TitleIII Technology Literacy Challenge Grant Learning Unit Overview | Content Knowledge | Essential Questions | Connection To Standards | Initiating Activity | Learning Experiences | Culminating Performance | Pre-Requisite Skills | Modifications | Schedule/Time Plan | Technology Use LU Title: Where On Earth? Author(s): Nadine O’Shaughnessy and Clarence Woodruff Grade Level: 10 School : Copenhagen Central School Topic/Subject Area: Earth Science Address: PO Box 30, Mechanic St. Copenhagen, NY 13626 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Phone/Fax: 315.688.4411 Cwoodruff@copen-high.moric.org 315.688.2001 OVERVIEW The purpose of this learning unit is for students to be able to estimate the size and shape of the earth. They will be able to create and understand representations of the earth‟s surface (mapping, profiling, gradient, . . . ) and describe what activities created the surface features that are observed. They will also reflect on human activity with regard to the earth‟s surface. This will be accomplished through in-class activities and laboratories, as well as independent projects. CONTENT KNOWLEDGE Declarative Procedural Define vocabulary words Calculate angle of insolation and angle of Polaris using a protractor Locate Polaris and calculate latitude Calculate size of a sphere using Eratosthenes‟ theory The earth rotates at 15 per hour Calculate longitude using time of day and rotation of earth Rules for using contour lines (contour Draw a profile from a topographic map lines “V” upstream, contour lines never cross, high side is always on the same side, . . . ) Formula for gradient Calculate gradient and relate it to a topographic map Three types of landscapes (plains, Use a topographic map to determine stream plateaus, and mountains) and their causes drainage pattern (drainage patterns, uplifting forces, and leveling forces) Environmental factors affecting landscapes (climate, soils, shorelines, glaciers, and human activity) ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS 1. What is the natural appearance of the earth, and how can it be represented? 2. How is the human race affecting the appearance of the earth, and what may the future hold as a result? CONNECTIONS TO NYS LEARNING STANDARDS List Standard # and Key Idea #: Write out related Performance Indicator(s) or Benchmark(s) MST, Standard 2, Information Systems, Intermediate Level Key Idea 1 Collect data from probes to measure events and phenomena. MST, Standard 2, Information Systems, Commencement Level Key Idea 1 Understand and use the more advance features of word processing, spreadsheets, and data-base software. Prepare multimedia presentations demonstrating a clear sense of audience and purpose. Utilize electronic networks to share information. MST, Standard 4, Physical Setting, Commencement Level Key Idea 1 Explain complex phenomena, such as tides, variations in day length, solar insolation, apparent motions of the planets, and annual traverse of the constellations. Key Idea 2 Use the concepts of density and heat energy to explain observations of weather patterns, seasonal changes, and the movements of the earth‟s plates. Explain how incoming solar radiations, ocean currents, and land masses affect weather and climate. Key Idea 7 Describe the range of interrelationships of humans with the living and nonliving environment. Explain the impact of technological development and growth in the human population on the living and nonliving environment. Explain how individual choices and societal actions can contribute to improving the environment. MST, Standard 6, Commencement Level Key Idea 2 Revise a model to create a more complete or improved representation of the system Key Idea 3 Describe the effects of changes in scale on the functioning of physical, biological, or designed systems. Key Idea 4 Describe specific instances of how disturbances might affect a system‟s equilibrium, from small disturbances that do not upset the equilibrium to larger disturbances (threshold level) that cause the system to become unstable. Key Idea 6 Analyze subjective decision making problems to explain the trade-offs that can be made to arrive at the best solution. ELA, Standard 3, Commencement Level Key Idea 2 Present orally and in writing well-developed analyses of issues, ideas, and texts, explaining the rationale for their positions and analyzing their positions from a variety of perspectives in such forms as formal speeches, debates, thesis/support papers, literary critiques, and issues analyses. INITIATING ACTIVITY This unit will be introduced by engaging the students in a type of scavenger hunt. However, instead of locating and collecting items, the students will be required to find specific unknown locations. The activity will take four days and has two parts. During the first phase of the activity students will work in pairs to create a map. They will be charged with drawing a map, to scale, from a known starting location to an ending location known only to the partners drawing the map. Tools necessary include compasses, metersticks, and graph paper. The main parameter is that the students must remain on the school property (indoors and out-of-doors). During the second part of the activity the maps will be shuffled and taken to another section of Earth Science students. The latter students will be grouped in diads and each pair will use a map to find an unknown location. They will use the same tools as the authors to find their way. This activity will not be assessed because it is meant to be an introduction to the material that will follow. LEARNING EXPERIENCES In chronological order including acquisition experiences and extending/refining experiences for all stated declarative and procedural knowledge. 1. The unit will begin with the initiating activity, which is discussed in detail above. Please see attached page for specific directions given to the students. This will require approximately four days. While this activity is occurring in class, the culminating performance is being assigned in lab. The scoring guides are also distributed at this time. One or two lab periods are dedicated to students for their research. 2. The teacher provides a note-taking guide for the entire unit to be placed in their notebooks (also attached). Instruction will be provided (and notes completed) on Eratosthenes‟ theory for calculating the size of the earth. Calculations will be practiced in class, a practice worksheet is attached below, and the entire procedure will be emulated in lab. Two days of class should be enough time. Lab time is additional. Two labs are attached entitled “The Earth‟s Circumference.” In the first lab activity, the students calculate the circumference of spheres drawn on the worksheets. In the second, they calculate circumference of various globes and spheres provided by the teacher. 3. A discussion of latitude and longitude as a means of measuring the surface of the earth is next. They will discover, using data provided by the teacher, that latitude is actually the same measurement as the angle of Polaris over the horizon. A data sheet is attached below. After this discussion, they will complete this section of their notes. They will also work through the process of calculating longitude using local time, and GMT. Time will be provided in class for the students to master this process. Three days should be enough class time for this material (one day for discovery and notes, one day for a practice worksheet, and one day to start the attached activity “Latitude and Longitude” which will be completed for homework). 4. Students will use their textbook to observe the various types of maps used to represent the surface of the earth. Class time will focus particularly on contour maps and isolines. Several examples of topographic maps will be shared using the overhead projector (the teacher has an extensive collection of commercially prepared overheads), and students will be required to solve problems using contour lines. Approximately two classes will be devoted for this step, one day for discussion and notes, one day for practice. Lab activities have been attached to accompany this section of the unit. They are entitled “Constructing a Contour Map” and “Constructing a Field Map.” 5. When students have mastered the process of reading contour lines, they will be required to create profiles from topographic maps as well as calculating gradient for given areas on maps. Two days will be devoted to these activities. The lab “Mapping the „Ocean Floor‟” is attached. 6. Now that the students have estimated the size and shape of the earth, and mapped the surface of the earth, it is time to determine what features caused the maps to appear the way they did. A discussion of landscapes will ensue and notes for the unit will be completed. They will be given class time to work independently or in small groups using their textbooks to complete their notes. When they have finished writing their notes, they will share their findings to be sure everyone has correctly filled in their note-taking guides. This will take about three days. The attached activity “Landscapes of New York State” will be started in class on the third day and finished for homework. 7. Finally, students will give their oral presentations, which is the last part of their culminating performance. 8. The teacher must determine when to administer quizzes and assign homework. Only a few assignments have been attached. It is suggested that quizzes and homework occur as frequently as possible. When the presentations have been completed, a NYS Regents style test is given. CULMINATING PERFORMANCE Include rubric(s) 1. Each student will be assigned a human activity that affects the earth‟s landscapes to research outside of class. Their task will be to assume the role of a journalist. They will write an article for publication in a major periodical reporting the negative and positive effects that this particular human activity is having on the surface of the earth. They must also include some appropriate photographs to create an authentic magazine “spread.” 2. Each student will discuss their findings in an oral summary to the class using presentation software. PRE-REQUISITE SKILLS Students at Copenhagen Central School have extensive knowledge of technology and computers. They have been exposed since kindergarten and reach tenth grade with the ability to use such programs as Word, Power Point, Publisher, as well as the internet, laser disk, and PASCO equipment. MODIFICATIONS No extraordinary modifications need to be made to implement this unit. However, special education students receive extended time on quizzes and tests. UNIT SCHEDULE/TIME PLAN Planning this unit should take only a few hours if the materials included herein are used and reproduced. Lab preparation is additional. Class length in the authors‟ district is approximately forty minutes long. Therefore, implementation of this unit will require three to four weeks of instruction. Assessment of the culminating performance will necessitate fifteen to twenty minutes per student. Grading homework and quizzes is additional. TECHNOLOGY USE Technological hardware used in this unit include: computer, scanner, digital camera, PASCO equipment, and laser disk. Software used in the unit include: Word, Publisher, Power Point, Data Studio, internet The following pages are for the students for in-class activities. Where On Earth? So you want to go somewhere in life. So you want to see the world. So you don‟t want to remain rooted in the same old place. Here is the overriding question: how are you going to get there? Today you are going to answer that question. How do you get from here to there? First, choose a starting location in this room. Record it here _____________. Include this on your map. Second, discuss with your partner (and NO ONE else), where you would like to go anywhere on the school property. Do not record this anywhere because it is confidential. Third, draw a map from your starting location to that secret location. Use a compass to ensure that your map is oriented properly (you will complete a short activity demonstrating how to use a compass in a few minutes). Use a meterstick to accurately measure distance. Your map must fit on one page of graph paper. Therefore, you will need to create a scale that will allow this. For instance, one centimeter on the paper could equal one meter on the ground. Remember, as you travel farther from this room your scale will need to represent a greater distance. Record your scale here: 1 centimeter = ______________. Include this on your map. Your map will be anonymously given to someone who will attempt to follow it to your secret location. The goal is for them to find your secret location without getting lost. Do a good job! Where on Earth? Latitude and Longitude Examine the data in the following table. As you look over this information, try to find any trends that might help you to calculate latitude or longitude if you were only given a piece of the data rather than all of it. Latitude Longitude Angle of Angle of Local Greenwich Polaris on Southern Time Mean the Cross on Time horizon the horizon 45N 15W 45 Not visible 5:00pm 6:00pm 38N 30W 38 Not visible 2:00pm 4:00pm 3N 45W 3 Not visible 6:00am 9:00am 0 0 0 0 1:00am 1:00am 10S 15E Not visible 10 5:00pm 4:00pm 26S 30E Not visible 26 2:00pm 12:00noon 67S 45E Not visible 67 6:00am 3:00am List the generalities you can make from analyzing these data: Name _________________________ Earth Science Longitude and Latitude Practice 1. 30 you Polaris What is your latitude? _____ 2. GMT is 7:00pm. Your watch reads 1:00pm and it is correct. What is your longitude? 3. Find longitude. GMT Your time Longitude 6:00pm 4:00pm 6:00pm 8:00pm 1:00pm 3:00am 12:00pm 12:00am 4. Find longitude and latitude. GMT Your time Polaris‟ Latitude Longitude altitude 5:00am 1:00pm 40N 1:00am 78 105E 11:00am 3:00pm 25 2:00pm 20N 90W The following pages are a note-taking guide for the students to use throughout the unit. Type that is bold and underlined is replaced by blanks for students to fill in during reading, lecture, and note-taking. Where On Earth? I. Models of the earth A. A model of the earth represented on paper would appear to be a perfect circle. B. The actual shape of the earth is an oblate spheroid. An oblate spheroid is slightly flattened at the poles and slightly bulging at the equator. 1. The equatorial diameter is slightly greater than the polar diameter. 2. The following are evidence that the earth is an oblate spheroid. a. If the earth were a perfect sphere, the altitude of Polaris vs. the distance from the equator would change in perfect correlation. Precise measurements show that there is some variation. Therefore, the earth is not a perfect sphere. It is more likely an oblate spheroid. b. Measurements from a gravimeter show that the gravity at the poles is actually greater than the gravity at the equator. This suggests that the poles are closer to the earth‟s core than the equator. c. Photographs from space offer the best evidence for the precise size and shape of the earth. II. Estimating the size of the earth A. Eratosthenes‟ theory Measure Angle of the shadow distance Distance between the two Shadow angle points 1. 2 poles are driven into the ground at different locations. One pole has a shadow while the other pole does not. Find the distance between the poles and the angle of the shadow. Ex: 600 km 30 2. Divide the angle into 360. Ex: 360 = 12 30 3. Multiply the answer by the distance between the two poles. This is the circumference. Ex: (12)(600 km) = 7200 km III. Viewpoints A. Latitude 1. Latitudes run E and W and are parallel to each other. 2. Latitude lines measure distance north and south of the equator. 3. The maximum possible value of latitude is 90. 4. The equator is 0 and is the starting point for measuring latitude. B. Longitude 1. Longitude lines run N and S 2. They run from pole to pole NOT all the way around the globe. 3. Longitude measures distance E and W of the prime meridian. 4. The prime meridian is 0 longitude and the starting point for longitude. 5. The maximum possible value for longitude is 180. C. Calculating latitude and longitude 1. Latitude is always equal to the altitude of polaris in the northern hemisphere. How to locate Polaris a. Find the Big Dipper which is located on the northern horizon. b. Locate the 2 stars on the front end of the Big Dipper. c. Follow a line traced along these two stars 5 lengths up to the Little Dipper. d. The last star in the handle of the Little Dipper is Polaris. Note to the teacher: insert a diagram of the above process in this space. 2. Finding longitude The earth rotates at 15 per hour. Find “your” time (local time). Find the time in Greenwich, England. This is called Greenwich Mean Time or GMT. Calculate the difference between the two times. Multiply the difference by 15 since the earth rotates at 15 per hour. If “your” time is later in the day than GMT label your answer E. If “your” time is earlier in the day than GMT label your answer W. IV. Maps A. Map projections – created when points on a globe are transferred to paper. 1. Mercator projection – continents are the correct shape but their sizes are distorted, especially near the poles. 2. Robinson projection – causes less distortion near the poles. B. Topographic maps – shows the changes in elevation 1. Contour lines – all points on a contour line have the same elevation 2. Rules for interpreting contour lines All points on a contour line have the same elevation. Land on one side of a contour line is always higher or lower than land on the opposite side. In other words, when one crosses a contour line, one is either travelling uphill OR downhill. The high side of a contour line is always on the same side. Every fourth or fifth contour line is usually an index contour line. This line is usually darker in color and marked with a numerical value of elevation. A contour line bends (V‟s) upstream when crossing a river or valley. Contour lines are always closed or endless lines. If traced throughout its entire length, a contour line ends at the same point where it began. Contour lines never branch or fork. The inside of a closed contour line is the high side unless it is hatchered. The ground must rise away from streams. 3. Contour interval – refers to the elevation between two contour lines. This is what the lines “count” by. 4. Profile – a graph showing the elevation changes along a straight line distance between two points Contour lines close together represent steep slopes while those far apart represent gentle slopes. C. Gradient – the slope of the land between two points on a contour map 1. On any map with isolines, it is the rate of change between 2 points. 2. The formula for calculating gradient is on the back page of the Ref. Tab. Gradient = in field value in distance 3. The change in field value is calculated by finding the difference between the isolines. 4. The change in distance is calculated by placing two marks on a piece of paper and measuring the distance between the marks using the scale. V. Landforms (a.k.a. landscape regions) – determined by Hillslopes Streams Soils Strata low elevation low gradients deep topsoil low or meandering subsoil Plains nonexistent hills paths fertile land for flat mostly waning crops slopes medium to high steep to gradual Variable soils, elevation gradients thin in uplands, steep to gradual rushing streams thicker in valleys surfaces to broad, high- Valley areas are Plateaus shorter free face volume rivers fertile and than mountains productive longer waxing and waning slopes than mountains high elevation steep gradients thin topsoil steep slopes high velocity bedrock exposed small waxing water over large areas slopes small streams Mountains large free face variable debris slopes A. Types of plains 1. Coastal plains – lowlands near an ocean coast. Low rolling hills, swamps marshes. Ex: Everglades 2. Interior plains – lowlands in the center of a continent Ex: Great Plains B. Types of mountains – see Figures 8-4 – 8-7 on pages 199-201. 1. Folded mountains – form when rock layers are squeezed in from opposite sides Ex: Appalachians 2. Upwarped mountains – form when rock is pushed up from forces inside the earth Ex: Adirondacks 3. Fault-block mountains – form when large tilted rock separates along faults Ex: Sierra Nevadas 4. Volcanic mountains – form when lava cools, layer after layer piling up and forming a cone shape Ex: Cascades VI. Stream drainage patterns characterized by branching like the limbs of trees or roots Dendritic found on plains and plateaus valleys and rich terrain found where rocks of different Trellis hardness are folded streams radiate out from a central point Radial found on peaks of volcanoes or mountains or large round hills develop in strongly jointed and folded areas Annular/Rectangular streams follow the joint/fold pattern VII. Environmental factors in the formation of landscapes A. Uplifting (constructive) forces and leveling (destructive) forces 1. When uplifting is dominant Gradients are generally steep Fault block mountains V-shaped valleys Alluvial fan valley formation 2. When uplifting is equal to leveling Many branching gullies and streams Much sediment has been transported 3. When leveling is dominant Gentle gradient Rounded hilltops B. Shoreline landscapes 1. Emergent shoreline – the ocean floor emerges to become part of the landscape. 2. Submergent shoreline – the land adjacent to the ocean subsides and becomes part of the ocean floor. 3. Neutral shoreline – there is no relative change in the elevation of the shoreline. C. Soil formation – the formation of soils on these landscapes is influenced mostly by climate and bedrock 1. Arid climates cause soil to be thin or nonexistent, no vegetation, contain many mineral salts 2. Humid climates cause soil to be thicker and higher in biological (organic) content. D. Climate and landscapes 1. Arid climates cause hillslopes to be angular with sharp features. 2. Humid climates cause hillslopes to be well rounded. E. Glaciers and landscapes 1. Mountain tops and steep slopes are devoid of most soil 2. Transported soils cover large areas at the base of mountains 3. Soil contains a range of size of particles. 4. Valleys are wide and U-shaped 5. Many lakes. 6. Many small hills composed of sediments 7. Bedrock is polished and scratched 8. The glaciers are still present 9. Glacial terminology: Arete – a sharp narrow ridge Cirque – amphitheater-type features Moraine – rock material carried by a glacier Till – unsorted rock material Drumlins – elongated, oval shaped hills Esker – winding ridges composed of glacial sand and gravel Kettles – circular depressions called kettle lakes VIII. Human factors in landscape development A. Human population is growing at an exponential rate Population 1000 1500 1990 Year B. Environmental changes due to population increase 1. Deforestation 2. Mining – strip and pit 3. Construction C. Pollution – humans cause pollution because of their technology 1. Atmospheric pollution Aerosols- increase reflection of solar energy. Also cause ozone depletion Greenhouse effect – caused by CO2 and H2O Smog Acid rain IX. New York State landscapes – see Ref. Tab. p. _____ A. NY has a greater number of different landscape regions than any other state because of the bedrock within the state. B. Different types of bedrock have different degrees of resistance. C. The least resistant rock weathers the fastest. X. Spheres of the earth A. Lithosphere – solid outer layer of the earth (crust) which is about 100km deep. B. Hydrosphere – the “water” part of the earth which includes polar ice, subsurface water, and water vapor lithosphere C. Atmosphere – layer of gases surrounding the earth. See ref tab pgs: The following pages are sample homework assignments and vocabulary quizzes for the students. The two long assignments will be started in class and finished at home. Several other assignments and quizzes will be given throughout the unit that are not included herein. Name _______________________ Earth Science Eratosthenes‟ Theory and Earth‟s Shape Homework 1. Describe how measurements of the altitude of the sun at the same time at two different locations can be used to calculate the circumference of the earth. 2. From what do we obtain the most accurate evidence for determining the exact size and shape of the earth? 3. State one observation from which you might infer a round earth. Explain how this observation could also be interpreted as indicating a different shape for the earth. 4. Is there any evidence that could be accepted as proof of the earth‟s shape? Name ______________________ LANDSCAPES OF NEW YORK STATE INTRODUCTION: Landscape forms result from the interaction of erosional and uplifting forces upon various types of bedrock. These rocks differ in their resistance under existing climatic conditions. The great variety of landscape regions in New York are due to the diversity in structure, age and resistance of bedrock found throughout the state. OBJECTIVE: By interpreting maps you will identify the environmental factors (patterns of drainage and bedrock) which influence the development of landscape features within New York State. PROCEDURE A: AREA ELEVATION Compare Map I to the relief maps provided and the Generalized Landscape Region Map in the Earth Science Reference Tables. 1. On Map 1, label each area as either high elevation, middle elevation, or low elevation. Lightly shade each area using the following color key: High Elevation = red Middle Elevation = yellow Low Elevation = green 2. On Map 1 write in the name of each landscape region in the correct location. PROCEDURE B: SURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS In addition to elevation, the patterns of water drainage on a land surface play an important role in landscape formation. Map 2 shows some of the rivers, streams, and lakes in New York State. 1. Referring to the Generalized New York State Bedrock Geology Map in the Earth Science Reference Tables, find and label the following water features on Map 2. Use a blue pencil to trace over and highlight each feature. a) Susquehanna River (It flows out of the state midway between longitude 76 West & 77 West at the southern border.) b) Hudson River c) St. Lawrence River d) Lake Ontario e) Niagara River f) Lake Erie g) Finger Lakes h) Long Island Sound i) Atlantic Ocean j) Lake Champlain 2. What major river system is in watershed A? 3. What major river system is in watershed B? 4. Watershed C drains into what body of water? 5. Watershed D drains into what body of water? 6. Watershed E drains into what body of water? 7. Watershed F drains into what body of water? PROCEDURE C: GEOGRAPHIC AREAS AND BEDROCK GEOLOGY Compare the Generalized Bedrock Geology Map from the Reference Tables with your completed Map I and answer the following questions. 1. In the area of high elevation, what is the bedrock type and age? (By age we mean the geologic period in which it was formed.) 2. In the low coastal plain region (Area F) describe the bedrock in terms of type and age. 3. Area A includes the Catskill Mountains (a plateau, dissected by streams, which gives the appearance of being mountains). Describe the bedrock in terms of type and age. 4. Describe the Lake Area Lowland (Area B) in terms of rock type and age. 5. Describe Area D in terms of rock type and age. 6. Describe Area E in terms of rock type and age. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: (Answer in Complete Sentences) 1. Name the landscape regions of high, medium, and low elevation in New York State. 2. Which regions show evidence that crustal uplift was dominant over erosional forces in the past? 3. Using the information from this lab and cross-section E-F from Lab 13-5, explain why the Catskill Mountains are not really considered to be mountains. 4. How many major drainage systems are there in New York State? 5. In which drainage system is your school located? 6. What caused the development of the different drainage systems in New York State? 7. In which landscape region of New York State is the most resistant bedrock found? 8. What physical characteristics of the bedrock are responsible for the oldest rock remaining at the highest elevation? CONCLUSION: What factors result in the formation of landscapes? Where on Earth? Vocabulary Part I equator – latitude – prime meridian – longitude – International Date Line – Polaris – gravimeter – altitude – oblate spheroid – radius – mass of the earth – circumference – Name _______________________________ Earth Science Where on Earth? Vocabulary I Quiz equator latitude prime meridian longitude Polaris gravimeter International Date Line altitude oblate spheroid radius mass of the earth circumference 1. _______________ 0 latitude. Located exactly half-way between the North and South Poles. 2. _______________ A very sensitive instrument used to measure gravity. 3. _______________ 5.98 x 1024 kg 4. _______________ The star that is located directly over the North Pole. It‟s angle with the horizon is 90. 5. _______________ A sphere that is flattened along one diameter and bulges around the other diameter. The earth has this general shape. 6. _______________ Measurement of the distance above the horizon (vertical angle). The angle above the ground made by an object with the ground. 7. _______________ The measurement of the distance around a sphere or circle. 8. _______________ A line extending from the center of a circle or sphere to the circumference or surface. It is equal to half of the diameter. 9. _______________ The angular distance (in degrees) north and south of the equator. 10. _______________ 0 longitude. Runs through Greenwich, England. 11. _______________ The angular distance (in degrees) east and west of the prime meridian. 12. _______________ The 180 longitude line that is the transition line for calendar days. Where on Earth? Vocabulary Part II topographic map – contour line – contour interval – map scale – profile – coordinate system – local noon – gradient – isotherm – isoline – vector field – Name _______________________________ Earth Science Where on Earth? Vocabulary II Quiz topographic map contour line contour interval map scale profile coordinate system local noon gradient isotherm isoline vector field 1. _______________ Any system for assigning two numbers to every point on a surface. 2. _______________ Also called apparent solar noon. The time at which the sun is at its highest point in the sky. It occurs at the same time for all locations along a single longitude line. The difference between local noon at any given point and noon at the prime meridian is the basis for measuring longitude. 3. _______________ A graph of elevation vs. distance along a line. The shape one would see if the land were cut into a cross-section between two points. 4. _______________ On a map of a field, this is a line connecting all points having the same field value. 5. _______________ Isolines on a map that connect all points of equal temperature. 6. _______________ Fields that cannot be described simply in terms of magnitude. Such fields need both magnitude and direction. 7. _______________ The rate of change between two points; the quantity of change per unit of distance. Also called slope. 8. _______________ Shows the relationship between the distances on a map and the actual distances on the earth‟s surface. 9. _______________ A map that shows the changes in elevation on the earth‟s surface. 10. _______________ The difference in elevation between two contour lines on a topographic map. This is what the lines on a topographic map “count by.” 11. _______________ All points of equal elevation are connected to form this line on a topographic map. Where on Earth? Vocabulary Part III plains – plateaus – folded mountains – upwarped mountains – fault-block mountains – volcanic mountains – leveling forces – stream drainage patterns – uplifting forces – hydrosphere – atmosphere – lithosphere – Name _______________________________ Earth Science Where on Earth? Vocabulary III Quiz plains plateaus folded mountains upwarped mountains fault-block mountains volcanic mountains leveling forces stream drainage patterns uplifting forces hydrosphere atmosphere lithosphere 1. _______________ The solid rock that forms a continuous shell around the earth. 2. _______________ Forces that undo the work of the leveling forces. Operate beneath or within the crust. Build mountains. Include such forces as volcanic activity, continental drift. 3. _______________ Mountains formed when rock layers buckle and fold because they are being squeezed from opposite sides. 4. _______________ Mountains formed when lava exits a volcano and solidifies at the surface. This occurs repeatedly and the lava piles up forming a cone-shaped structure. 5. _______________ Form when forces inside the earth push rock layers up creating landforms with high elevations. 6. _______________ Form when large tilted masses of rock are separated from surrounding rocks by faults or cracks. 7. _______________ Areas of high elevation with relatively flat surfaces. The bedrock is formed of relatively horizontal layers of rock. 8. _______________ Large, flat areas with low elevations 9. _______________ The layer of gases surrounding the earth. 10. _______________ Forces such as erosion that cause the landscape slopes to become smoother and gentler. 11. _______________ The thin layer of water that rests on or penetrates the lithosphere. Consists of all the earth‟s water, including polar ice and subsurface water. 12. _______________ The characteristics of how streams flow due to gradient and drainage density. The following pages are the culminating performance with assessments. What On Earth Are We Doing? As humans, we are constantly studying and learning about our earth. We use our knowledge to improve our quality of living in many ways. However, when we use this knowledge we frequently cause damage to that which we studied in the first place, our earth. Over the next three weeks you will be assuming a responsibility to expose harmful human activity. You will take the role of an investigative journalist to uncover a story. It will be your task to write an article for publication in a major periodical (such as Time or Newsweek). Since your budget is very tight, you will also need to take your own photographs to incorporate into the article. When you finish, you will have an article, two-page spread, with supporting pictures ready to go to print. Your article should contain: 1. A thorough description of the human activity you have chosen what it is, how it is accomplished, where it occurs, . . . 2. The positive ways that this activity is helping humans in their lives 3. The negative impacts that this activity has on the earth’s surface 4. Current laws or legislation that is in place to regulate this activity 5. What the future may hold if this activity continues You may choose from the following list of activities Mining (choose only one kind) Dams Oil removal Deforestation Construction Draining of wetlands Forest fires (starting and stopping) Coastlines Global warming Agriculture Finally, you will present an oral summary of your findings in a short talk to the class. You will use presentation software such as “Power Point.” What On Earth Are We Doing? Article Scoring Guide Journalist: _____________________________ Content: 21 points _____ 2 points will be credited for a creative, attention-grabbing title. One point will be allowed for a less creative title. _____ 3 points will be credited for including a complete description of the human activity you are reporting. This must include details of what the activity is trying to accomplish, how it is completed, how it impacts the economics of the world, and so on. One or two points will be allowed for less complete descriptions. _____ 2 points will be allowed for a detailed description of the process that workers must follow in order to accomplish the activity. This description will be considered acceptable if the reader completely understands the activity and is able to share it with someone who did not read the article. Remember that you are trying to get the message out to the public. _____ 1 point will be given for including the location in the world where the activity you are reporting actually occurs. _____ 3 points will be earned for including a description of the positive impacts this activity has on human life. Explain why we want to engage in this activity. _____ 3 points will be awarded for a complete analysis of the negative impacts that this activity has on the earth’s surface. Explain how it is changing the surface of the earth and why it is harmful. _____ 1 point will be given for a discussion regarding the current legislation and laws that govern this activity. _____ 3 points will be allowed for reporting what the future will hold if this activity continues. Include future effects on the earth‟s surface, human life, and wildlife. Also include suggestions for how the activity could be changed to be less harmful to the earth‟s surface and the environment. _____ 3 points will be granted for including at least three photos supporting your report. Mechanics: 15 points _____ 5 points will be awarded for perfect spelling and grammar. One point will be deducted for each error up to five errors. _____ 5 points will be awarded for perfect punctuation. One point will be deducted for each error up to five errors. _____ 2 points will be granted if the article has the layout (appearance) of an actual, 2-page spread, magazine article. It is ready for publication. _____ 3 points will be given for a works cited throughout the article. Facts reported must be cited in the text of the article in the same way as is accomplished in printed periodicals. TOTAL POINTS EARNED _____ What On Earth Are We Doing? Oral Presentation Scoring Guide Journalist: ________________________ Content: 6 points _____ The human activity is described in an understandable way (1 point). _____ The physical process and where it occurs is included (1 point). _____ The positive impacts on human life are explained (1 point). _____ The negative impacts on the earth‟s surface are explained (1 point). _____ Future effects of this activity are included (1 point). _____ Photos are included to support the presentation (1 point). Presentation: 3 points _____ The report is organized and presented in a concise fashion (1 point). _____ The presenter possesses knowledge about the human activity and can answer fair questions (as determined by the teacher) about the process and its impacts (1 point). _____ The volume and pace of the presentation are appropriate for the audience (1 point). TOTAL POINTS EARNED _____ TOTAL PROJECT SCORE: (Points earned from article and presentation) _____ = _____% (Total points possible) 45 The following pages are lab activities that occur during an additional laboratory period. Constructing a Field Map Introduction: A field is a region in which there is a definite physical property that can be measured at every point. There are many kinds of measurable field values that vary from place to place on or near the earth‟s surface. Among these measurable field values are atmospheric pressure, temperature and the elevation of the earth‟s surface with respect to sea level. In earth science you will be concerned with many types of field maps. In this lab you will be introduced to these types of maps by using temperature data. Objective: You will measure and plot field values on a map. You will then learn to construct isolines and interpret the resulting field map. Procedure A: *NOTE: Read all temperatures to the nearest 0.01 degree. 1. Collect temperature data using your temperature probe and computer interface of your station one meter above desk level. Be sure to notate which run measured which data on the report sheet. 2. Obtain measurements for the other stations in the room in the same manner. 3. When you have finished collecting temperature data, connect to the computer. Record the average temperature for each run in the corresponding space on the report sheet. 4. Plot the station temperatures on your room map. 5. Construct isotherms on your room map using one degree Celsius intervals. Procedure B: 1. Construct isotherms using one degree Celsius intervals on the “Ideal” map. 2. Locate and label an energy source and an energy sink. 3. Draw an arrow which shows the direction energy flows between the souce and the sink. 4. Calculate the temperature gradient between points A and B. Show all work. 5. Calculate the temperature gradient between points C and D. Show all work. Report Sheet Station Number Run Number Temperature (C) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Discussion Questions: (Answer in complete sentences.) 1. Will the temperature field you measured and mapped have the same appearance tomorrow? Explain your answer. 2. Between which two letters on the “Ideal” map is the rate of temperature change the greatest? 3. Between which two letters on the “Ideal” map is the rate of temperature change the least? 4. As the temperature difference between two points increases, what happens to the spacing of the isotherms? 5. What factors may have caused the temperature variations in the classroom/ 6. Other than the types of fields already mentioned in this lab, name at least two other scientific field quantities. 7. If a heat lamp were introduced into the room at Position B on the “Ideal” map, what changes would occur in the isotherm values? Mapping the “Ocean Floor” Equipment: PASCO 750 Interface Motion Sensor Rotary Motion Sensor Cross bar from a small ring stand Various “ocean floor objects” Purpose: Use a motion sensor and a rotary motion sensor to create a profile. The resulting profile will be used to determine what characteristics are located at the bottom of the “ocean floor.” Procedure: Setting up the equipment: 1. The motion sensor should be connected in the first digital input. The rotary motion sensor should be connected to the third digital input. 2. Launch Data Studio. Click and drag the appropriate icons to the corresponding inputs on the screen. Double click on the “Rotary Motion Sensor” icon. Click the “Measurement” tab. Choose “Position” and turn off “Angular Position.” Double click on the “Motion Sensor” icon, go to “Measurement” and make sure that the only item chosen is “Position.” 3. The “ocean floor” that you will be mapping is located at your station on the floor. 4. Connect the motion sensor to the rotary motion sensor by sliding a bar through both of them. 5. Place the motion sensor so that it protrudes far enough for the circular sensor to clear the desk. Collecting data: 1. When you are ready, click “Start.” 2. Slide the motion sensor across the slit on the box. As the rotary motion sensor follows, the wheel should be turning measuring distance. 3. Click “Stop” when you reach the end of the slit. Displaying the data: 1. Create a new graph display. 2. Drag data from the motion sensor (position) to the _____-axis. Drag data from the rotary motion sensor (position) to the _____-axis. 3. This data is upside down compared to the actual profile of the objects at the bottom of your box. To reverse this, click on the “Calculator” icon at the top of the graph display. Measure the height of the box in meters. Type in “y = ____ - x.” Click “Accept.” 4. Remove the old data that was upside down from the graph display. Display the calculated data one run at a time to attempt to determine what is at the bottom of your “ocean floor.” Conclusions: 1. What do the objects on the floor represent? 2. To what Earth feature is this the most similar? 3. What possible uses might this technology serve outside the lab (in addition to mapping the ocean floor)?