download - Computing Science _ The University of Aberdeen

Document Sample
download - Computing Science _ The University of Aberdeen Powered By Docstoc
					     CS5038 The Electronic Society
Lecture 8: e-Government
Lecture Outline
•   Terminology - G2C, G2B, G2E
•   Major areas of G2C activities
•   Six stages to implementation
•   Implementation Problems
•   Current state in UK
•   E-Government - Increasing Inequality?
•   Addressing the Democratic Deficit
•   eParticipation
•   eGovernment in the Developing World – Sri Lanka
•   eGovernment in Singapore

The use of electronic technology by a government to:
 Deliver its services better
 Improve its efficiency and effectiveness (just like eCommerce)
     Less staff needed to serve people quicker/cheaper
 Make governments more transparent to citizens and businesses
 Access to more of the information generated by government
Government to citizens (G2C)
 Delivery of public services etc. (next slide)
Government-to-employees (G2E)
 Activities and services between government units and their employees
Government to Government (G2G)
 Intragovernmental activities
     Within a Government department and between Government bodies

Government to business (G2B)
E-Procurement – reverse auctions for MROs
    Group purchasing
        • eFAST service ( conducts reverse auctions for
          aggregated orders
      government surpluses
      real estate
      seized goods
Tax collection and management
   electronic filing of taxes is now available in over 100

Major areas of G2C activities:
    tourism and recreation
    research and education
    downloadable forms
    discovery of government services
    information about public policy
    advice about health and safety issues
    Pay tax & bills, receive documents and payments
         Nationwide Electronic benefit transfer (EBT) system in U.S. to
          deliver government benefits electronically
            • deliver benefits to recipients’ bank accounts
            • smart card system for those without bank accounts
    Makes government more transparent to citizens - access to information
    Greater opportunities to participate in democratic institutions
    Future: voting
Useful in solving constituents’ problems
    Track problems using CRM-type software                           4(#total)
               E-Government Stages
Six stages to implementation (most governments are at stage 1)
1. Information publishing/dissemination – services available,
   contact details
2. Two-way transactions
   - Submit personal information, monetary transactions
3. Multipurpose portals
   – in Australia:
4. Portal personalisation
   – must allow interfaces to be manipulated by user
5. Clustering of common services
   – people see clusters of services rather than agencies
   – reorganisation of government structure
6. Full integration and enterprise transformation
    – full service centre personalised to customer
Implementation issues
    Transformation speed - usually slow:
       Resistance by employees
       Limited budget
       Legal environment
    G2B implementation
       Easier than G2C
       Can be outsourced (Hong Kong)
    Security and privacy issues
       Citizens’ data
       Especially healthcare
    Wireless applications
       E.g. wireless tourist service (Bergen)
              E-Government in UK
Implementation issues
     Has reached the stage of two-way transactions with many sites
     Fast uptake of broadband in UK, but sparse use of online eGovernment
      services by citizens
     Few government employees have completed their first ECDL module
     800 Government bodies spawned 3000 sites (2003)
        Need for sites offering related services in one place
        Each distinct site needs to be clear and focused
        E.g. housing, transport, education, immigration
        Public will learn to associate that site with its particular services
     Fragmented view of a citizen
        Many different departments hold records
        Often Different formats
        Implementation of cross agency infrastructure lacking

 E-Government - Increasing Inequality?
Digital divide within UK:
    The haves – Broadband access from the home
    The have-nots – no Internet access
        Except in Public libraries perhaps
        May lack skills/education to use it effectively
    The elderly – may lack skills, and may not trust faceless
Those on the wrong side of the digital divide may be even more
  excluded from participation in democracy
    Important information on candidates at election time
    Submission to ePetitions – for lobbying parliament
    Brazil offering half a million computers to citizens at low
    Credit schemes to assist citizens to buy                    9(#total)
    Addressing the Democratic Deficit
Voter turnout has dropped

     Addressing the Democratic Deficit
              (Many facts from essay by Robert Glasgow)
Voter turnout has dropped
     in the United States:
         70% of eligible population register to vote
         50% vote in presidential elections
     Western Europe: average 77% turnout
     UK: 60%
         Especially low among young, unemployed, ethnic minorities
     Latin America: 54%
     Decline almost wholly concentrated among young people
Membership in political parties:
     1950s – 3.5M
     2000s – 0.5M
Public Trust in:
     Politicians 18%
     Doctors 91%
    Addressing the Democratic Deficit

Participation in new social movements has increased
    Campaign groups
    ~1M demonstrated against Iraq war
    NGOs (e.g. Amnesty International)
    Increasingly on the Internet
People disillusioned with traditional political system?

               Electronic Participation
    Top down benefits: Potential to make citizens
        More informed
           • Streaming footage of debates
           • Political information
        More engaged
           • Webchats with elected representatives
           • Online Voting (Estonia and Switzerland)
       More trusting
    Bottom up benefits: Potential for citizens to
       Contribute to policy making
           • Online Questionnaires
           • Discussion Forums
       Propose policies themselves
       Hold politicians to account
    Reach to young people
       30% of 15-24yr olds have engaged in online political activity (10%
              Electronic Participation
     Unrealistic
     Ignores existing political process
        De-legitimises existing institutions
        Power devolved from elected representatives and placed in
         hands of administrative side
        Politicians may be unable to fulfil campaign promises
    Ignores problems in web technologies
        Easy to set up forum
        Hard to analyse and collate results – unrealistic software
        Too open to deception/malicious use
    Some politicians view public participation as a threat

                Electronic Participation
“Big Conversation” -
     77-page document setting out challenges faced by Britain
     Website gives people a chance to air their views on policies
     Issues:
          Ban workplace smoking?
          Should rowdy city centre pubs contribute towards policing?
          Funding in further education and UK
          How important is the euro to locking in macroeconomic
    Criticisms:
        Merely a publicity stunt
        Danger of pressure groups hijacking exercise

                Electronic Participation
“Big Conversation”
 - Guardian Article:
     “For the duration of its life, the Big Conversation website carried not a
      single comment from a single voter on:
         Iraq
         Terrorism
         Blair's relationship with Bush
     “Working on this newspaper's Diary column at the time, I was contacted
      almost daily by people who had attempted to address one of the above
      issues in either an email or text message (price: 25p), but whose
      comments mysteriously never materialised on the site…”
     “As for those that made it through…
         "I am so proud to have voted Labour with my first ever vote a few
          years ago," read one comment. "Everywhere I look I see new cars,
          wealth, opportunities, investment and most favourable mortgage
 eGovernment in the Developing World
"About 99% of the benefits of having a PC come when you've
  provided reasonable health and literacy to the person who's
  going to sit down and use it".

Bill Gates, Chairman of Microsoft

eGovernment in the Developing World

eGovernment in the Developing World

 eGovernment in the Developing World
Case study in Sri Lanka (by Geeth de Mel):
ICT Programme established in 2002
     Improved delivery off social services
         Let people access information efficiently
     Improve inter organisation communication
     Reducing the vulnerabilities to natural disasters
         Example of existing problems:
         Tsunami of 2004 – still no accurate figures on affected people
         No mechanisms to support aid organisations in immediate aftermath
     Greater transparency
     Reduce corruption
     Increased social participation
     Empowerment off poor
     Further socio-economic development
 eGovernment in the Developing World
Case study in Sri Lanka (by Geeth de Mel):
Example Failure/Success
    Ministry of Education went online with exam results
       System poorly planned and crashed
       Took department longer than old manual system
    Success story from same department in 2004
       Introduced new ICT curriculum
       Success due to Internet+television+radio (more accessible)

 eGovernment in the Developing World
Case study in Sri Lanka (by Geeth de Mel):
     Lack cash flow – encourage assistance of 3rd parties
       Vested Interest by 3rd parties can change project goals
    Corruption by high ranking officials
    Schools starting to get computer labs
       But not all villages have electricity
    IT literacy
       City: 35%
       Rural: <10%
    Computer ownership
       Urban: 10%
       Rural: 3%
       Estate: 0.3%
          eGovernment in Singapore
eCitizen can
     do passport application
     register as resident
     find jobs in government
     pay road tax
     donate to Charities
Government’s role changes from manager to service provider
Citizens become like customers
     Dependence on technology also brings vulnerability
     Hackers/terrorists
       easier than physical attacks on government
    privacy
           eGovernment Summary
•   Terminology - G2C, G2B, G2E
•   Major areas of G2C activities
•   Six stages to implementation
•   Implementation Problems
•   Current state in UK
•   E-Government - Increasing Inequality?
•   Addressing the Democratic Deficit
•   eParticipation
•   eGovernment in the Developing World – Sri Lanka
•   eGovernment in Singapore


Shared By: