History of Architecture (PowerPoint download) by gjjur4356

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									History of Architecture
    Architecture is the art and science of designing and constructing
     structures that enclose space for a variety of human needs.
    The history of architecture begins in the distant past,
     when prehistoric cave dwellers left their caves to build
     shelters out of tree branches.

    Great Wall of China
Unique Qualities of Architecture
   Architecture, like sculpture, involves the organization
    and manipulation of three-dimensional forms in space.
   Both deal with form, space, line, texture, proportion, and
   Many examples of architecture can be thought of as
    large sculpture pieces

         Dulles Airport, Chantilly, VA
         Sculpture vs. Architecture
   Viewed from outside                   Architecture viewed from
   Sculptures are made to                 inside and outside
    express ideas and feelings            Architecture is a functional
    that evoke an appreciative             art form
    response in viewers                   Buildings are erected to serve
                                           practical purposes
                                          Architects hope viewers find
                                           their buildings visually
                                           appealing, but first concern is
                                           challenge of enclosing space
                                           for specific human needs.

                          St. Basil Church, Moscow, Russia
         Materials and Processes
   Early architects usually chose building materials
    that were readily available.
   Stability of these structures was limited by
    materials on hand-wood was probably used first
   Stone was durable used if available

                    Stonehenge, England. c. 2500   BCE
                    Block Construction
         Egyptian architecture is easily
recognizable, thanks to its most famous buildings
– pyramids.
The construction of these impressive burial places
for pharaohs and their families required between
20,000 and 30,000 workers. Construction materials
were limestone and sun-baked bricks.
The building method was block upon block.

   Great Pyramids of Giza, Egypt
      Post and Lintel Construction
   One of the earliest and
    simplest methods of
    building with stone is the
    post and lintel system.
   It involves placing a
    horizontal beam across
    two posts.
                                         Parthenon, Athens Greece, c. 447   BCE

                          Limitation: space between posts narrow or lintel would
                          crack and break
     Arch and Vault Construction
   Architects eventually
    discovered they could
    span larger areas by
    placing a round arch
    made of stone blocks on
    top of two supports
   Arch transferred the      post
    weight outward from its
    center, or keystone, to
    the vertical supports
Colosseum, Rome,
Italy, A.D. 72-80
                   Dome Construction
   A dome is a hemisphere
    placed on walls that enclose a
    circular or square space.

                                                   Pantheon, Rome, Italy,   A.D.   118-125

Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey,   A.D.   532-537
            Notre Dame Cathedral
           Paris, France, begun 1163
Changing the Roman round arch to a
pointed arch allowed for thinner
walls and the addition of many
windows. Flying buttress helped
support walls on the outside.
             Modern Construction
   Iron and steel Frame Construction became popular to
    construct framework for large buildings and monuments.

                      Chrysler Building,
                      New York, NY

                                           Eiffel Tower, Paris, France, 1889
   Sydney Opera House,
Sydney, Australia, 1957-1973
      Gateway Arch
St. Louis, MO, 1961-1965
      Taj Mahal
Agra, India, 1632-1650
   St. Peter’s Basilica,
Vatican, Italy, begun 1492

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