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Nonfinite Verb Phrases, Participle and Gerund

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					EXERCISE ANSWER KEY
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CHAPTER 12 - NONFINITE VERB PHRASES, PART II: PARTICIPLE AND GERUND
PHRASES

Exercise 12.1

1.    Jeremy [NP1 - subject] + felt [MVlink] +uneasy [adjective subject complement] +still
      [ADVP]
       Feel = Linking Verb, Type III Sentence

2.    The family [NP1 - subject] + was [MVbe] + on a trip to Europe [adverbial complement]
      Be = Be verb, Type II Sentence

3.    The school board [NP1 - subject] + had elected [MVtr] + him [NP2 - direct object] +
      superintendent [NP2 - object complement]
      Elect = Transitive verb, Type V Sentence

4.    Margaret [NP1 - subject] + rushed [MVint] + to her final exam [adverbial modifier]
      Rush = Intransitive verb, Type I Sentence

5.    A bystander [NP1 - subject] + became [MVlink] + a help to the election volunteers [NP1 -
      nominal subject complement with prepositional phrase modifier] + at last [adverbial
      modifier]
      Become = Linking verb, Type IV Sentence

6.    Teddy [NP1 - subject] + saw [MVtr] + his parents [NP2 - direct object] + at the arrival gate
      [adverbial modifier] + finally [adverbial modifier]
      See = Transitive verb, Type V Sentence

7.    We [NP1 - subject] + heard [MVtr] + a television in the living room [NP2 - direct object]
      Hear = Transitive verb, Type V Sentence

8.    Jody [NP1 - subject] + stood [MVint] + at the front of the auditorium [ADVP]
      Stand = Intransitive verb, Type I Sentence


Exercise 12.2

1.    sitting at one of the desks = adjectival present participle phrase. Relative clause test: A
      secretary who was sitting at one of the desks




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2.    sensing that he had done something foolish = adverbial present participle phrase.
      Movability: (Sensing that he had done something foolish, Ralph began to whistle).
      Wh-question: (Why did Ralph begin to whistle?). Adverbial substitution (Then Ralph
      began to whistle).

3.    slowly dripping onto her clean dress = adjectival present participle phrase. Relative
      clause test: the ice cream that was slowly dripping onto her clean dress

4.    Suddenly realizing what he was eating = adverbial present participial phrase.
      Movability: The diner put down his fork, suddenly realizing what he was eating. Wh-
      question: Why did the diner put down his fork?). Adverbial substitution: (Then the diner
      put down his fork).

5.    Hoping for warm weather = adverbial present participle phrase. Movability: (Dot, hoping for
      warm weather, packed several bathing suits for her vacation). Wh-question: (Why did Dot
      pack several bathing suits?). Adverbial substitution: (Then Dot packed several bathing suits).

6.    coming from basement = adjectival present participle phrase. Relative clause test: The
      strange noises that were coming from basement

7.    Using a password jotted down beside the computer = adverbial present participle phrase.
      Movability: (Leonard managed to log onto AOL using a password jotted down beside the
      computer). Wh-question: (How did Leonard manage to log onto AOL?). Adverbial
      substitution: (Then Leonard managed to log onto AOL).

8.    Squeezing his eyes shut = adverbial present participle phrase. Movability: (Sandy,
      squeezing his eyes shut before he blew out the candles, wished for a new catcher=s mitt).
      Wh-question: (Why did Sandy wish for a new catcher=s mitt?). Adverbial substitution:
      (Then Sandy wished for a new catcher=s mitt).


Exercise 12.3

1.    welcoming = adjective: a very welcoming smile, a more welcoming smile

2.    thrilling = adjective: a very thrilling scene, a more thrilling scene

3.    barking = participle: *a very barking dog; *a more barking dog

4.    burrowing = participle: *a very burrowing animal, *a more burrowing animal
      [Living is a present participle in main verb phrase: [is] living.]

5.    leading = adjective: very leading questions; more leading questions
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6.    reigning = participle: *a very reigning king; *a more reigning king

7.    falling = participle: *a very falling meteor; *a more falling meteor
      hitting = participle: *a meteor very hitting the earth; a *a meteor more hitting the earth

8.    Increasing = participle: *very increasing health care costs; *more/most increasing health
      care costs.
      failing = present participle in main verb phrase: are failing


Exercise 12.4

1.    to feel [MVlink] + more comfortable [ADJP - Subject Complement ]
      Feel = Linking verb, Type III Sentence

2.    to find [MVtr] + the last scene of that movie [NP2 - direct object] thrilling [ADJP - object
      complement]
      Find = Transitive verb, Type V Sentence

3.    There is no infinitive.

4.    to be living [MVintr] + in our yard [ADVP] + this year [ADVP]
      Live = Intransitive verb, Type I Sentence

5.    to ask [MVtr] + politicians [NP2 - indirect object] + leading questions [NP3 - direct object]
      Ask = Transitive verb, Sentence Type V

6.    There is no infinitive.

7.    to the extinction of dinosaurs = a prepositional phrase

8.    to buy [MVtr] + medical insurance [NP2 - direct object]
      Buy = Transitive verb, Sentence Type V.




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Exercise 12.5

1.    YOUNG SUPPORTS HITTING COACH
      If hitting modifies coach, it is an adjectival participle.
      If hitting is the direct object of supports (someone hit the coach), it is a gerund.

2.    POLICE STOP SLAYING SUSPECT LOOK-ALIKES
      If slaying modifies suspect, it is an adjectival participle. The phrase refers to people who
      look like the slaying suspect.
      If slaying is the direct object of stop (they stop the slaying of suspects), it is a gerund.

3.    THAI HOSPITAL ADMITS STARVING REFUGEE BABIES
      If starving modifies refugee babies, it is an adjectival participle.
      If starving is the direct object of admits (they starve babies), it is a gerund.

4.    FBI ADDS TO REWARD FOR KILLING SUSPECTS
      If killing modifies suspects, it is an adjectival participle.
      If killing is the object of the preposition for (a reward for the killing of suspects), it is a
      gerund.

5.    SHOOTING WITNESS HELPS BUILD MURDER CASE
      If shooting modifies witness, it is an adjectival participle.
      If shooting is the subject of helps (someone shoots the witness), it is a gerund.

6.    COUNCIL STANDS AGAINST DRUGS AND BITING DOGS
      If biting modifies dogs, it is an adjectival participle.
      If biting is the object of the preposition against (they are against anyone biting dogs), it is
      a gerund.


Exercise 12.6

1.    learning how to park the car = gerund (nominal); pronoun substitution (Eddie got his
      license without something/it.)

2.    learning to park the car = adverbial participle phrase. Wh-question: (How is Polly
      spending a lot of time?) Adverbial substitution: (Polly is spending a lot of time
      somehow.)
      [Spending is a present participle in the main verb phrase.]




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3.    learning to park the car = adjectival participle phrase modifying Polly. Relative clause
      test: (Polly, who was learning to park the car)
      [Watching Polly is a gerund phrase, the direct object of enjoy.]

4.    Searching for the Picasso Museum = adverbial participle phrase. Wh-question: (When
      did Helen pause to admire a rosebush?). Adverbial substitution: (Then Helen paused to
      admire a rosebush blooming in a nearby garden.)
      blooming in a nearby garden = adjectival participle phrase modifying rosebush. Relative
      clause test: (a rosebush that was blooming in a nearby garden)

5.   coming from the kitchen = adjectival participle phrase modifying clouds of smoke.
     Relative clause test: (clouds of smoke that were coming from the kitchen)
     burning = adjectival participle phrase modifying beans. Relative clause test: (beans that
     were burning)

6.   sleeping during the storm = gerund (nominal); pronoun substitution (I found something/it
     difficult.)
     banging = adjectival participle, modifying shutters. Relative clause test: (shutters that
     were banging)

7.   delivering the package = adjectival participle phrase modifying man. Relative clause
     test: (The man who was delivering the package)
     sleeping by the front door = adjectival participle phrase modifying dog. Relative clause
     test: (The dog that was sleeping by the front door)

8.   Listening to Mahler = gerund (nominal), subject of sentence; pronoun substitution
     (Something/it was better than watching television while studying for exams.)
     watching television = gerund (nominal), object of preposition than; was better than
     something/it.
     while studying for exams = adverbial participle phrase. Movability: (While studying for
     exams, listening to Mahler was better than watching television). Wh-question: (When
     was listening to Mahler better than watching television?). Adverbial substitution:
     (Listening to Mahler was better than watching television then.)




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Exercise 12.7

1.    riding = gerund, direct object of loved. It fills a noun position (Eloise always loved
      something/it) but fails the noun tests (*the riding, *ridings).

2.    riding = adjectival participle. It modifies boots but fails adjective test (*very riding
      boots).
      dancing = adjectival participle. It modifies slippers but fails adjective test (*very
      dancing slippers).

3.    Warning = adverbial participle. It can be moved in its sentence (The bomb squad,
      warning everyone away from the area, decided to destroy the suspicious-looking
      package.
      suspicious-looking = adjective modifying package. It passes adjective test (very
      suspicious-looking package).

4.    warning = adjectival participle. It modifies letter but fails adjective test (*very warning
      letter).
      infuriating = adjective, subject complement. It passes adjective test (very infuriating).

5.    Considering = adverbial participle. Movability: (The Poetry Society has canceled the
      reading scheduled for tomorrow, considering that there is no lecture hall available). Wh-
      question: (Why has the Poetry Society canceled the reading?)
      reading = noun, direct object of canceled. It is preceded by a determiner and can be
      pluralized.

6.    reading = gerund, object of preposition after. It fills a noun position (Senator Snorf
      contemplated making a bonfire after something/it) but fails the noun tests (*the reading
      his mail, *after readings his mail).
      making = gerund, direct object of contemplated. It fills a noun position (Senator Snorf
      contemplated making a bonfire with something/it) but fails the noun tests (*the making a
      bonfire, makings a bonfire)

7.    briefing = noun. It is preceded by a determiner and can be pluralized.
      dining = adjectival participle. It modifies room but fails adjective test (*very dining
      room).

8.    seeing = gerund, object of the preposition after. It fills a noun position (After something,
      the class left asking questions) but fails the noun tests (*after the seeing, *the seeings).
      asking = adverbial participle. It can be moved in its sentence (Asking questions about
      authenticity, the class left the Cathedral) and how can substitute for it in a wh-questions
      (How did the class leave the Cathedral?).

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Exercise 12.8

1.    [Ernesto] was kept awake by their barking dog.

2.    [This bill] will be signed into law.

3.    [Cal] was disgusted by the long wait for the lifts by mid-afternoon.

4.    [Pasta] is correctly cooked and carefully sauced.

5.    [Gregg] was strapped for funds.

6.    [Norma] was sworn to secrecy by the hostess.

7.    [Joel] was urged on by the hope of winning at last.

8.    [Sandra] was encouraged by her high quiz grades.


Exercise 12.9

1.    carrying the first wave of parachutists = restrictive present participle modifying plane [It
      identifies which plane missed the target.]

2.    newly painted and detailed = nonrestrictive past participles modifying car [It supplies
      extra information about the car.]

3.    Armed with a pepper spray = non-restrictive past participle phrase modifying the meter
      reader [It supplies extra information about the meter reader.]
      snarling = restrictive present participle modifying dogs [It identifies which dogs.]

4.    searching for pearls = restrictive present participle phrase modifying divers [It identifies which
      divers.]
      mistakenly believed by some to be part of Atlantis = restrictive past participle phrase
      modifying ruins [It identifies the ruins.]

5.    leading the pack = restrictive present participle phrase modifying jockey [It identifies
      which jockey.]
      coming up at his side = restrictive present participle phrase modifying horse [It identifies
      which horse.]



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6.    ravaged by floods = restrictive past participle phrase modifying town [It identifies which
      town.]
      [Reached is a part participle, but it is not adjectival; it is part of the main verb phrase.]

7.    Constructed of shoddy timber = non-restrictive past participle phrase modifying shack [It
      supplies extra information about the abandoned shack.]
      abandoned = restrictive past participle modifying shack [It identifies which shack.]
      Fallen is a past participle, but it is not adjectival; it is part of the main verb phrase.

8.    Sighing loudly = non-restrictive present participle phrase modifying Margaret [It
      supplies extra information about Margaret.]
      Making is a gerund, not an adjectival participle.


Exercise 12.10

1.    buying = present participle, part of main verb phrase is buying
      left to her by aunt Tillie = past participle phrase, adjectival, modifying money; fails the
      adjective test (*very left money); derives from a relative clause (that was left to her by
      Aunt Tillie)

2.    found on the floor of the auditorium after the crowd had left = past participle phrase,
      adjectival, modifying items; fails the adjective test (*very found); derives from a relative
      clause (that were found)
      left = past participle, part of main verb phrase had left

3.    Keeping to the far right lane = present participle phrase, adverbial. Movability (The
      driver, keeping to the right lane, hoped to pull over). Wh-question (How did the driver
      hope to pull over). Adverbial substitution (The driver hoped somehow to pull over).

4.    wrecking = present participle, adjectival, modifying crew; fails the adjective test (*very
      wrecking)
      tearing = gerund, direct object of started; pronoun substitution (The wrecking crew
      started something/it).

5.    Waiting in the long line for tickets = present participle phrase, adverbial. Wh-question
      (When did Maria begin wishing for other shoes?) and Adverbial substitution (Then Maria
      began wishing she had worn more comfortable shoes).
      wishing = gerund, direct object of began.
      worn = past participle, part of the main verb phrase had worn.



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6.    Locked out of his house = past participle phrase, adverbial. Wh-question (Why did Jerry
      look for the key?); Adverbial substitution (Then Jerry looked for the key).
      hidden under one of the flower pots = past participle phrase, adjectival, modifying key;
      derives from a relative clause (that was hidden under one of the flower pots), but fails
      the adjective test (*very hidden key).

7.    Buried in the mudslide = past participle phrase, adjectival, modifying Jaguar; fails the
      adjective test (*very buried); derives from a relative clause (that was buried in a mud
      slide)

8.    Hoping to avoid the crowds later in the day = present participle phrase, adverbial;
      Movability (Sam and Jennifer, hoping to avoid crowds later in the day, . . .); Wh-question
      (Why did Sam and Jennifer plan to arrive before 10:00 A.M.?); Adverbial substitution
      (Sam and Jennifer planned to arrive at the beach before 10:00 A.M. somehow).


Exercise 12.11

1.    Upset = adjective: very upset, more upset
      prepared = past participle: *very prepared report, *more prepared report

2.    Surprised = adjective: very surprised, more surprised
      placed = past participle: *very placed, *more placed

3.    recharged: = past participle: *very recharged, *more recharged
      worn-out = adjective: very worn-out, more worn-out

4.    indentured = past participle: *very indentured servants, *more indentured servants
      paid = past participle: *very paid, *more paid

5.    Defeated = past participle: *very defeated in the last few seconds, *more defeated in the
      last few seconds (Can also be an adjective: He had never felt more defeated than now.)
      exhausted = adjective: very exhausted, more exhausted

6.    Determined = adjective: very determined, more determined
      promised = past participle: *very promised, *more promised

7.    used = adjective? ?very used computer, ?more used computer
      refurbished = past participle: *very refurbished, *more refurbished




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8.     stuffed = past participle: *very stuffed with dressing, *more stuffed with dressing. (Can
       also be an adjective: I was very stuffed after eating the turkey.)
       surrounded = past participle: *very surrounded, *more surrounded
       roasted = past participle. *very roasted, *more roasted


Exercise 12.12

This exercise can be done individually or in small groups before class discussion. Other
solutions are possible.

1.     Dangling gerund (object of preposition to) - Suggests horses did the testing: In addition
       to having their blood pressure, cholesterol, and elecrolytes tested, the horses are also
       weighed or In addition to testing their blood pressure, cholesterol, and electrolytes, vets
       also weigh the horses.

2.     Dangling participle - We can=t tell who struggled: After struggling for over a year in pain
       and in partial paralysis, Roosevelt was told he would never walk again.

3.     Misplaced modifier - With great reluctance seems to modify the verb repave. The
       government agreed with great reluctance to repave the roads.

4.     Dangling gerund (object of preposition by) - Can be corrected by supplying a subject for
       teach: Professor Baldwin hopes that if she teaches the causes of violence, her students
       will be better able to deal with violence. An alternative is to introduce a new main verb,
       help with its subject the same as that of teaching: Professor Baldwin hopes that by
       teaching the causes of violence, she will help her students to be better able to deal with
       violence.

5.     Dangling gerund phrase - Can best be corrected by making transportation system the
       subject of the main clause, Prior to being dismantled in the early part of this century, the
       transportation system of Southern California was a model for others.

6.     Dangling participle - Can be corrected by giving both participle and the main clause the
       same subject: Having traveled halfway across the pacific, Sharon Carpenter found her
       first glimpse of the green island of Hawaii a welcome sight.

7.     Dangling participle - We can’t tell who or what is burned: Burned on the outside, the
       lamb roast on the grill looked good to Jeff Smith, the “Frugal Gourmet.”




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8.     Dangling infinitive - Can be corrected by making the subject of the main clause the same
       as the subject of the infinitive: To improve your writing style, you should avoid using
       clichés.


Exercise 12.13

More than one solution is possible for each of these.

1.     Culver Police: The Shooting Victims Are Unhelpful
       Culver Police: Victims of Shooting Are Unhelpful
       (But presumably not: Culver Police: Shooting The Victims Is Unhelpful)

2.     Hitler Is Used to Sell Potato Chips
       (But presumably not: At One Time Hitler Sold Potato Chips)

3.     Residents of Toxic Street Storm Out of Meeting
       (But presumably not: Toxic Residents Storm Out of Street Meeting)

4.     Governor, Others Argue for Monument to Bombing Victims
       (But presumably not: Governor, Others Argue that Victims Should Be Bombed)

5.     Coroner Reports that Woman Died While Riding Horse
       (But presumably not: While Riding Horse, Coroner Reports that a Woman Died)

6.     Call for Ban on Toys Made of Vinyl for Tots
       (But presumably not: Call for Ban on Toys for Tots Who Are Made of Vinyl)

7.     Berkeley Council to Discuss Private Nudity
       (But presumably not: Berkeley Council Meeting in Private to Discuss Nudity)

8.     After 18 Years, Sisters Reunited in Checkout Line at Supermarket
       (But presumably not: Sisters Reunited Who Were in Checkout Line at Supermarket for
       18 Years)

9.     N.J. Jails for Women Are in Need of Face Lift
       (But presumably not: N.J. Is Jailing Women Who Are in Need of Face Lift

10     Pope Remembers the Shooting Victims
       (But presumably not: Pope Remembers that He Shot Victims)



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Exercise 12.14

1.    the muleta held low = The muleta was held low by him. Or He held the muleta low.
      his feet firm = His feet were firm.

2.    her arms spread wide = Her arms were spread wide. Or She spread he arms wide.
      her eyes lifted toward the moon = Her eyes were lifted toward the moon by her. Or She
      lifted her eyes toward the moon.

3.    her glasses low across the bridge of her nose = Her glasses were low across the bridge of
      her nose.

4.    his face pinched = His face was pinched.
      his eyes shiny = His eyes were shiny.

5.    noses smeared with suntan cream = Their noses were smeared with suntan cream. Or
      They smeared their noses with suntan cream.


REVIEW EXERCISES

Recognizing Participle and Gerund Phrases

1.    recycling ballpoint pens - adjectival present participle phrase (modifying woman)

2.    Humming and popping loudly - adverbial present participle phrase

3.    delivered by the cleaners - adjectival past participle phrase (modifying clothes)

4.    speaking frankly and truthfully - gerund phrase (object of the preposition on)

5.    splattered on his shirt front - adjectival past participle phrase (modifying stains)

6.    taking notes - adjectival present participle phrase (modifying gentleman)
      covered with diagrams - adjectival past participle phrase (modifying screen)

7.    writing her in-class essay - gerund phrase (direct object of finished)
      upsetting the slower students - adverbial present participle phrase

8.    told by the survivors - adjectival past participle phrase (modifying stories)
      waiting on the dock - adjectival present participle phrase (modifying reporters)


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Form and Function of Phrases and Clauses

1.    Adjectival past participle phrase; modifies operas.

                                                   SIII


                      NP                                                    VP

              NP                ADJP                                MVP          ADJP

                                       SV                           MVlink
                          NP1
                                              VP

                                            MVP              NP2

                                            MVtr


          The operas [Mozart                 wrote        operas]     are    delightful

         The operas      [the operas were          written by Mozart] are         delightful
                         which




2.    Infinitive phrase; adverbial (tells why he read the paper)



                                  SV


                                                             VP
           NP1

                                MVP                 NP2                            ADVP

                                                                                        SV

                             MVtr                                            NP                     VP

                                                                                        MVP                  NP2

                                                                                          MVtr

          The customer          read          a newspaper            [the customer           pass        the time]

                                                                                        to




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3.    That-clause; nominal; direct object of know

                                 SV



            NP1                                      VP


                                                           NP2
                        MVP                                                                      ADVP
                                        COMP                               SV
                    MVtr
                                                     NP1                        VP

                                                                    MVP                 NP2



                                                                    MVtr



     your supervisor does know        [that    these people        dislike               him    somehow

                                                                                                 How




4.    Infinitive phrase; nominal; direct object of hoped



                                        SV
                                                           VP
                  NP1

                                 MVP                        NP2                       ADVP

                                                              SV
                                 MVtr
                                               NPI                        VP
                                                                 MVP            NP2

                                                                 MVtr

               we                hoped        [we                attend      the new play] After dinner
                                                           to




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5.    Infinitive phrase; nominal (adjective complement)

                      SIII

        NP                           VP


                MVP                            ADJP

                             ADJP                        NP
              MVlink
                                                          SV

                                                                        VP
                                           NP1
                                                       MVP                           NP2

                                                                    COMP                             SV
                                                        MV tr
                                                                                    NP1                          VP

                                                                                                     MVP                NP2

                                                                                                     MVtr
      Gary      was          angry    [Gary            learn        [that     the police      had impounded           his car]].
                                                  to

     Gary     was            angry        to           learn        that      the police      had impounded           his car




6.    Relative clause; adjectival; modifies technician



                                      SV

                                                               VP
               NP1
                                     MVP                                    NP2

                                                         NP                                 ADJP
                                                                                             SV
                                 MVtr                                                                     VP
                                                                            NP1            MVP                 NP2
                                                                                            MVtr


               Meg               needs           a technician        [a technician         can fix     her printer]

                                                                            who


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7.    Present participle phrase; adjectival (modifies boys)

                             SV

                                                VP
      NP1
                    MVP                                 NP2

                                           NP                                  ADJP                                 ADJP
                                                                                SII                                  SV
                    MVtr                                                                  VP                                 VP
                                                         NP               MVP                           NP1        MVP
                                                                                               ADVP                               NP2
                                                                          MVbe                                      MVtr


      You       have seen            some boys       [some boys           were         on the beach]   [some boys were flying kites]
                                                                                                                              .
                                                        who                                              who




8.    Prepositional phrase; adjectival (subject complement)

                                                                        lik
                                                                           e          scre
                                                                                          am
                                                                                            ing



                                     Pam             feels
                                                             som
                                                                etim
                                                                    e




9.    Subordinate clause; adverbial (tells when)

                        to
                                  plant     parsnips



            I           want                                      we
                                                                    edi
                                                                       ng
                                   aft




                                                                                        garden
                                      er




                                                                                            the

                    I                have finished




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10.   Infinitive phrase; nominal; direct object of want (See diagram # 9)

11.   Past participle, adjectival (object complement)




       Max           prefers        cheeseburgers            grilled
                                              his                      on
                                                                            grill
                                                                                         outd charc
                                                                                    an       oor   oal




12.   Noun phrase; nominal (appositive - renames the subject, Madonna)




                                                lovers         were
                                                  ma mu           the
                                                                     re
                                                    ny sic
                                               ho
                                                 w




             Madonna (star)               wondered
                              the    of
                                            evening
                                                 the




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Practical Applications: Modifiers

1.    This sentence is correct.

2.    After you pay at Window B, your temporary license will be issued at Window C.
      After paying at Window B, go to Window C for your temporary license.

3.    A weekly plan is necessary if the teacher is to be sure that everything is covered during
      the semester.
      To be sure that everything is covered during the semester, the teacher needs a weekly
      plan.

4.    This sentence is correct.

5.    Having put the turkey and the potato casserole in the oven, the cook could find no room
      for the pumpkin pie.

6.    When completely filled out, the evaluations were collected by the ushers.




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