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Integrating Quotations (PowerPoint download)

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					Integrating Quotations
          &
    Citing Sources
What kinds of quotations are there?

•Direct Quotes
•Indirect Quotes
         Direct Quotes:
• A direct quote is putting the exact
  words that someone else has written
  into your own work.

• You show a direct quotation in
  quotation marks.
           Indirect Quotes:
• Also known as paraphrasing.

• Offers an account of what another person has
  said/written in your own words.

• Generally longer than a summary, it is a parallel
  to the original text.

• No quotation marks used, but citation is required.
What ways are direct quotes inserted
            in essays?

•Integrated

•Block
           Integrated Quotations:
• The words of an author are directly woven with
  your own words in order to support your
  argument.
• For Example:
  • Nurse Ratched’s dogged determination to bring
    McMurphy down is most evident in the monetary
    balances of the patients that she posts as proof of
    McMurphy’s profits, although “it must have taken
    [her] hours of work digging into records” to amass the
    damning report (220).
              Block Quotations:
• This style of quotation is rarely used in literary
  essays of 4 or fewer pages.
• If the section of text you intend to directly quote is
  approximately 4 lines or longer, it should be set
  apart from the rest of the text by indenting all
  lines on both the right and left side.
• You do not use quotation marks in this style of
  direct quotation, as the indentation serves that
  purpose.
        When do you use a quote?
• Use quotations to support your analysis of the text

• Most literary essay paragraphs will contain 2 – 3
  integrated quotations

• Use only the necessary words in your quotation,
  even if it is only a few words; less is more.
 There are 3 methods for quotation:

• Brief introduction

• Colon

• Integrated
              Brief Introduction:
• Introduce the quote with a short phrase followed
  by the quotation.
• For example:
  • The narrator tells the reader about the severity of the
    fog machine’s influence by saying, “[t]heres long
    spells – three days, years – when you can’t see a
    thing” (Kesey 104).
                        Colon:
• This is the least sophisticated of the acceptable
  ways to insert a quote in an essay.
• A complete sentence introducing the quote must
  come before the colon.
• For example:
  • Miss Pilbow chooses to blame her defect, the
    birthmark, on the defective people she is required to
    work with: “- and she figures it’s on account of
    working evenings among a whole wardful of people
    like me” (143 – 144).
                    Integrated:
• The most sophisticated method is to integrate the
  quote into your own sentence.
• When you read the sentence containing the quote
  aloud, you should not be able to tell where the
  quote begins or ends.
• For example:
  • The ward in which the patients live is portrayed as “a
    factory for the Combine” (Kesey
  • 40).
           Situating your quotes:
• The quote that you select should directly support
  the point that you are making in that paragraph.
• Choose the method that you will use for inserting
  the quote: colon, brief introduction, or integrated.
• Follow the quote up with an explanation showing
  how the quote supports your topic.
As the primary agent for the Combine within the
ward, Nurse Ratched is ever vigilant for any
abnormality in her patients’ behaviour. She is
portrayed as a watchful figure, sitting “in [a] web of
wires like a watchful robot”; a creature of habit and
routine who becomes very upset if anything
interrupts the “smooth, accurate, precision-made
machine” that is her ward (Kesey 30). Like a
mechanical spider, waiting for her prey to make the
wrong move, the Nurse observes her patients and
waits for them to be trapped in her web where she
can drain their individuality at her leisure.
             Proper Formatting:
• If your quote is properly integrated it should not
  require an ellipsis (…) at its beginning or end.
• Your integrated quote should be grammatically
  correct; therefore, you may need to change or add
  a word within the quote. Any added or altered
  words should be enclosed in [square brackets].
• If you are quoting 2 consecutive sentences
  without a break, they should all be contained
  within the same quotation marks.
• In-text citations are enclosed in parenthesis and
  are placed outside of the quotation marks but
  inside the sentence punctuation.
• If only quoting 1 text in your essay, you only need
  to refer to the author in your first in-text citation
  (Kesey 9) and in subsequent in-text citations you
  only need to include the page number (9).
• If quoting multiple texts (as in a synthesis or
  research essay) you should refer to the author in
  every in text citation.
• If using 2 works by the same author, use a portion
  of the title in place of the author name in each in-
  text citation (Cuckoo’s Nest 9).
• If you have referred to the author or text title that
  you are using to cite the quotes within your
  sentence, then you may exclude it from the in-text
  citation:
  • Kesey uses the imagery of fog to depict the isolating
    effect of mental illness and the manner in which the
    patients may “lose [themselves] in the fog sometimes”
    (42).
  • The imagery of fog is used to depict the isolating
    effect of mental illness and the manner in which the
    patients may “lose [themselves] in the fog sometimes”
    (Kesey 42).
         Placing the Punctuation:
• Any punctuation within the quote should be
  placed as it is in the text.
• The exception to this rule is if you are quoting the
  end of a sentence. In this case, do not place the
  period within the quotation marks; place it after
  the (page citation).
  • Nurse Ratched in a temper is described as being “big
    as a truck, trailing that wicker bag behind in her
    exhaust like a semi behind a Jimmy Diesel” (30).
                         ?-!
• Exclamation points, question marks, and dashes at
  the end of the quoted text should be placed inside
  the quotation marks, even if your sentence itself
  continues after the quotation.
• For example:
  • Baby Bear is horrified that “someone has been eating
    [his] porridge!” and he has nothing to eat.
 Multiple quotes from 1 page:
• If you use multiple short quotes,
  consecutively, from the same page
  in one sentence or in one paragraph,
  you should only use one citation at
  the end of the sentence or paragraph.
As the primary agent for the Combine within the
ward, Nurse Ratched is ever vigilant for any
abnormality in her patients’ behaviour. She is
portrayed as a watchful figure, sitting “in [a] web of
wires like a watchful robot”; a creature of habit and
routine who becomes very upset if anything
interrupts the “smooth, accurate, precision-made
machine” that is her ward (Kesey 30). Like a
mechanical spider, waiting for her prey to make the
wrong move, the Nurse observes her patients and
waits for them to be trapped in her web where she
can drain their individuality at her leisure.
     Quotations within a Quotation:
• If you are quoting a section of text that contains
  words that are within quotations in the original
  text, use single quotation marks for the quotes
  within your quote.
             What else do I cite?
• Summary of the text should be cited to allow the
  reader of your essay to easily find and verify the
  accuracy of your summary.
  • Nurse Ratched renews her attempt to reduce
    McMurphy in the eyes of the other patients by
    calculating the amount of money that each patient has
    lost to McMurphy and informing them of that when
    McMurphy is not present to defend himself. She
    manipulates the situation and the emotions of the men
    until many of them begin to doubt McMurphy’s
    friendship and motives (220).
                    Practice:
Nurse Pilbow’s giant mark is a signal to the world
announcing her imperfections, and she blames her
predicament on the other broken people around her,
unable to admit that the Combine is just as ashamed
of her as it is of her patients: “She figures it’s on
account of working in a whole ward full of people
like the Chief. (143 – 144)”
                 Self-Editing
• Look through your own essay and find one
  quotation that could be integrated more smoothly
  into your essay.

• Work with a partner to rewrite that quotation
  using the techniques that we have learned here.
        Assignment: due Monday
• Each paragraph of a literary essay should contain
  2 -3 integrated quotes that support your topic.

• Select one of your essay’s body paragraphs to
  rewrite containing:
  • 3 integrated quotations to support your topic
  • Clear explanation of how those quotes support your
    topic.
  • Proper formatting of the quote and citation.

				
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