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					     CS5038 The Electronic Society
Lecture 8: e-Government
Lecture Outline
•   Terminology - G2C, G2B, G2E
•   Major areas of G2C activities
•   Six stages to implementation
•   Implementation Problems
•   Current state in UK
•   E-Government - Increasing Inequality?
•   Addressing the Democratic Deficit
•   eParticipation
•   eGovernment in the Developing World – Sri Lanka
•   eGovernment in Singapore


                                                      1(#total)
                        E-Government
The use of electronic technology by a government to:
 Deliver its services better
 Improve its efficiency and effectiveness (just like eCommerce)
     Less staff needed to serve people quicker/cheaper
 Make governments more transparent to citizens and businesses
 Access to more of the information generated by government
Government to citizens (G2C)
 Delivery of public services etc. (next slide)
Government-to-employees (G2E)
 Activities and services between government units and their employees
Government to Government (G2G)
 Intragovernmental activities
     Within a Government department and between Government bodies




                                                                    2(#total)
                       E-Government
Government to business (G2B)
E-Procurement – reverse auctions for MROs
    Group purchasing
        • eFAST service (gsa.gov) conducts reverse auctions for
          aggregated orders
E-Auctions
      government surpluses
      real estate
      seized goods
Tax collection and management
   electronic filing of taxes is now available in over 100
     countries



                                                                  3(#total)
                             E-Government
Major areas of G2C activities: http://www.direct.gov.uk/Homepage/fs/en
    tourism and recreation
    research and education
    downloadable forms
    discovery of government services
    information about public policy
    advice about health and safety issues
    Pay tax & bills, receive documents and payments
         Nationwide Electronic benefit transfer (EBT) system in U.S. to
          deliver government benefits electronically
            • deliver benefits to recipients’ bank accounts
            • smart card system for those without bank accounts
    Makes government more transparent to citizens - access to information
    Greater opportunities to participate in democratic institutions
    Future: voting
Useful in solving constituents’ problems
    Track problems using CRM-type software                           4(#total)
5(#total)
               E-Government Stages
Six stages to implementation (most governments are at stage 1)
1. Information publishing/dissemination – services available,
   contact details
2. Two-way transactions
   - Submit personal information, monetary transactions
3. Multipurpose portals
   – in Australia: www.sa.gov.au
4. Portal personalisation
   – must allow interfaces to be manipulated by user
5. Clustering of common services
   – people see clusters of services rather than agencies
   – reorganisation of government structure
6. Full integration and enterprise transformation
    – full service centre personalised to customer
                                                           6(#total)
                 E-Government
Implementation issues
    Transformation speed - usually slow:
       Resistance by employees
       Limited budget
       Legal environment
    G2B implementation
       Easier than G2C
       Can be outsourced (Hong Kong)
    Security and privacy issues
       Citizens’ data
       Especially healthcare
    Wireless applications
       E.g. wireless tourist service (Bergen)
                                                 7(#total)
              E-Government in UK
Implementation issues
     Has reached the stage of two-way transactions with many sites
     Fast uptake of broadband in UK, but sparse use of online eGovernment
      services by citizens
     Few government employees have completed their first ECDL module
     800 Government bodies spawned 3000 sites (2003)
        Need for sites offering related services in one place
        Each distinct site needs to be clear and focused
        E.g. housing, transport, education, immigration
        Public will learn to associate that site with its particular services
     Fragmented view of a citizen
        Many different departments hold records
        Often Different formats
        Implementation of cross agency infrastructure lacking


                                                                         8(#total)
 E-Government - Increasing Inequality?
Digital divide within UK:
    The haves – Broadband access from the home
    The have-nots – no Internet access
        Except in Public libraries perhaps
        May lack skills/education to use it effectively
    The elderly – may lack skills, and may not trust faceless
      interaction
Those on the wrong side of the digital divide may be even more
  excluded from participation in democracy
    Important information on candidates at election time
    Submission to ePetitions – for lobbying parliament
Solutions?
    Brazil offering half a million computers to citizens at low
      prices
    Credit schemes to assist citizens to buy                    9(#total)
    Addressing the Democratic Deficit
Voter turnout has dropped




                                        10(#total)
     Addressing the Democratic Deficit
              (Many facts from essay by Robert Glasgow)
Voter turnout has dropped
     in the United States:
         70% of eligible population register to vote
         50% vote in presidential elections
     Western Europe: average 77% turnout
     UK: 60%
         Especially low among young, unemployed, ethnic minorities
     Latin America: 54%
     Decline almost wholly concentrated among young people
Membership in political parties:
     1950s – 3.5M
     2000s – 0.5M
Public Trust in:
     Politicians 18%
     Doctors 91%
                                                                      11(#total)
    Addressing the Democratic Deficit

Participation in new social movements has increased
    Campaign groups
    ~1M demonstrated against Iraq war
    NGOs (e.g. Amnesty International)
    Increasingly on the Internet
People disillusioned with traditional political system?




                                                          12(#total)
               Electronic Participation
eRevolution?
    Top down benefits: Potential to make citizens
        More informed
           • Streaming footage of debates
           • Political information
        More engaged
           • Webchats with elected representatives
           • Online Voting (Estonia and Switzerland)
       More trusting
    Bottom up benefits: Potential for citizens to
       Contribute to policy making
           • Online Questionnaires
           • Discussion Forums
       Propose policies themselves
       Hold politicians to account
    Reach to young people
       30% of 15-24yr olds have engaged in online political activity (10%
        offline)
                                                                      13(#total)
              Electronic Participation
Criticisms:
     Unrealistic
     Ignores existing political process
        De-legitimises existing institutions
        Power devolved from elected representatives and placed in
         hands of administrative side
        Politicians may be unable to fulfil campaign promises
    Ignores problems in web technologies
        Easy to set up forum
        Hard to analyse and collate results – unrealistic software
        Too open to deception/malicious use
    Some politicians view public participation as a threat


                                                                      14(#total)
                Electronic Participation
“Big Conversation” - http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/3245620.stm
     77-page document setting out challenges faced by Britain
     Website gives people a chance to air their views on policies
     Issues:
          Ban workplace smoking?
          Should rowdy city centre pubs contribute towards policing?
          Funding in further education and UK
          How important is the euro to locking in macroeconomic
           stability?
    Criticisms:
        Merely a publicity stunt
        Danger of pressure groups hijacking exercise


                                                                  15(#total)
                Electronic Participation
“Big Conversation”
 - Guardian Article: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/3245620.stm
     “For the duration of its life, the Big Conversation website carried not a
      single comment from a single voter on:
         Iraq
         Terrorism
         Blair's relationship with Bush
     “Working on this newspaper's Diary column at the time, I was contacted
      almost daily by people who had attempted to address one of the above
      issues in either an email or text message (price: 25p), but whose
      comments mysteriously never materialised on the site…”
     “As for those that made it through…
         "I am so proud to have voted Labour with my first ever vote a few
          years ago," read one comment. "Everywhere I look I see new cars,
          wealth, opportunities, investment and most favourable mortgage
          rates."
                                                                         16(#total)
 eGovernment in the Developing World
"About 99% of the benefits of having a PC come when you've
  provided reasonable health and literacy to the person who's
  going to sit down and use it".

Bill Gates, Chairman of Microsoft




                                                           17(#total)
eGovernment in the Developing World




                                 18(#total)
eGovernment in the Developing World




                                 19(#total)
 eGovernment in the Developing World
Case study in Sri Lanka (by Geeth de Mel):
ICT Programme established in 2002
Aims:
     Improved delivery off social services
         Let people access information efficiently
     Improve inter organisation communication
     Reducing the vulnerabilities to natural disasters
         Example of existing problems:
         Tsunami of 2004 – still no accurate figures on affected people
         No mechanisms to support aid organisations in immediate aftermath
     Greater transparency
     Reduce corruption
     Increased social participation
     Empowerment off poor
     Further socio-economic development
                                                                     20(#total)
 eGovernment in the Developing World
Case study in Sri Lanka (by Geeth de Mel):
Example Failure/Success
    Ministry of Education went online with exam results
       System poorly planned and crashed
       Took department longer than old manual system
    Success story from same department in 2004
       Introduced new ICT curriculum
       Success due to Internet+television+radio (more accessible)




                                                               21(#total)
 eGovernment in the Developing World
Case study in Sri Lanka (by Geeth de Mel):
Difficulties
     Lack cash flow – encourage assistance of 3rd parties
       Vested Interest by 3rd parties can change project goals
    Corruption by high ranking officials
    Schools starting to get computer labs
       But not all villages have electricity
    IT literacy
       City: 35%
       Rural: <10%
    Computer ownership
       Urban: 10%
       Rural: 3%
       Estate: 0.3%
                                                                  22(#total)
          eGovernment in Singapore
http://www.ecitizen.gov.sg/
eCitizen can
     do passport application
     register as resident
     find jobs in government
     pay road tax
     donate to Charities
Government’s role changes from manager to service provider
Citizens become like customers
Dangers:
     Dependence on technology also brings vulnerability
     Hackers/terrorists
       easier than physical attacks on government
    privacy
                                                         23(#total)
           eGovernment Summary
•   Terminology - G2C, G2B, G2E
•   Major areas of G2C activities
•   Six stages to implementation
•   Implementation Problems
•   Current state in UK
•   E-Government - Increasing Inequality?
•   Addressing the Democratic Deficit
•   eParticipation
•   eGovernment in the Developing World – Sri Lanka
•   eGovernment in Singapore




                                                      24(#total)

				
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posted:4/20/2011
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