Essay 5th Year Higher Assess the impact of the welfare reforms of the Labour Government on the lives of the British people. What is the question asking you to do? •Have to assess the impact of the welfare reforms on the British people. Did the reforms have a positive or negative impact of the lives of the British population? •The word assess means that you have to examine each key reform area and arrive at a conclusion regarding their impact. Examine both positive and negative arguments. •Timescale: You need to examine the period 1944- 1951. Set the scene - why were the reforms introduced? Once this is done you can begin to examine each reform area. Essay Plan •Line of Argument in essay: How did the reforms help individual groups of people in Britain? •Focus on the ‘five giants’: want, disease, ignorance, squalor and idleness. How successful were the Reform Acts in solving these problems? •Also examine/discuss individual groups - How did the Reforms help: children, sick, those unable to work, people in poverty and those in poor housing? These are ideas that can be referred to in your essay. Introduction - General Ideas •Your opening sentence should grab the attention of the marker straight away. Perhaps a key question or a quote. Something that highlights the aim of your essay and gives you the opportunity to refer back to. •Outline how you are going to answer the question - What are your key arguments? Also aim to ask questions. •Ensure that there is always a link to each paragraph - a statement or sentence. Introduction - Specific Ideas Opening sentence: some suggestions - Many historians believe that the Labour Welfare Reforms of 1945-51 enhanced the lives of the British people. However, was this actually the case? or ‘’ This is the greatest advance in our history. There can be no turning point. From now on Beveridge is not the name of a man; it is the name of a way of life’’. (‘The Five Giants’ by Nicholas Timmins’) Introduction - Specific Ideas Comment of the importance of this quote - it is referring to the positive impact of the Welfare Reforms. Create a line of argument using this quote - were the Labour Welfare Reforms successful in improving the lives of the British public? Line of argument - create questions in your introduction that can be argued/answered later. Did the reforms manage to provide an efficient health service? Link paragraphs - It is clear to see that there are many arguments about the reforms but why were they introduced? Main Body of Essay - General Ideas Ensure that you always refer back to the question - make sure you don’t just ‘tell the story’ of the reforms - actually assess the impact they had. Include detailed, specific evidence to support the point/argument of the paragraph. Make sure you include a topic sentence - what is the key argument of this paragraph? Support your points by referring to debates/references from Historians. When planning your essay, note down key quotes and debates. Again - make sure you always provide a link to the next paragraph. Main Body of Essay - Specific Ideas - Paragraph One •Focus on why the reforms were introduced. Key argument idea - these are the problems the Labour Government had to deal with - were they successful in overcoming them? •Public wanted social change after the war. Wanted to create a ‘land fit for heroes’. Evacuation illustrated serious health problems. •These are the reasons why the reforms were introduced - refer to the question: the scene was now set - would the government respond to these challenges? Main Body of Essay - Key points/Arguments •Five Giants idea - •This paragraph should ‘want’ - this area focus on the idea of ‘want’ - was dealt with in the outline the principles of the Beveridge Report of Beveridge Report. Need to 1942 - British public also examine the creation of had got what they a state insurance fund - wanted. Report sold social security, family 636,000 copies - allowances. How successful massive amount. was the government in This would be the meeting the needs of those foundations for the ill or injured? Labour Government Main Body of Essay - Key Points/Arguments: Paragraph should focus on: • Disease would be • Did all medics co- dealt with by the operate with the creation of a new new system? Health Service. • Were all the • How successful was hospitals run and this new service in operated smoothly? meeting the needs of • Did the government the British public? underestimate the • Was a common demands to be standard of care placed on this new throughout the service? country created? Main Body of Essay - Key Points/Arguments: Paragraph should focus on: • Remember, higher • Idleness would be number of workers improved by the were needed to pay state aiming for full contributions to the employment. new Social Security • What policies did System. the Government • Was this actually introduce to achieved? improve employment? • Remember, to keep linking paragraphs. • Were they successful? Main Body of Essay - Key Points/Arguments: Paragraph should focus on: • Ignorance would be • Were the prospects dealt with by of the Working reforming the Class improved? education system. • Was there enough • What about children teachers to with no support or implement this family? legislation? • How successful was • Did these reforms the 1944 Education satisfy the demands Act? of the public? Main Body of Essay - Key Points/Arguments: Paragraph should focus on: • Squalor was be • Were they successful tacked through a in dealing with these new house-building problems? programme and a • What acts were slum clearance passed to deal with scheme. this shortage of • What problems (lack housing? of housing) did the • Were ‘new towns’ new government created and the issue inherit after the war? of overcrowding solved? Main Body of Essay - Key Points/Arguments: Paragraph should focus on: • Take two • You can provide paragraphs to focus answers to the on summarising how questions/argument the reforms helped s you should be (if they did) creating in your individual groups. essay. • Refer back to the • Have you linked plan to remind paragraphs? yourself of the • Have you created a individual groups. line of argument and not just told a story? Conclusion - General Points • Make sure the • It does answer the conclusion always question and ‘wraps’ refers back to the up all the key points. question (you • ‘Despite these should be always charges, the doing this in the achievement of the main body of your Labour government essay anyway). 1945-51 was • Address the issue considerable, The and assess the NHS was the envy impact of the of the world and reforms on Britain. Labour Conclusion - General Points • could justifiably claim •How important that people were cared were the Liberal for ‘’from the cradle to reforms at the start the grave’’. of the century in • There you go - that is creating the an ending for the conclusion - try to fill in ‘building blocks’ the rest of the for Labour? conclusion.