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Ch 33 Invertebrates - PowerPoint

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					 Phylogentic Relationships of Animals
                Platyhelminthes
Porifera                            Mollusca                             Chordata
                                                      Arthropoda



           Cnideria     Nematoda          Annelida
                                                             Echinodermata

                         pseudo
                         coelom
                                         segmentation
                 acoelom
                                  Protostome:
                                  schizocoelem          Deuterostomes:
                                                        eucoelom

                radial symmetry
                                        bilateral symmetry
                no true tissues         true tissue

                              Ancestral Protist
           Kingdom Animalia
• Eukaryotic, multicellular organisms with
  cells organized into distinct tissues.
   Heterotrophic nutrition
   Most exhibit significant capacity for
    locomotion.
   No cell walls; has a plasma membrane.
   Includes sponges, sea anemones,
    snails, insects, sea stars, fish, reptiles,
    birds, and human beings.
                Phylum Porifera

    Class        Class        Class             Class
Desmospongiae   Calcarea   Hexactinellida   Sclerospongia
       Phylum Porifera


• No true tissues or organs
• No symmetry
• No nerves, muscles, mouth or
  digestive system or
• Sessile
• Reproduce sexually and asexually
• Skeletons composed of CaCO3 or
  SiO2 spicules or spongin
• Filter feeders            5,000 species
Consists of organized cells supported by a skeleton
  of:
• spongin fibers
• calcareous spicules
• silica spicules
• a combination of these, or perhaps no skeletal
  structure at all
  No Gut
   Sponges
Phylum Porifera
• A few species of fish
• seaslugs
• hawks bill and loggerhead turtles

• Can use toxins to ward off predators
• Sponges provide habitat for wide variety
  of animals.
• As many as 16,000 different species of
  animals have been found in one
  loggerhead sponge.
•   Most marine sponges (>80%)
•   All freshwater sponges
•   Leuconoid
•   Spongin and SiO2 spicules
•   Contains all asconoid forms
•   Most syconoids
•   Generally small in stature
•   CaCO3 spicules
•   Mostly deep sea forms
•   Glass-like lattice work
•   SiO2 spicules
•   CaCO3 foundation with SiO2 spicules
•   Found in Pacific and West Indies
Asexual:
• production of external buds that detach or remain to
  form colonies
• internal buds called gemmules that form during
  unfavorable periods
• fragmentation (regeneration)

Sexual (mostly hermaphroditic):
• eggs are retained in the mesohyl and fertilized by
   motile sperm that enter through the internal
   canals. Zygotes develop into flagellated
   larvae, which break loose and are carried away by
   water currents.
                 Phylum Cnidaria

   Class            Class                 Class         Class
  Hydrozoa        Scyphozoa              Cubozoa       Anthozoa

         Hydra          True jellyfish   Box jellies     Corals
Portuguese Man-Of-War                    Sea wasps      Anemones
     Stinging Limu
       Fire Coral
Phylum Cnidaria

 Stinging cells & 2 stages in life cycle
 Radial symmetry
 Tissues and organs
 Diploblastic
 Mouth and digestive cavity (blind sac gut)


                                9,000 species
                 Polyp                   Medusa
             mouth/anus                           gastrovascular
                           epidermis              cavity


                           mesoglea

                          gastrodermis

gastrovascular
cavity                                        mouth/anus
      The Cnidarian Life Cycle




The Hydrozoan
Life Cycle
Nematocysts
    Class
   Hydrozoa

“Stinging Limu”
Hydrozoan Medusa
        Class
       Hydrozoa

     Close Up of a
Portuguese Man-Of-War
  Class
Scyphozoa
         Class
        Cubozoa   Seawasp


Box Jellies
 Class     Subclass Zoantharia
Anthozoa
             Order Actinaria
             Sea Anemones
 Class     Subclass Hexacorallia
Anthozoa
            Order Antipatheria
     Black Coral & Wire Coral
           Black coral




                  Wire coral
 Class
Anthozoa   “True” Stony Corals
lobe




                            finger


       mushroom




                           Porites rus
    Phylum Ctenophora




•   Diploblastic
•   8 rows or combs of cillia
•   Colloblasts- adhesive structures
•   Hydrostatic skeleton
•   Blind sack gut
                  Phylum
              Platyhelminthes
  Class             Class        Class
Turbellaria       Trematoda     Cestoda
Phylum Platyhelminthes

  Flatworms
  Blind digestive cavity
  Bilaterally symmetrical
  Thin, simple circulation
  Sensory organs at front
  Many parasitic

                             10,000 species
Fig. 33-10
             Pharynx
                             Class         Flatworm Anatomy
                           Turbellaria

    Gastrovascular
    cavity



                          Mouth



                        Eyespots




              Ganglia                    Ventral nerve cords
Pseudoceros cf. rubroanus
                            Pseudoceros ferrugineus Planocera cf. oligoglena




  Pseudoceros dimidiatus         Pseudobiceros sp.
  Class     Life History of a Blood Fluke
Trematoda
 Class
Cestoda
              Phylum Nemertea
•   Bilaterally symmetrical and dorsoventrally flattened.
•   Body has more than two layers of cells with tissues and
    organs.
•   Body has a through gut with a mouth and anus.
•   Body has no body cavity.
•   Has a blood system with blood vessels.
•   Has a well developed nervous system and a brain.
•   Has an eversible and retractable ectodermal proboscis.
•   Reproduction is by asexual fragmentation, or sexual,
    when it is normally gonochoristic.
•   Most species are carnivorous and predatory.
•   Most are aquatic and marine, there are some terrestrial
    and freshwater forms.
Phylum Nemertea




   Ribbon worm
                   Phylum Rotifera
•   Bilaterally symmetrical.
•   Body has more than two cell layers, tissues and organs.
•   Body cavity is a pseudocoelom.
•   Body possesses a through gut with an anus.
•   Body covered in an external layer of chitin called a lorica.
•   Has a nervous system with a brain and paired nerves.
•   Has no circulatory or respiratory organs.
•   Reproduction mostly parthenogenetic, otherwise sexual
    and gonochoristic.
•   Feed on bacteria, and protista, or are parasitic.
•   All live in aquatic environments either free swimming or
    attached
Phylum Rotifera
Phylum Nematoda
 Roundworms
 Primitive body cavity
 Gut & Anus
 No circulatory system
 Nervous system
 Very successful- well adapted to every
   ecosystem
 Many are parasites
                            500,000? species
Phylum Nematoda
             Phylum Mollusca

    Class          Class         Class        Class
Polyplacophora   Gastropoda     Bivalvia   Cephalopoda
  chitons         Snails        clams       Squid
                  nudibranchs               Octopus
                                            Cuttlefish
                                            Nautilus



        More than 500,000 known species
Phylum Mollusca

Well developed circulatory system
Nervous system with brain
Some with good eyes
Three main parts:
• Muscular foot- for movement
• Visceral mass- contains most of the
  internal organs
• Mantle cavity- houses gills
mantle
         visceral
          mass




 foot
• Grazers (radula- scraping tongue)

• Filter feeding

• Egg eaters

• Active predation
Class Polyplacophora
                      Class Gastropoda
                   Subclass Opisthobranchia




Spanish Dancer (nudibranch)
& egg mass
                    Class Gastropoda
                  Subclass Prosobranchia



 Cone shell


             Cowery         Opihi




periwinkle




                                    Triton’s trumpet
Class Bivalvia
              Class Cephalopoda




Day octopus
   Class
Cephalopoda
   Class
Cephalopoda
   Class
Cephalopoda
Octopus Intelligence
 Mimic octopus from Indonesia




                flatfish




                           Sea snake
lionfish
Blue-ringed octopus




 Highly venomous
              Phylum Annelida

   Class            Class        Class
Oligochaeta       Polychaeta    Hirudinia

earthworm        Marine worms   leaches
Phylum Annelida

 Segmented worms,
   earthworms, leeches
 Marine = polychaetes
 True body cavity
 Long tubular body
 Muscles
                         9,000 species
   Class
Oligochaeta
  Class
Polychaeta
 Class
Hirudinia
•   Segmentation (metameric body plan)
•   Eucoelomate
•   15,000 species
•   Closed circulatory system, but no heart
•   Hydrostatic skeleton
•   Excretion- protonephridia, metanephridia, diffusion or gills
•   Simple gut
•   Respiration- diffusion or gills
•   Central nervous system- brain and nerve cord
•   Reproduction- asexual or sexual (many gonochoric)
•   Sensory system of tactile organs, taste buds, statocysts,
    photoreceptor cells, and eyes with lenses.
FEEDING MODES- very diverse
• Raptors
• Herbivores
• Browsers/grazers
• Omnivores
• Direct deposit feeders
• Indirect deposit feeders
• Suspension feeders
                Phylum Arthropoda

   Subphylum      Subphylum     Subphylum    Subphylum
Trilobitomorpha Cheliceriformes  Uniramia     Crustacea

   trilobites     spiders       insects       crabs
                  ticks         centipedes    lobsters
                  scorpions     millipedes    shrimp
                                              barnacles
            Phylogeny of Arthropods
                      Arthropoda


Annelids Onychophorans Chelicerates Crustaceans Insects
(worms) (worms w/legs) (spiders)    (lobsters)  (butterflies)




                                       Trilobites
                                       (extinct)



                        Worm-like
                        Ancestor
     Phylum Arthropoda
Insects, crabs, spiders, barnacles
Most species; 80% are insects
Hard chitin exoskeleton
  (must shed to grow)
Circulatory system with blood, heart

                          10,000,000? species
    Subphylum
 Trilobitomorpha




       Extinct
Existed: 543-248 mya
Fig. 33-30


               Subphylum
             Cheliceriformes
  Subphylum
Cheliceriformes




 Sea spider
Subphylum
 Uniramia


       Koa Bug
                    Metamorphosis of a Butterfly




(a) Larva (caterpillar)
                          (b) Pupa
                                     (c) Later-stage
                                         pupa        (d) Emerging
                                                         adult




                                                                    (e) Adult
                        Subphylum
                         Crustacea




                   Yellow spotted    Hawaiian cleaner shrimp
Spiny lobster
                   guard crab




Anemone carrying                     Banded coral shrimp
hermit crab
                  Phylum
               Echinodermata

 Class        Class                Class          Class
Astroidae   Ophiuroidae          Echinoidae    Holothuroidae
Sea stars   Brittle stars        Sea urchins   Sea cucumbers

                         Class
                        Crinoidae

                            Crinoids
Phylum Echinodermata
  No circulatory system
  No respiratory system
  Excretion (N elimination) by
    diffusion
  Simple nervous system,
    no brain
  Water-vascular system
Sea Star Anatomy
Phylum Echinodermata

Water Vascular System

Tube feet &
associated plumbing

Used for walking,
clinging to substrate
& holding food
                 Class
                Astroidae




                            Linckia sp.




Acanthaster planci
  Class
Ophiuroidae
 Class
Crinoidae
                          Class
                        Echinoidae
Slate pencil urchin
                      Collector urchin




Echinometra
  mathaei
                                            Echinothrix
                                             calamaris




                          Colobocentrotus
                              atratus
                      Class
                  Holothuroidae




                              Polyplectana
                              kerfersteninii


Holothuria atra

				
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