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Formula for Calculating Earth Resistance by cpt74056


Formula for Calculating Earth Resistance document sample

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									                           TitleIII Technology Literacy Challenge Grant
                                                         Learning Unit
    Overview | Content Knowledge | Essential Questions | Connection To Standards | Initiating Activity | Learning Experiences | Culminating
                         Performance | Pre-Requisite Skills | Modifications | Schedule/Time Plan | Technology Use

LU Title: Where On Earth?                                                 Author(s):          Nadine O’Shaughnessy and
                                                                                              Clarence Woodruff
Grade Level: 10                                                           School :            Copenhagen Central School
Topic/Subject Area: Earth Science                                         Address:            PO Box 30, Mechanic St.
                                                                                              Copenhagen, NY 13626
Email:                                 Phone/Fax:          315.688.4411                                                         315.688.2001

The purpose of this learning unit is for students to be able to estimate the size and shape of the
earth. They will be able to create and understand representations of the earth‟s surface
(mapping, profiling, gradient, . . . ) and describe what activities created the surface features that
are observed. They will also reflect on human activity with regard to the earth‟s surface. This
will be accomplished through in-class activities and laboratories, as well as independent projects.

                                               CONTENT KNOWLEDGE

                         Declarative                                                            Procedural
     Define vocabulary words                                             Calculate angle of insolation and angle of
                                                                           Polaris using a protractor
     Locate Polaris and calculate latitude                               Calculate size of a sphere using
                                                                           Eratosthenes‟ theory
     The earth rotates at 15 per hour                                   Calculate longitude using time of day and
                                                                           rotation of earth
     Rules for using contour lines (contour                              Draw a profile from a topographic map
      lines “V” upstream, contour lines never
      cross, high side is always on the same
      side, . . . )
     Formula for gradient                                                Calculate gradient and relate it to a
                                                                           topographic map
     Three types of landscapes (plains,                                  Use a topographic map to determine stream
      plateaus, and mountains) and their causes                            drainage pattern
      (drainage patterns, uplifting forces, and
      leveling forces)
     Environmental factors affecting
      landscapes (climate, soils, shorelines,
      glaciers, and human activity)
                                  ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
1.     What is the natural appearance of the earth, and how can it be represented?

2.     How is the human race affecting the appearance of the earth, and what may the future
       hold as a result?

         List Standard # and Key Idea #: Write out related Performance Indicator(s) or Benchmark(s)
MST, Standard 2, Information Systems, Intermediate Level
     Key Idea 1
             Collect data from probes to measure events and phenomena.

MST, Standard 2, Information Systems, Commencement Level
      Key Idea 1
              Understand and use the more advance features of word processing,
                 spreadsheets, and data-base software.
              Prepare multimedia presentations demonstrating a clear sense of audience and
              Utilize electronic networks to share information.

MST, Standard 4, Physical Setting, Commencement Level
      Key Idea 1
              Explain complex phenomena, such as tides, variations in day length, solar
                 insolation, apparent motions of the planets, and annual traverse of the
      Key Idea 2
              Use the concepts of density and heat energy to explain observations of
                 weather patterns, seasonal changes, and the movements of the earth‟s plates.
              Explain how incoming solar radiations, ocean currents, and land masses affect
                 weather and climate.
      Key Idea 7
              Describe the range of interrelationships of humans with the living and
                 nonliving environment.
              Explain the impact of technological development and growth in the human
                 population on the living and nonliving environment.
              Explain how individual choices and societal actions can contribute to
                 improving the environment.

MST, Standard 6, Commencement Level
      Key Idea 2
              Revise a model to create a more complete or improved representation of the
      Key Idea 3
              Describe the effects of changes in scale on the functioning of physical,
                 biological, or designed systems.
       Key Idea 4
               Describe specific instances of how disturbances might affect a system‟s
                  equilibrium, from small disturbances that do not upset the equilibrium to
                  larger disturbances (threshold level) that cause the system to become unstable.
       Key Idea 6
               Analyze subjective decision making problems to explain the trade-offs that
                  can be made to arrive at the best solution.

ELA, Standard 3, Commencement Level
      Key Idea 2
              Present orally and in writing well-developed analyses of issues, ideas, and
                 texts, explaining the rationale for their positions and analyzing their positions
                 from a variety of perspectives in such forms as formal speeches, debates,
                 thesis/support papers, literary critiques, and issues analyses.

                                     INITIATING ACTIVITY
This unit will be introduced by engaging the students in a type of scavenger hunt. However,
instead of locating and collecting items, the students will be required to find specific unknown
locations. The activity will take four days and has two parts.

During the first phase of the activity students will work in pairs to create a map. They will be
charged with drawing a map, to scale, from a known starting location to an ending location
known only to the partners drawing the map. Tools necessary include compasses, metersticks,
and graph paper. The main parameter is that the students must remain on the school property
(indoors and out-of-doors).

During the second part of the activity the maps will be shuffled and taken to another section of
Earth Science students. The latter students will be grouped in diads and each pair will use a map
to find an unknown location. They will use the same tools as the authors to find their way.
This activity will not be assessed because it is meant to be an introduction to the material that
will follow.

                               LEARNING EXPERIENCES
        In chronological order including acquisition experiences and extending/refining
                experiences for all stated declarative and procedural knowledge.
1.     The unit will begin with the initiating activity, which is discussed in detail above. Please
       see attached page for specific directions given to the students. This will require
       approximately four days. While this activity is occurring in class, the culminating
       performance is being assigned in lab. The scoring guides are also distributed at this time.
       One or two lab periods are dedicated to students for their research.

2.     The teacher provides a note-taking guide for the entire unit to be placed in their
       notebooks (also attached). Instruction will be provided (and notes completed) on
       Eratosthenes‟ theory for calculating the size of the earth. Calculations will be practiced
       in class, a practice worksheet is attached below, and the entire procedure will be emulated
       in lab. Two days of class should be enough time. Lab time is additional. Two labs are
     attached entitled “The Earth‟s Circumference.” In the first lab activity, the students
     calculate the circumference of spheres drawn on the worksheets. In the second, they
     calculate circumference of various globes and spheres provided by the teacher.

3.   A discussion of latitude and longitude as a means of measuring the surface of the earth is
     next. They will discover, using data provided by the teacher, that latitude is actually the
     same measurement as the angle of Polaris over the horizon. A data sheet is attached
     below. After this discussion, they will complete this section of their notes. They will
     also work through the process of calculating longitude using local time, and GMT. Time
     will be provided in class for the students to master this process. Three days should be
     enough class time for this material (one day for discovery and notes, one day for a
     practice worksheet, and one day to start the attached activity “Latitude and Longitude”
     which will be completed for homework).

4.   Students will use their textbook to observe the various types of maps used to represent
     the surface of the earth. Class time will focus particularly on contour maps and isolines.
     Several examples of topographic maps will be shared using the overhead projector (the
     teacher has an extensive collection of commercially prepared overheads), and students
     will be required to solve problems using contour lines. Approximately two classes will
     be devoted for this step, one day for discussion and notes, one day for practice. Lab
     activities have been attached to accompany this section of the unit. They are entitled
     “Constructing a Contour Map” and “Constructing a Field Map.”

5.   When students have mastered the process of reading contour lines, they will be required
     to create profiles from topographic maps as well as calculating gradient for given areas
     on maps. Two days will be devoted to these activities. The lab “Mapping the „Ocean
     Floor‟” is attached.

6.   Now that the students have estimated the size and shape of the earth, and mapped the
     surface of the earth, it is time to determine what features caused the maps to appear the
     way they did. A discussion of landscapes will ensue and notes for the unit will be
     completed. They will be given class time to work independently or in small groups using
     their textbooks to complete their notes. When they have finished writing their notes, they
     will share their findings to be sure everyone has correctly filled in their note-taking
     guides. This will take about three days. The attached activity “Landscapes of New York
     State” will be started in class on the third day and finished for homework.

7.   Finally, students will give their oral presentations, which is the last part of their
     culminating performance.

8.   The teacher must determine when to administer quizzes and assign homework. Only a
     few assignments have been attached. It is suggested that quizzes and homework occur as
     frequently as possible. When the presentations have been completed, a NYS Regents
     style test is given.
                           CULMINATING PERFORMANCE
                                          Include rubric(s)
1.     Each student will be assigned a human activity that affects the earth‟s landscapes to
       research outside of class. Their task will be to assume the role of a journalist. They will
       write an article for publication in a major periodical reporting the negative and positive
       effects that this particular human activity is having on the surface of the earth. They must
       also include some appropriate photographs to create an authentic magazine “spread.”
2.     Each student will discuss their findings in an oral summary to the class using presentation

                                PRE-REQUISITE SKILLS
Students at Copenhagen Central School have extensive knowledge of technology and computers.
They have been exposed since kindergarten and reach tenth grade with the ability to use such
programs as Word, Power Point, Publisher, as well as the internet, laser disk, and PASCO

No extraordinary modifications need to be made to implement this unit. However, special
education students receive extended time on quizzes and tests.

                             UNIT SCHEDULE/TIME PLAN
Planning this unit should take only a few hours if the materials included herein are used and
reproduced. Lab preparation is additional.

Class length in the authors‟ district is approximately forty minutes long. Therefore,
implementation of this unit will require three to four weeks of instruction.

Assessment of the culminating performance will necessitate fifteen to twenty minutes per
student. Grading homework and quizzes is additional.

                                    TECHNOLOGY USE
Technological hardware used in this unit include: computer, scanner, digital camera, PASCO
equipment, and laser disk.
Software used in the unit include: Word, Publisher, Power Point, Data Studio, internet
The following pages are for the students
         for in-class activities.
                                  Where On Earth?

So you want to go somewhere in life. So you want to see the world. So you don‟t want to
remain rooted in the same old place. Here is the overriding question: how are you going to get
there? Today you are going to answer that question. How do you get from here to there?

First, choose a starting location in this room. Record it here _____________.
Include this on your map.

Second, discuss with your partner (and NO ONE else), where you would like to go
anywhere on the school property. Do not record this anywhere because it is

Third, draw a map from your starting location to that secret location. Use a
compass to ensure that your map is oriented properly (you will complete a short
activity demonstrating how to use a compass in a few minutes). Use a meterstick
to accurately measure distance. Your map must fit on one page of graph paper.
Therefore, you will need to create a scale that will allow this. For instance, one
centimeter on the paper could equal one meter on the ground. Remember, as you
travel farther from this room your scale will need to represent a greater distance.

Record your scale here: 1 centimeter = ______________. Include this on your

Your map will be anonymously given to someone who will attempt to follow it to
your secret location. The goal is for them to find your secret location without
getting lost. Do a good job!
                                     Where on Earth?
                                  Latitude and Longitude
Examine the data in the following table. As you look over this information, try to find any trends
that might help you to calculate latitude or longitude if you were only given a piece of the data
rather than all of it.

    Latitude   Longitude        Angle of       Angle of         Local       Greenwich
                               Polaris on      Southern         Time          Mean
                                  the          Cross on                       Time
                                horizon           the
     45N         15W             45        Not visible       5:00pm         6:00pm

     38N         30W             38        Not visible       2:00pm         4:00pm

     3N          45W              3        Not visible       6:00am         9:00am

      0            0              0             0           1:00am         1:00am

     10S          15E        Not visible        10           5:00pm         4:00pm

     26S          30E        Not visible        26           2:00pm       12:00noon

     67S          45E        Not visible        67           6:00am         3:00am

List the generalities you can make from analyzing these data:

Name _________________________                                     Earth Science
Longitude and Latitude                                             Practice


        you            

                                           What is your latitude? _____

2.   GMT is 7:00pm. Your watch reads 1:00pm and it is correct. What is your

3.   Find longitude.
          GMT           Your time             Longitude
         6:00pm             4:00pm
         6:00pm             8:00pm
         1:00pm             3:00am
        12:00pm             12:00am

4.   Find longitude and latitude.
      GMT         Your time           Polaris‟      Latitude      Longitude
     5:00am        1:00pm                            40N
                   1:00am               78                         105E
     11:00am       3:00pm               25
     2:00pm                                          20N           90W
  The following pages are a note-taking
 guide for the students to use throughout
the unit. Type that is bold and underlined
is replaced by blanks for students to fill in
 during reading, lecture, and note-taking.
                                       Where On Earth?
I.    Models of the earth
      A.    A model of the earth represented on paper would appear to be a perfect circle.
      B.    The actual shape of the earth is an oblate spheroid. An oblate spheroid is
            slightly flattened at the poles and slightly bulging at the equator.
            1.       The equatorial diameter is slightly greater than the polar diameter.
            2.       The following are evidence that the earth is an oblate spheroid.
                     a.     If the earth were a perfect sphere, the altitude of Polaris vs. the
                            distance from the equator would change in perfect correlation.
                            Precise measurements show that there is some variation.
                            Therefore, the earth is not a perfect sphere. It is more likely an
                            oblate spheroid.
                     b.     Measurements from a gravimeter show that the gravity at the poles
                            is actually greater than the gravity at the equator. This suggests
                            that the poles are closer to the earth‟s core than the equator.
                     c.     Photographs from space offer the best evidence for the precise size
                            and shape of the earth.

II.   Estimating the size of the earth
      A.    Eratosthenes‟ theory

                                                                   Angle of the shadow
                            distance                               Distance between the two
             Shadow angle

            1.       2 poles are driven into the ground at different locations. One pole has a
                     shadow while the other pole does not. Find the distance between the
                   poles and the angle of the shadow.
                   Ex: 600 km

             2.    Divide the angle into 360.
                   Ex: 360 = 12

             3.    Multiply the answer by the distance between the two poles. This is the
                   Ex: (12)(600 km) = 7200 km

III.   Viewpoints
       A.   Latitude
            1.    Latitudes run E and W and are parallel to each other.
            2.    Latitude lines measure distance north and south of the equator.
            3.    The maximum possible value of latitude is 90.
            4.    The equator is 0 and is the starting point for measuring latitude.

       B.    Longitude
             1.    Longitude lines run N and S
             2.    They run from pole to pole NOT all the way around the globe.
             3.    Longitude measures distance E and W of the prime meridian.
             4.    The prime meridian is 0 longitude and the starting point for longitude.
             5.    The maximum possible value for longitude is 180.

       C.    Calculating latitude and longitude
             1.    Latitude is always equal to the altitude of polaris in the northern
                    How to locate Polaris
                      a. Find the Big Dipper which is located on the northern horizon.
                      b. Locate the 2 stars on the front end of the Big Dipper.
                      c. Follow a line traced along these two stars 5 lengths up to the Little
                      d. The last star in the handle of the Little Dipper is Polaris.

                       Note to the teacher: insert a diagram of the above process in this
            2.    Finding longitude
                   The earth rotates at 15 per hour.
                   Find “your” time (local time).
                   Find the time in Greenwich, England. This is called Greenwich
                     Mean Time or GMT.
                   Calculate the difference between the two times.
                   Multiply the difference by 15 since the earth rotates at 15 per hour.
                   If “your” time is later in the day than GMT label your answer E. If
                     “your” time is earlier in the day than GMT label your answer W.

IV.   Maps
      A.   Map projections – created when points on a globe are transferred to paper.

            1.    Mercator projection – continents are the correct shape but their sizes are
                  distorted, especially near the poles.
            2.    Robinson projection – causes less distortion near the poles.

      B.    Topographic maps – shows the changes in elevation
            1.   Contour lines – all points on a contour line have the same elevation

            2.    Rules for interpreting contour lines
                   All points on a contour line have the same elevation.
                   Land on one side of a contour line is always higher or lower than land
                    on the opposite side. In other words, when one crosses a contour line,
                    one is either travelling uphill OR downhill.
                   The high side of a contour line is always on the same side.
                   Every fourth or fifth contour line is usually an index contour line.
                    This line is usually darker in color and marked with a numerical
                    value of elevation.
                   A contour line bends (V‟s) upstream when crossing a river or valley.
                   Contour lines are always closed or endless lines. If traced throughout
                    its entire length, a contour line ends at the same point where it began.
                   Contour lines never branch or fork.
                   The inside of a closed contour line is the high side unless it is
                   The ground must rise away from streams.

            3.    Contour interval – refers to the elevation between two contour lines.
                  This is what the lines “count” by.

            4.    Profile – a graph showing the elevation changes along a straight line
                  distance between two points
                   Contour lines close together represent steep slopes while those far
                        apart represent gentle slopes.

        C.    Gradient – the slope of the land between two points on a contour map
              1.    On any map with isolines, it is the rate of change between 2 points.
              2.    The formula for calculating gradient is on the back page of the Ref. Tab.

                            Gradient =  in field value
                                        in distance

              3.     The change in field value is calculated by finding the difference between
                     the isolines.

              4.     The change in distance is calculated by placing two marks on a piece of
                     paper and measuring the distance between the marks using the scale.

V.      Landforms (a.k.a. landscape regions) – determined by

                   Hillslopes            Streams                 Soils         Strata
               low elevation        low gradients       deep topsoil
               low or               meandering          subsoil
     Plains     nonexistent hills     paths               fertile land for     flat
               mostly waning                              crops

               medium to high       steep to gradual    Variable soils,
                elevation             gradients           thin in uplands,
               steep to gradual     rushing streams     thicker in valleys
                surfaces              to broad, high-     Valley areas are
 Plateaus      shorter free face     volume rivers       fertile and
                than mountains                            productive
               longer waxing
                and waning
                slopes than

           high elevation           steep gradients     thin topsoil
           steep slopes             high velocity       bedrock exposed
           small waxing              water                over large areas
            slopes                   small streams
Mountains  large free face
           variable debris
      A.       Types of plains
               1.    Coastal plains – lowlands near an ocean coast. Low rolling hills,
                     swamps marshes.
                     Ex: Everglades

               2.    Interior plains – lowlands in the center of a continent
                     Ex: Great Plains

      B.       Types of mountains – see Figures 8-4 – 8-7 on pages 199-201.

               1.    Folded mountains – form when rock layers are squeezed in from
                     opposite sides
                     Ex: Appalachians

               2.    Upwarped mountains – form when rock is pushed up from forces inside
                     the earth
                     Ex: Adirondacks

               3.    Fault-block mountains – form when large tilted rock separates along
                     Ex: Sierra Nevadas

               4.    Volcanic mountains – form when lava cools, layer after layer piling up
                     and forming a cone shape
                     Ex: Cascades

VI.   Stream drainage patterns

                                                              characterized by branching like
                                                               the limbs of trees or roots
       Dendritic                                              found on plains and plateaus

                                                              valleys and rich terrain
                                                              found where rocks of different
           Trellis                                             hardness are folded
                                                              streams radiate out from a
                                                               central point
           Radial                                             found on peaks of volcanoes or
                                                               mountains or large round hills
                                                              develop in strongly jointed and
                                                               folded areas
  Annular/Rectangular                                         streams follow the joint/fold
VII. Environmental factors in the formation of landscapes
     A.    Uplifting (constructive) forces and leveling (destructive) forces
           1.     When uplifting is dominant
                   Gradients are generally steep
                   Fault block mountains
                   V-shaped valleys
                   Alluvial fan valley formation

            2.     When uplifting is equal to leveling
                    Many branching gullies and streams
                    Much sediment has been transported

            3.     When leveling is dominant
                    Gentle gradient
                    Rounded hilltops

      B.    Shoreline landscapes
            1.    Emergent shoreline – the ocean floor emerges to become part of the

            2.     Submergent shoreline – the land adjacent to the ocean subsides and
                   becomes part of the ocean floor.

            3.     Neutral shoreline – there is no relative change in the elevation of the

      C.    Soil formation – the formation of soils on these landscapes is influenced mostly
            by climate and bedrock

            1.     Arid climates cause soil to be thin or nonexistent, no vegetation, contain
                   many mineral salts

            2.     Humid climates cause soil to be thicker and higher in biological
                   (organic) content.

      D.    Climate and landscapes

            1.     Arid climates cause hillslopes to be angular with sharp features.

            2.     Humid climates cause hillslopes to be well rounded.

      E.    Glaciers and landscapes
            1.    Mountain tops and steep slopes are devoid of most soil
            2.    Transported soils cover large areas at the base of mountains
           3.                Soil contains a range of size of particles.
           4.                Valleys are wide and U-shaped
           5.                Many lakes.
           6.                Many small hills composed of sediments
           7.                Bedrock is polished and scratched
           8.                The glaciers are still present
           9.                Glacial terminology:
                              Arete – a sharp narrow ridge

                              Cirque – amphitheater-type features

                              Moraine – rock material carried by a glacier

                              Till – unsorted rock material

                              Drumlins – elongated, oval shaped hills

                              Esker – winding ridges composed of glacial sand and gravel

                              Kettles – circular depressions called kettle lakes

VIII. Human factors in landscape development
      A.  Human population is growing at an exponential rate

                             1000         1500         1990

     B.    Environmental changes due to population increase
           1.    Deforestation
           2.    Mining – strip and pit
           3.    Construction

     C.    Pollution – humans cause pollution because of their technology
            1.    Atmospheric pollution
                   Aerosols- increase reflection of solar energy. Also cause ozone

                     Greenhouse effect – caused by CO2 and H2O

                     Smog

                     Acid rain

IX.   New York State landscapes – see Ref. Tab. p. _____
      A.   NY has a greater number of different landscape regions than any other state
           because of the bedrock within the state.
      B.   Different types of bedrock have different degrees of resistance.
      C.   The least resistant rock weathers the fastest.

X.    Spheres of the earth
      A.    Lithosphere – solid outer layer of the earth (crust) which is about 100km deep.

      B.    Hydrosphere – the “water” part of the earth which
                              includes polar ice, subsurface
                              water, and water vapor

      C.    Atmosphere – layer of gases surrounding the earth.

                                     See ref tab pgs:
The following pages are sample homework
assignments and vocabulary quizzes for the
students. The two long assignments will be
   started in class and finished at home.
Several other assignments and quizzes will
 be given throughout the unit that are not
              included herein.
Name _______________________                              Earth Science
Eratosthenes‟ Theory and Earth‟s Shape                    Homework

1.    Describe how measurements of the altitude of the sun at the same time at
      two different locations can be used to calculate the circumference of the

2.    From what do we obtain the most accurate evidence for determining the
      exact size and shape of the earth?

3.    State one observation from which you might infer a round earth. Explain
      how this observation could also be interpreted as indicating a different shape
      for the earth.

4.    Is there any evidence that could be accepted as proof of the earth‟s shape?
Name ______________________

INTRODUCTION:             Landscape forms result from the interaction of erosional
                          and uplifting forces upon various types of bedrock. These
                          rocks differ in their resistance under existing climatic
                          conditions. The great variety of landscape regions in
                          New York are due to the diversity in structure, age and
                          resistance of bedrock found throughout the state.

OBJECTIVE:                By interpreting maps you will identify the environmental
                          factors (patterns of drainage and bedrock) which
                          influence the development of landscape features within
                          New York State.


Compare Map I to the relief maps provided and the Generalized Landscape Region
Map in the Earth Science Reference Tables.

1.    On Map 1, label each area as either high elevation, middle elevation, or low
      elevation. Lightly shade each area using the following color key:
             High Elevation = red
             Middle Elevation = yellow
             Low Elevation = green

2.    On Map 1 write in the name of each landscape region in the correct location.


In addition to elevation, the patterns of water drainage on a land surface play an
important role in landscape formation. Map 2 shows some of the rivers, streams,
and lakes in New York State.

1.    Referring to the Generalized New York State Bedrock Geology Map in the
      Earth Science Reference Tables, find and label the following water features
      on Map 2. Use a blue pencil to trace over and highlight each feature.
     a)    Susquehanna River (It flows out of the state midway between
           longitude 76 West & 77 West at the southern border.)
     b)    Hudson River
     c)    St. Lawrence River
     d)    Lake Ontario
     e)    Niagara River
     f)    Lake Erie
     g)    Finger Lakes
     h)    Long Island Sound
     i)    Atlantic Ocean
     j)    Lake Champlain

2.   What major river system is in watershed A?

3.   What major river system is in watershed B?

4.   Watershed C drains into what body of water?

5.   Watershed D drains into what body of water?

6.   Watershed E drains into what body of water?

7.   Watershed F drains into what body of water?


Compare the Generalized Bedrock Geology Map from the Reference Tables with
your completed Map I and answer the following questions.

1.   In the area of high elevation, what is the bedrock type and age? (By age we
     mean the geologic period in which it was formed.)

2.   In the low coastal plain region (Area F) describe the bedrock in terms of
     type and age.

3.   Area A includes the Catskill Mountains (a plateau, dissected by streams,
     which gives the appearance of being mountains). Describe the bedrock in
     terms of type and age.
4.   Describe the Lake Area Lowland (Area B) in terms of rock type and age.

5.   Describe Area D in terms of rock type and age.

6.   Describe Area E in terms of rock type and age.
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: (Answer in Complete Sentences)

1.   Name the landscape regions of high, medium, and low elevation in New
     York State.

2.   Which regions show evidence that crustal uplift was dominant over
     erosional forces in the past?
3.   Using the information from this lab and cross-section E-F from Lab 13-5,
     explain why the Catskill Mountains are not really considered to be

4.   How many major drainage systems are there in New York State?

5.   In which drainage system is your school located?

6.   What caused the development of the different drainage systems in New York

7.   In which landscape region of New York State is the most resistant bedrock

8.   What physical characteristics of the bedrock are responsible for the oldest
     rock remaining at the highest elevation?

CONCLUSION: What factors result in the formation of landscapes?
                            Where on Earth?
                            Vocabulary Part I

equator –

latitude –

prime meridian –

longitude –

International Date Line –

Polaris –

gravimeter –

altitude –

oblate spheroid –

radius –

mass of the earth –

circumference –
Name _______________________________                                    Earth Science
Where on Earth? Vocabulary I                                            Quiz

equator           latitude                prime meridian                longitude
Polaris           gravimeter              International Date Line       altitude
oblate spheroid   radius                  mass of the earth             circumference

1.     _______________   0 latitude. Located exactly half-way between the North and South Poles.

2.     _______________   A very sensitive instrument used to measure gravity.

3.     _______________   5.98 x 1024 kg

4.     _______________   The star that is located directly over the North Pole. It‟s angle with the
                         horizon is 90.

5.     _______________   A sphere that is flattened along one diameter and bulges around the other
                         diameter. The earth has this general shape.

6.     _______________   Measurement of the distance above the horizon (vertical angle). The angle
                         above the ground made by an object with the ground.

7.     _______________   The measurement of the distance around a sphere or circle.

8.     _______________   A line extending from the center of a circle or sphere to the circumference or
                         surface. It is equal to half of the diameter.

9.     _______________   The angular distance (in degrees) north and south of the equator.

10.    _______________   0 longitude. Runs through Greenwich, England.

11.    _______________   The angular distance (in degrees) east and west of the prime meridian.

12.    _______________   The 180 longitude line that is the transition line for calendar days.
                      Where on Earth?
                      Vocabulary Part II

topographic map –

contour line –

contour interval –

map scale –

profile –

coordinate system –

local noon –

gradient –

isotherm –

isoline –

vector field –
Name _______________________________                                                  Earth Science
Where on Earth? Vocabulary II                                                         Quiz

topographic map                contour line                   contour interval
map scale                      profile                        coordinate system
local noon                     gradient                       isotherm
isoline                        vector field

1.    _______________   Any system for assigning two numbers to every point on a surface.

2.    _______________   Also called apparent solar noon. The time at which the sun is at its highest
                        point in the sky. It occurs at the same time for all locations along a single
                        longitude line. The difference between local noon at any given point and
                        noon at the prime meridian is the basis for measuring longitude.

3.    _______________   A graph of elevation vs. distance along a line. The shape one would see if the
                        land were cut into a cross-section between two points.

4.    _______________   On a map of a field, this is a line connecting all points having the same field

5.    _______________   Isolines on a map that connect all points of equal temperature.

6.    _______________   Fields that cannot be described simply in terms of magnitude. Such fields
                        need both magnitude and direction.

7.    _______________   The rate of change between two points; the quantity of change per unit of
                        distance. Also called slope.

8.    _______________   Shows the relationship between the distances on a map and the actual
                        distances on the earth‟s surface.

9.    _______________   A map that shows the changes in elevation on the earth‟s surface.

10.   _______________   The difference in elevation between two contour lines on a topographic map.
                        This is what the lines on a topographic map “count by.”

11.   _______________   All points of equal elevation are connected to form this line on a topographic
                              Where on Earth?
                             Vocabulary Part III

plains –

plateaus –

folded mountains –

upwarped mountains –

fault-block mountains –

volcanic mountains –

leveling forces –

stream drainage patterns –

uplifting forces –

hydrosphere –

atmosphere –

lithosphere –
Name _______________________________                                                 Earth Science
Where on Earth? Vocabulary III                                                       Quiz

plains                  plateaus                      folded mountains
upwarped mountains      fault-block mountains         volcanic mountains
leveling forces         stream drainage patterns      uplifting forces
hydrosphere             atmosphere                    lithosphere

1.    _______________   The solid rock that forms a continuous shell around the earth.

2.    _______________   Forces that undo the work of the leveling forces. Operate beneath or within
                        the crust. Build mountains. Include such forces as volcanic activity,
                        continental drift.

3.    _______________   Mountains formed when rock layers buckle and fold because they are being
                        squeezed from opposite sides.

4.    _______________   Mountains formed when lava exits a volcano and solidifies at the surface.
                        This occurs repeatedly and the lava piles up forming a cone-shaped structure.

5.    _______________   Form when forces inside the earth push rock layers up creating landforms with
                        high elevations.

6.    _______________   Form when large tilted masses of rock are separated from surrounding rocks
                        by faults or cracks.

7.    _______________   Areas of high elevation with relatively flat surfaces. The bedrock is formed of
                        relatively horizontal layers of rock.

8.    _______________   Large, flat areas with low elevations

9.    _______________   The layer of gases surrounding the earth.

10.   _______________   Forces such as erosion that cause the landscape slopes to become smoother
                        and gentler.

11.   _______________   The thin layer of water that rests on or penetrates the lithosphere. Consists of
                        all the earth‟s water, including polar ice and subsurface water.

12.   _______________   The characteristics of how streams flow due to gradient and drainage density.
The following pages are the culminating
    performance with assessments.
                    What On Earth Are We Doing?
As humans, we are constantly studying and learning about our earth. We use our
knowledge to improve our quality of living in many ways. However, when we use
this knowledge we frequently cause damage to that which we studied in the first
place, our earth.

Over the next three weeks you will be assuming a responsibility to expose harmful
human activity. You will take the role of an investigative journalist to uncover a
story. It will be your task to write an article for publication in a major periodical
(such as Time or Newsweek). Since your budget is very tight, you will also need to
take your own photographs to incorporate into the article. When you finish, you
will have an article, two-page spread, with supporting pictures ready to go to print.

Your article should contain:
      1. A thorough description of the human activity you have chosen
          what it is, how it is accomplished, where it occurs, . . .
      2. The positive ways that this activity is helping humans in their lives
      3. The negative impacts that this activity has on the earth’s surface
      4. Current laws or legislation that is in place to regulate this activity
      5. What the future may hold if this activity continues

You may choose from the following list of activities
     Mining (choose only one kind)                 Dams
     Oil removal                                   Deforestation
     Construction                                  Draining of wetlands
     Forest fires (starting and stopping)          Coastlines
     Global warming                                Agriculture

Finally, you will present an oral summary of your findings in a short talk to the
class. You will use presentation software such as “Power Point.”
                    What On Earth Are We Doing?
                                  Scoring Guide
Journalist: _____________________________

Content:           21 points
      _____ 2 points will be credited for a creative, attention-grabbing title. One
            point will be allowed for a less creative title.

      _____ 3 points will be credited for including a complete description of the
            human activity you are reporting. This must include details of what
            the activity is trying to accomplish, how it is completed, how it
            impacts the economics of the world, and so on. One or two points
            will be allowed for less complete descriptions.

      _____ 2 points will be allowed for a detailed description of the process that
            workers must follow in order to accomplish the activity. This
            description will be considered acceptable if the reader completely
            understands the activity and is able to share it with someone who did
            not read the article. Remember that you are trying to get the message
            out to the public.

      _____ 1 point will be given for including the location in the world where the
            activity you are reporting actually occurs.

      _____ 3 points will be earned for including a description of the positive
            impacts this activity has on human life. Explain why we want to
            engage in this activity.

      _____ 3 points will be awarded for a complete analysis of the negative
            impacts that this activity has on the earth’s surface. Explain how it is
            changing the surface of the earth and why it is harmful.

      _____ 1 point will be given for a discussion regarding the current legislation
            and laws that govern this activity.

      _____ 3 points will be allowed for reporting what the future will hold if this
            activity continues. Include future effects on the earth‟s surface,
          human life, and wildlife. Also include suggestions for how the
          activity could be changed to be less harmful to the earth‟s surface and
          the environment.

    _____ 3 points will be granted for including at least three photos supporting
          your report.

Mechanics:             15 points
    _____ 5 points will be awarded for perfect spelling and grammar. One point
                    will be deducted for each error up to five errors.

    _____ 5 points will be awarded for perfect punctuation. One point will be
          deducted for each error up to five errors.

    _____ 2 points will be granted if the article has the layout (appearance) of an
          actual, 2-page spread, magazine article. It is ready for publication.

    _____ 3 points will be given for a works cited throughout the article. Facts
          reported must be cited in the text of the article in the same way as is
          accomplished in printed periodicals.

TOTAL POINTS EARNED                  _____
                     What On Earth Are We Doing?
                                Oral Presentation
                                 Scoring Guide

Journalist: ________________________

Content:           6 points
      _____ The human activity is described in an understandable way (1 point).

      _____ The physical process and where it occurs is included (1 point).

      _____ The positive impacts on human life are explained (1 point).

      _____ The negative impacts on the earth‟s surface are explained (1 point).

      _____ Future effects of this activity are included (1 point).

      _____ Photos are included to support the presentation (1 point).

Presentation:      3 points
      _____ The report is organized and presented in a concise fashion (1 point).

      _____ The presenter possesses knowledge about the human activity and can
            answer fair questions (as determined by the teacher) about the process
            and its impacts (1 point).

      _____ The volume and pace of the presentation are appropriate for the
            audience (1 point).

TOTAL POINTS EARNED                    _____


(Points earned from article and presentation)              _____ = _____%
           (Total points possible)                           45
The following pages are lab activities that
 occur during an additional laboratory
                       Constructing a Field Map

Introduction:     A field is a region in which there is a definite physical property
                  that can be measured at every point. There are many kinds of
                  measurable field values that vary from place to place on or near
                  the earth‟s surface. Among these measurable field values are
                  atmospheric pressure, temperature and the elevation of the
                  earth‟s surface with respect to sea level. In earth science you
                  will be concerned with many types of field maps. In this lab
                  you will be introduced to these types of maps by using
                  temperature data.

Objective:        You will measure and plot field values on a map. You will then
                  learn to construct isolines and interpret the resulting field map.

Procedure A:

*NOTE: Read all temperatures to the nearest 0.01 degree.

1.    Collect temperature data using your temperature probe and computer
      interface of your station one meter above desk level. Be sure to notate
      which run measured which data on the report sheet.
2.    Obtain measurements for the other stations in the room in the same manner.
3.    When you have finished collecting temperature data, connect to the
      computer. Record the average temperature for each run in the
      corresponding space on the report sheet.
4.    Plot the station temperatures on your room map.
5.    Construct isotherms on your room map using one degree Celsius intervals.

Procedure B:

1.    Construct isotherms using one degree Celsius intervals on the “Ideal” map.
2.    Locate and label an energy source and an energy sink.
3.    Draw an arrow which shows the direction energy flows between the souce
      and the sink.
4.    Calculate the temperature gradient between points A and B. Show all work.

5.    Calculate the temperature gradient between points C and D. Show all work.
                 Report Sheet

Station Number     Run Number   Temperature (C)
Discussion Questions: (Answer in complete sentences.)

1.    Will the temperature field you measured and mapped have the same
      appearance tomorrow? Explain your answer.

2.    Between which two letters on the “Ideal” map is the rate of temperature
      change the greatest?

3.    Between which two letters on the “Ideal” map is the rate of temperature
      change the least?

4.    As the temperature difference between two points increases, what happens to
      the spacing of the isotherms?

5.    What factors may have caused the temperature variations in the classroom/

6.    Other than the types of fields already mentioned in this lab, name at least
      two other scientific field quantities.

7.    If a heat lamp were introduced into the room at Position B on the “Ideal”
      map, what changes would occur in the isotherm values?
                       Mapping the “Ocean Floor”

     PASCO 750 Interface
     Motion Sensor
     Rotary Motion Sensor
     Cross bar from a small ring stand
     Various “ocean floor objects”

       Use a motion sensor and a rotary motion sensor to create a profile. The
resulting profile will be used to determine what characteristics are located at the
bottom of the “ocean floor.”

     Setting up the equipment:
           1.    The motion sensor should be connected in the first digital input.
                 The rotary motion sensor should be connected to the third
                 digital input.
           2.    Launch Data Studio. Click and drag the appropriate icons to
                 the corresponding inputs on the screen. Double click on the
                 “Rotary Motion Sensor” icon. Click the “Measurement” tab.
                 Choose “Position” and turn off “Angular Position.” Double
                 click on the “Motion Sensor” icon, go to “Measurement” and
                 make sure that the only item chosen is “Position.”
           3.    The “ocean floor” that you will be mapping is located at your
                 station on the floor.
           4.    Connect the motion sensor to the rotary motion sensor by
                 sliding a bar through both of them.
           5.    Place the motion sensor so that it protrudes far enough for the
                 circular sensor to clear the desk.
     Collecting data:
           1.    When you are ready, click “Start.”
           2.    Slide the motion sensor across the slit on the box. As the rotary
                 motion sensor follows, the wheel should be turning measuring
           3.    Click “Stop” when you reach the end of the slit.
     Displaying the data:
           1.    Create a new graph display.
            2.    Drag data from the motion sensor (position) to the _____-axis.
                  Drag data from the rotary motion sensor (position) to the
            3.    This data is upside down compared to the actual profile of the
                  objects at the bottom of your box. To reverse this, click on the
                  “Calculator” icon at the top of the graph display. Measure the
                  height of the box in meters. Type in “y = ____ - x.” Click
            4.    Remove the old data that was upside down from the graph
                  display. Display the calculated data one run at a time to attempt
                  to determine what is at the bottom of your “ocean floor.”

     1.    What do the objects on the floor represent?

      2.    To what Earth feature is this the most similar?

      3.    What possible uses might this technology serve outside the lab (in
            addition to mapping the ocean floor)?

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