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Dyslexia Assessment

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					Dyslexia Assessment
        Joyce Fullarton
     Psychological Service
  British Psychological Society
       Working Definition
• “Dyslexia is evident when accurate and
  fluent word reading and/or spelling
  develops very incompletely or with great
  difficulty. This focuses on literacy
  learning at the ‘word level’ and implies
  that the problem is severe and
  persistent despite appropriate learning
  opportunities. It provides the basis
  for a staged process of assessment
  through teaching.”
       Defining ‘dyslexia’

Definition
• Specific learning difficulties can be
  identified as distinctive patterns of
  difficulties relating to the processing of
  information within a continuum from very
  mild to extremely severe which result in
  restrictions in literacy development and
  discrepancies in performance within the
  curriculum.
                                  (Reid, 1996)
         Terminology
• Concept of ‘diagnosis’ flawed. We now
  state that we ‘identify’ dyslexia
• Better to refer to a ‘learning
  difference’ or ‘learning needs’.
• Teachers assess strengths, learning
  style and areas in which teaching
  style may need to be adapted or
  additional support may be required
  ER Dyslexia Guidelines
• Guidelines adhere to the above definitions
• Assessment should be contextual and
  completed over a period of time
• Assessment embedded within ER STINT
  system
• School make considered assessment
• Psychologist involved on a consultative
  basis in most cases
  ER Dyslexia Guidelines
• Assessment should include:
-A balance between child factors and
  environmental factors
-Assessment of learning style
-Assessment of the learning environment
-Assessment of the learner’s perspective
-The perspectives of parents and carers
-Views of relevant professionals
-Compilation of assessment profile
 ER Guidelines: Role of the
     Dyslexia Advisor
• Support class teacher in terms of
  identifying literacy difficulties
• Support class teachers to differentiate
  curriculum
• Provide additional support to individuals of
  groups as appropriate
• Support teachers with preparation of IEPs
  where appropriate
     Braidbar Primary Dyslexia
       Assessment Protocol
1)  Early comprehensive screening in P2
2)  Screening involves class teacher(s) dyslexia advisor
    School management and psychologist
3) STINT agreed
4) School complete further assessment on identified
    pupils
5) Further discussion with psychologist
6) Parents invited to attend feedback meeting
** If there is uncertainty or if it is felt that there may
    be more complex difficulties it may be decided that
    the EP will undertake further assessment
          Reading Indicators
  (but depends on age and stage)
• Difficulty learning the connection between sounds and
  letters
• Difficulty separating words into sounds and blending
• Difficulty decoding words
• Misses sounds out
• Reads slowly
• Reading by memory
• Word substitutions (e.g. horse for home)
• Confusion of similar looking words and sounds (e.g. d
  for b)
• Transposals E.g. tip for pit
• Poor directionality (e.g. difficulty moving from left to
  right, misses out lines )
         Writing Indicators
•   Delay in learning to write
•   Poor spelling
•   Limited written output
•   Transposition of words and letters (e.g. tip for pit)
•   Reversals and inversions of letters (m for w, d for b)
•   Mixing upper and lower case letters
•   Badly or wrongly formed letters
•   Difficulty copying from the board
•   Disorganised sequencing in a story
•   Confusion over punctuation and grammar
             Language

• Poor phonological awareness
• Speech sound difficulties (present or in
  past)
• Sequencing difficulties (difficulty
  following a sequence of instructions,
  days of week, months of year)
• Word finding difficulties
  Associated difficulties
• Visual stress/Meres-Irlen
• Memory difficulties
• Difficulty with maths (e.g. difficulty
  decoding mathematical symbols, difficulty
  with working memory affects mental
  maths ability, long term memory difficulty
  affects learning of multiplication tables,
  difficulty reading language embedded
  within maths activities)
• Difficulties with motor coordination
Discussion