July 1, 2006, a borrower who wants to
rehabilitate a defaulted loan must make 9 payments, each within 20 days of

Page 2.1 - 7
the due date, during a period of 10 consecutive months. The 9 payments in 10
months standard must be incorporated in the guaranty agency’s loan
rehabilitation agreement with the borrower.

Once the borrower has made the required payments* under the terms of the
*In accordance       agreement, the loan is then rehabilitated and the borrower is no longer
with: Sections
428F(a) and
considered to be in default. For cohort default rate calculation purposes, if the
435(m)(2)(C) of      borrower rehabilitates the loan before the end of the cohort default period, the
the HEA and 34       borrower is not included in the numerator because the borrower is no longer
CFR 682.405 (for     considered to be in default. If the borrower rehabilitates the loan after the end
FFELs) and Section   of the cohort default period, the borrower is considered in default for cohort
455(a)(1) of the     default rate purposes and is included in the numerator.
HEA and
34 CFR 685.211(f)
(for Direct Loans)   What special circumstances affect whether a borrower
will be included in the cohort default rate calculation?
The following tables outline some examples of special circumstances that
affect the cohort default rate calculation. For convenience, these examples
have been divided into four categories:

 Special circumstances involving schools (e.g., borrower takes out loans
at more than one school).
 Special circumstances involving repayment (e.g., borrower consolidates
defaulted loans, pays loans in full before entering repayment, etc).
 Special circumstances involving loans that were discharged, canceled,
or refunded (e.g., loan was discharged before repayment).
 Special circumstances involving loans that were repurchased (e.g.,
lender repurchases loan because it incorrectly submitted default claim
to guaranty agency).

These special circumstances only affect the cohort default rate calculation if
the school timely submits documentation of the special circumstance to the
data manager. To use these tables, read down the left side column until you
find an applicable situation, then read across to see how the cohort default
rate calculation is affected.

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 Special Circumstances Involving Schools
Situation                         How It Affects the                   How it Affects the
Denominator                          Numerator

A borrower separates from the           The borrower is included in the      The borrower is included if the
school that disbursed the loans         cohort fiscal year when the          borrower defaulted or met the
but enrolls at that school or a         borrower actually enters             other specified condition during
different school before the end of      repayment. If the date a             the cohort default period.
the grace period.                       borrower enters repayment is
delayed by the borrower re-
enrolling in school, then the
borrower’s inclusion in a cohort
default rate calculation will also
be delayed.

A borrower obtained more than           The borrower is included in the      The borrower is included if the
one loan to attend a school and         cohort fiscal years when the         borrower defaulted or met the
the repayment dates for each of         borrower entered repayment.          other specified condition during
the loans fall into different cohort    The borrower will appear in two      the relevant cohort default
fiscal years.                           different cohort default rate        periods. The borrower will
calculations for the same school     appear in different cohort default
if the borrower has two loans        rate calculations for the same
that enter repayment in different    school if the borrower has
cohort fiscal years.                 multiple loans, enters repayment
in separate cohort fiscal years,
and defaults or meets the other
specified condition during those
cohort default periods.

A borrower takes out loans at           The borrower is included in the      The borrower is included for the
more than one school.                   cohort fiscal years when the         schools at which the loans were
borrower entered repayment for       obtained if the borrower
each school where the borrower       defaulted or met the other
obtained loans.                      specified condition during those
cohort default periods.

A school, its owner, its agent,         The borrower is included in the      The borrower is included
contractor, employee, or another        cohort fiscal year when the          because the loan meets the
entity or individual associated         borrower entered repayment.          other specified condition during
with the school makes a                                                      the cohort default period.
payment on the borrower’s loan
in order to avoid default during
the cohort default period.

Page 2.1 - 9
 Special Circumstances Involving Repayment
Situation                     How It Affects the                  How it Affects the
Denominator                         Numerator

The borrower enters repayment       The borrower is included in the    The borrower is included if the
and subsequently obtains a          cohort fiscal year when the        borrower defaulted or met the
deferment or forbearance on         borrower entered repayment.        other specified condition during
the loan.                           Deferments or forbearances do      the cohort default period.
not alter the date the borrower
entered repayment.

A borrower consolidates one or      The borrower is included in the    Even though the borrower has
more defaulted loans.               cohort fiscal years when the       regained eligibility for Title IV
borrower entered repayment on      funds by consolidating, the
the underlying loans (the loans    borrower is still considered to be
that the borrower consolidated),   in default for the purpose of
not based on the date that the     calculating the school’s cohort
consolidation loan entered         default rate.
repayment.

A borrower requested and was        The borrower is included in the    The borrower is included if the
granted a revised repayment         cohort fiscal year when the        borrower defaulted or met the
schedule that started before the    early repayment schedule           other specified condition during
date the borrower was originally    begins. The early repayment        the cohort default period.
scheduled to enter repayment.       date becomes the repayment
date.

A borrower paid the loan in full    The borrower is included in the    The borrower is not included
before the date the loan was        cohort fiscal year that the        because the borrower did not
scheduled to enter repayment.       borrower paid the loan in full.    default, unless the loan was
The paid-in-full date becomes      paid in full through a
the new repayment date.            consolidation loan and the
consolidation loan defaults
during the cohort default period.

A borrower paid the loan in full    The borrower is included in the    The borrower is included
after defaulting or meeting the     cohort fiscal year when the        because the loan was not
other specified condition during    borrower entered repayment.        successfully rehabilitated for
the cohort default period but                                          cohort default rate purposes
without rehabilitating the loan                                        within the cohort default period.
within the cohort default period.

Page 2.1 - 10
 Special Circumstances Involving Loans That Were
Discharged, Canceled, or Refunded
Situation                          How It Affects the                How it Affects the
Denominator                       Numerator

The borrower’s loan was discharged             The borrower is included in      The borrower is not included
due to death, bankruptcy, disability, or       the cohort fiscal year based     because the borrower did not
other type of loan discharge (not              on the date the loan was         default.
including closed school, false                 discharged. The date of
certification, or identity theft) before the   discharge becomes the date
borrower entered repayment.                    entered repayment.

The borrower’s loan was discharged             The borrower is included in      The borrower is not included
due to death, bankruptcy, disability, or       the cohort fiscal year when      because the borrower did not
other type of loan discharge (not              the borrower entered             default.
including closed school, false                 repayment.
certification, or identity theft) after the
borrower enters repayment but before
the end of the cohort default period and
before the borrower defaults or meets
the other specified condition.

The borrower enters repayment and              The borrower is included in      The borrower is included
defaults or meets the other specified          the cohort fiscal year when      because the borrower defaulted
condition during the cohort period.            the borrower entered             or met the other specified
Subsequently, the loan is discharged           repayment.                       condition during the cohort
due to death, bankruptcy, disability or                                         default period.
other type of loan discharge.

The borrower’s loan was discharged             The borrower is not included     The borrower is not included
due to school closure, false                   because loans discharged         because loans discharged due
certification, and/or identity theft.          due to school closure, false     to school closure, false
certification, and/or identity   certification, and/or identity
thefts are not included in the   thefts are not included in the
cohort default rate              cohort default rate calculation.
calculation.

A loan was fully refunded or canceled,         The borrower is not included     The borrower is not included
within 120 days of loan disbursement.          because canceled loans are       because canceled loans are not
not included in the cohort       included in the cohort default
default rate calculation.        rate calculation.

The loan was partially refunded within         The borrower is included in      The borrower is included if the
120 days of loan disbursement.                 the cohort fiscal year when      borrower defaulted or met the
the borrower entered             other specified condition during
repayment on the portion of      the cohort default period.
the loan that was not
refunded.

Page 2.1 - 11
 Special Circumstances Involving Loans
That Were Repurchased
Situation                      How It Affects the                    How it Affects the
Denominator                           Numerator

A lender repurchased a defaulted     The borrower is not included          The borrower is not included
loan because the guaranty            because uninsured loans are not       because uninsured loans are not
agency determined that the           included in the cohort default rate   included in the cohort default rate
lender did not meet the insurance    calculation.                          calculation.
requirements and, as a result, the
loan lost insurance and became
an uninsured loan.

A lender immediately                 The borrower is included in the       The borrower is not included
repurchased a loan because the       cohort fiscal year when the           because the borrower is not in
lender incorrectly submitted the     borrower entered repayment.           default.
default claim to the guaranty
agency and does not submit
another default claim within the
cohort default period.

A lender immediately                 The borrower is included in the       The borrower is included
repurchased a loan because the       cohort fiscal year when the           because the subsequent default
lender incorrectly submitted the     borrower entered repayment.           claim was paid within the cohort
default claim to the guaranty                                              default period.
agency and later submits another
default claim that is paid within
the cohort default period.

A lender made a courtesy             The borrower is included in the       The borrower is included
repurchase of a defaulted loan       cohort fiscal year when the           because the original valid default
because the borrower                 borrower entered repayment.           claim was paid during the cohort
established a new repayment                                                default period.
plan or for other reasons.

Page 2.1 - 12
 Effects of Corrected Data on
Cohort Default Rate Calculations
How changes in data due to adjustments/appeals are reflected in the Cohort Default Rate calculation.

If the                   … and the                … and the                 … and the
borrower has no          borrower has              borrower has
Department:              other loans              other loans that          other loans that
included in the          are not in default        are in default
cohort default           included in the           included in the
rate calculation:        cohort default            cohort default
rate calculation:         rate calculation:

loan…                                                         +N            No effect.
+N
Regardless of
Subtracts a                           -D                                    circumstance, if the
defaulted loan…                                                -N           borrower has other
-N                                    loans in default, the
included in both the
defaulted loan…                      +D                  No effect.         numerator and
denominator

Subtracts a non-                      -D                 No effect.
defaulted loan…

Changes a
defaulted loan to
a non-defaulted                       -N                       -N
loan…

Changes a non-
defaulted loan to                    +N                       +N
a defaulted loan…

Legend: +D Increase Denominator by one. +N Increase Numerator by one.
- D Decrease Denominator by one. –N Decrease Numerator by one.

Page 2.1 - 13

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