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10-Fire-Hose-and-Appliances Powered By Docstoc
					                                      LESSON 10
Construction of Fire Hose (NFPA 1001: 3-3.6, 3-3.7, 3-3.9, 3-3.10)
Care and Maintenance of Fire Hose (NFPA 1001: 3-3.9)
Types of Hose Coupling (NFPA 1001: 3-3.9)
Care and Maintenance of Couplings (NFPA 1001: 3-3.9)
Hose Tools and Appliances (NFPA 1001: 3-3.9)
Coupling and Uncoupling Hose (NFPA 1001: 3-3.9)
Hose Rolls (NFPA 1001: 3-3.9)
Hose Carries (NFPA 1001: 3-3.9)
Hose Loads (NFPA 1001: 3-3.9)
Advancing Hoselines--Charged/Uncharged (NFPA 1001: 3-3.12)
Establishing a Water Supply Connection (NFPA 1001: 3-3.14)
Extending Hoselines (NFPA 1001: 3-3.9)
Replacing Sections of Burst Hose (NFPA 1001: 3-3.9)
Hose Lay Procedures (NFPA 1001: 3-3.14)
Deploying Master Stream Devices (NFPA 1001: 3-3.7)
Service Testing of Fire Hose (NFPA 1001: 4-5.3)
Lessons Learned
Key Terms
Review Questions

Prior to this lesson: Read Firefighter's Handbook, Chapter 10, pages 205_264
Length:               6 hours, 50 minutes
Equipment/Supplies: Course outline
                      Transparency masters--Chapter 10
                      PowerPoint Presentation--Chapter 10
                      Overhead projector, slide projector, or LCD display
                      Samples of male and female couplings, hand tools, and appliances

After completing this lesson, students should be able to:
 Identify and explain the construction of fire hose.
 Demonstrate the care and maintenance of fire hose.
 Identify the types of hose couplings and threads.
 Demonstrate the care and maintenance of hose couplings.
   Identify and explain the use of hose tools and appliances.
   Demonstrate the coupling and uncoupling of fire hose.
   Demonstrate the rolling, carrying, and loading of fire hose.
   Demonstrate the advancing of fire hoselines, both charged and uncharged.
   Demonstrate the establishment of a water supply connection.
   Demonstrate the extending of hoselines.
   Demonstrate the replacement of burst hose sections.
   Demonstrate the procedures for laying hoselines for water supply.
   Demonstrate the deployment of master stream devices.
   Demonstrate the service testing of hose.

Firefighter's Handbook, page 207
Time: 15 minutes

Key Points
   Hose is the tool used to move water from one place to the fire.

   More importantly, the firefighter must know how to properly store hose on the apparatus and
    how to quickly deploy it.

   The techniques learned in this lesson and in the next one on fire streams are the basic
    techniques for fire control.

   Fire hose is a flexible conduit used to move water or other agents from a source to the fire.

   Many different materials are in use today, but the basic task performed for supply and attack
    remain the same.

   Couplings, adapters, and appliances are used to connect hose and adapt it to the different
    sizes or ways of operations.

   At the turn of the century there was a major problem with hose couplings when more than
    one fire department was operating on the fireground.

   Today, departments that do not use National Standard Hose Threads use adapters to make
    connections with standard threaded couplings.

   Adapters and appliances have been created or made lighter to make firefighting easier or
Firefighter's Handbook, pages 207-209
Time: 30 minutes

Key Points
   Fire hose has two components, the hose itself and the couplings that connect the hose
    sections or appliances used with them.

   There are three types of hose construction:

       Wrapped- A fabric or mesh material is impregnated with rubber or a plastic and then
        wrapped around a rubber liner and covered with rubber or plastic.

       Braided- A yarn braided over the rubber liner and a rubber or plastic layer separates it
        from the next layer. A rubber or plastic cover encases the entire hose.

       Woven- A rubber liner and one or more outer layers called jackets are woven of cotton,
        synthetic, or blended materials.

   Hard section hose has a plastic or wire helix to provide additional support and prevent
    collapse under a vacuum when drafting.

   Fire hose is divided into attack, supply, occupant use, forestry, and hard section hose.

   Booster hose is a smaller diameter, rubber-coated hose of 3_4-- or 1-inch size, usually
    mounted on a reel that can be used for outside fires or overhaul operations.

   Booster lines have a limit of 30 gpm, making them unsafe for structural firefighting.

   Attack hose is used to fight fire.

   Attack hose is connected to nozzles and distributors, master stream appliances, standpipes
    and sprinkler systems, hydrants, and fire pumps.

   Attack hose is most commonly double-jacketed and is usually service tested annually at 250

   Attack hose that is 1 ½ to 2 ½ inches in diameter is called small-diameter hose.

   Medium-diameter hose (MDH) is 2 ½ to 3 inches in diameter.

   Supply hose or large-diameter hose (LDH) is usually 31_2 to 6 inches in length and are
    pressure tested at 185 psi.

   Supply hose is used to move water from one engine to another or from the water source to a
    portable hydrant for distribution.

   Hard suction hose is rubber or plastic-coated hose with helix bands that resist collapse from
    the vacuum created by drafting.

   Soft suction hose is large-diameter woven hose used to connect a pumper to a hydrant and is
    also known as a soft sleeve.

   Occupant use hose is hose used in standpipe systems for building occupants to fight incipient

   Forestry hose is specially designed for use in forestry and wildland firefighting.

   Forestry hose comes in 58-, 75-, and 100-foot lengths and is 1 to 11_2 inches in diameter.

Firefighter's Handbook, pages 209-211
Time: 20 minutes

Key Points
   The care of hose begins with the careful placement and folding of the dry hose on the

   The hose bed of the apparatus should be designed to allow the circulation of air to allow

   Wet hose should be thoroughly dried prior to returning it to apparatus. However, the new
    synthetic hoses are often loaded wet.

   Avoid laying hose over sharp or rough corners; use a hose roller or a salvage cover to prevent

   Do not allow traffic to run over the hose, especially the couplings, which could be damaged.

   Clean dirt and grit from the hose with a brush or plain water to prevent these materials from
    creating abrasions on the hose.

   Avoid heat, burning embers, and chemicals, especially gasoline and oil.

   Care should be taken to prevent hose from freezing.

   Any hose that has been subjected to any damage should be service tested prior to returning to

   Using a long, small-diameter hose and overpumping at the incorrect pressure are two causes
    of excessive pressure.

   A water hammer is the pressure surge that occurs when water valves are rapidly opened or

   Slamming a valve open or shut quickly allows pressure to rapidly act on the parts of the
    system and damage hose, valves, pumps, and the water supply system.

   Dirty or contaminated hose can be rolled up and returned to the station for cleaning, or a
    portable washer can be used on the scene.

   A thorough rinsing and hanging in a hose tower or storage rack until dried will get the hose
    ready for reuse.

   Commercial hose washers that rinse hose by connecting to a hydrant are also commonly used.

   Care must be taken not to overheat and damage hose.

   Stored hose also requires maintenance.

   The final part of the care of hose involves a regular inspection by firefighters after each use.

   The outer cover should be checked for signs of discoloration and abrasions as it is reloaded.

Firefighter's Handbook, pages 211-212
Time: 25 minutes

Key Points
   Couplings allow hose and appliances to be joined or connected by using a set of connection

   Couplings are divided into two types: threaded and non-threaded.

   Threaded couplings use a screw thread that secures two sections of hose together, while non-
    threaded couplings use locks or cams.

   Threaded couplings are subdivided into external threads (male) and internal threads (female).

   Threaded couplings are of common design but with many nonstandard types of threads.

   The personnel checking new hose and connection equipment should ensure the correct
    threads are used on all hoses, appliances, and connections.

   Fire hose has blunt end threads that can only be started at one point. This is called a Higbee

   Couplings have Higbee indicators to assist in lining up both couplings.

   Blunt end couplings reduce the possibilities of cross-threading the couplings.

   Non-threaded couplings use locks or cams to secure the connection.

   The couplings are aligned and twisted one-quarter turn, locking them together.
   Storz couplings are the most popular of these types but there are other kinds.

   Lugs or handles are placed on couplings to help in making, tightening, or breaking the
    connection of a coupling set.

   Rocker lugs are the most common type of lug.

   Handles are mainly used on hard and soft sleeves.

   Spanner wrenches are lug wrenches used to assist in tightening and loosening couplings.

Firefighter's Handbook, pages 212-213
Time: 15 minutes

Key Points
   Care and maintenance of hose couplings requires keeping them clean and preventing
    mechanical damage.

   Proper storage, rolling, and simply paying attention to where the coupling is placed may solve
    most problems.

   It is important not to drag couplings.

   Avoid the placement of hose couplings in vehicle traffic areas where they may be struck or
    rolled over.

   Good storage and rolling methods can prevent damage to exposed threads.

   Hose couplings should be visually expected every time hose is reloaded.

   The gasket should be pulled out and checked for cracks and pliability.

   If dirt or grit is found in the coupling, rinse it and take a brush to the coupling and threads to
    clean it.

Firefighter's Handbook, pages 213-214
Time: 30 minutes
   Hose tools are accessories that help firefighters move or operate hoselines.

   Appliances are devices that water flows through, including adapters and connectors.

   Tools include rope hose tools, wrenches, rollers, clamps, and other items.

   A rope hose is about 5 feet of rope spliced into a loop with a large metal hook at one end and
    a ring at the other.

   Rope hose is used to tie hose and ladders, carry hose, and many other tasks.

   Spanner wrenches come in several sizes and are used to tighten and loosen couplings.

   A hydrant wrench is used to operate the valves on a hydrant, and may also be used as a
    spanner wrench.

   A hose roller or hoist allows for hose to be rolled over the edge of a windowsill or roof
    without chafing.

   A hose clamp is a device used to control the flow of water by squeezing or clamping the hose

   A hose jacket is a metal or leather device that is fitted over a leaking area and clamped or
    strapped together to control the leak.

   A hose bridge is a device that allows vehicles to pass over a section of hose without
    damaging it.

   A hose cart is a handcart or flat cart modified to carry hose and other equipment around.

   Appliances allow firefighters to connect various hoses and nozzles.

   Double female and double male couplings allow for two couplings with the same type of
    threads to be connected.

   A double male coupling is also used to connect the two female thread couplings when doing
    a split lay.

   An increaser connects a smaller hose to a larger one.

   A reducer connects a larger hose to a smaller one.

   An adapter is a device that connects two different types of hose threads, allowing connection
    between two different sizes.

   Gate valves have an inlet and outlet of the same size with a gate to control water flow.

   An intake relief valve is used on large-diameter hose at the receiving engine.

   Intake relief valves can work as an overpressurization relief valve, a gate valve, and an air

   A wye is a device that divides one hoseline into two or more.

   A water thief is a variation of the wye valve, which has one inlet and one outlet of the same
    size plus two smaller outlets, each with gate valves.
   A portable hydrant or manifold allows multiple hoselines to be utilized with or without a
    pumper being directly at the fire location.

   A siamese is a type of valve used to connect two or more hoselines into one line.

   Siamese valves have either clapper valves or gate valves.

   A hydrant valve or switch valve allows an engine to connect and charge its supply line while
    still allowing an additional engine to connect to the same hydrant.

   A strainer is placed over the end of a suction hose to prevent debris from being sucked into
    the pump.

   Distributor pipe or extension pipe allows a nozzle or other devices to be directed into holes
    when access by personnel is not possible.

   A hose cap is used at the end of a hoseline or appliance to prevent water flow.

Firefighter's Handbook, pages 214-216
Time: 15 minutes

Key Points
   Connection hose couplings can be accomplished through several ways.

   The first coupling technique is a foot-tilt method for one person.

   Another one-person method is the over-the-hip method.

   In the two-person method, the two firefighters face each other with each holding a coupling.

   The couplings are aligned and the person with the female end tightens the swivel.

   Uncoupling hose is done in the opposite manner in which it was connected.

   The first recommendation is to get a pair of spanner wrenches.

   The one-person uncoupling method is the knee-press method.

   The two-person method is called the stiff-arm method.
Firefighter's Handbook, pages 216-219
Time: 15 minutes

Key Points
   Hose is rolled either to store it or to have it ready for use with hoselines or appliances.

Straight Storage
   The straight or storage hose roll is the easiest to work with.

   Beginning with the male end, to protect the threads, the hose is rolled straight to the opposite

Single Donut
   The single-donut hose roll is used when access to either or both couplings may be needed.

   There are two ways to perform the single-donut roll.

Twin or Double Donut
   The twin or double donut roll is used for special applications and works best with 11_2- to 2-
    inch hose.

Instructor's note: You may wish to spend more time on the hose rolls most commonly used in
your jurisdictions.

Firefighter's Handbook, pages 220-222
Time: 20 minutes

Key Points
   The drain and carry method is used to combine the two steps of draining and carrying a
    section of hose into one operation.

   The firefighter starts at one end of the hose and with the coupling held waist high feeds the
    hose over the shoulder and back down to the waist.

   A fold is created and the hose is laid on itself back to the front as the firefighter continues to
    walk forward, folding and refolding the hose at the waist until finished.

   In the shoulder loop carry, the firefighter places the nozzle or end of hose over the shoulder
    resting against the back.
   The firefighter walks forward about 3 feet, picks up the hose, and forms a bight to bring the
    hose up and over the shoulder, creating a loop.

   The simple hose drag technique can move one or two hoselines.

   The firefighter puts a section of hose over a shoulder with the coupling in front at waist

   The firefighter then walks away, dragging the line behind.

Firefighter's Handbook, pages 222-236
Time: 30 minutes

Key Points
   Apparatus hose loads are designed so that the engine can carry out any of the required fire
    attack or water supply tasks.

   A well-trained engine crew should be able to perform any of these required tasks quickly and

   Hose loads should consider the need to have the right hose coupling or adapter at the end that
    will be used furthest from the engine.

   A dutchman is a short fold of hose or a reverse fold that is used when loading hose and a

   Accordion hose loads can be used for preconnected made-up hoselines or for providing
    additional supply lines.

   The accordion load is ideal for making up shoulder loads.

   The flat load is used for supply lines and some attack lines.

   A flat load involves laying the hose flat by starting at either end of the hose, depending on

   Making a shoulder load from a flat load is slightly more difficult than the accordion load
    because the accordion load must be created.

   The horseshoe load also has several applications.

   Making a shoulder load from the horseshoe bed is somewhat similar to the accordion load.

   Finish loads are preconnected loads that can utilize any of the three loads.

   Finish loads can be used for assisting in laying supply line or preconnected loads used for
    attack lines.
   A straight finish load is usually used with a straight hose lay by taking the final length or two
    of a load and laying it flat across the top of the load.

   A rope with adapters, a spanner wrench, and a hydrant wrench attached allows the layout
    person to quickly have all the tools and enough hose to make the hydrant connection.

   A reverse horseshoe load can be used for laying out or making an attack line.

   For laying out, a horseshoe load is made on top of the hose load but in the reverse direction.

   An attack line can be attached to the end of a hose load.

   This works when a backstretch or flying stretch will be utilized.

   Preconnected lines can be made up using the accordion or horseshoe load. Some use a

   The flat load, as a preconnect, is based on the flat load described earlier and starts at the

   The minuteman load is a preconnected load using a narrower section of the hose bed.

   This narrower section is called a slot load and can allow more hoselines to be placed in the
    same space.

   To advance the minuteman load, the firefighter lifts the nozzle and several layers of hose
    while pulling them out and placing them midway on the shoulder.

   The triple-layer load is another modified flat load where the hose is folded on itself three

   The triple-layered hose is loaded into the slot as a single layer.

   Hose used for wildland firefighting needs to be loaded differently, since wildland firefighting
    often requires hoselines to be stretched great distances.

   The hose is rolled and bundled together to allow it to be carried on the firefighters' backs
    while carrying tools or stretching and advancing the line.

   A standard wildland hose load is the modified Gasner bar pack, which provides ease of
    rolling and stretching the line.

   The modified Gasner bar pack allows for convenient hands-free carrying and protection for
    the couplings.
Firefighter's Handbook, pages 236-247
Time: 45 minutes

Key Points
   The engine company's purpose is to advance hoselines to the fire's seat and to apply water for

   When advancing hoselines in any evolution, the nozzleperson will advance the first shoulder
    load with the nozzle.

   The officer will take the second position and the engine driver will take the third position if
    additional personnel are not available.

   The officer determines the length of the hoseline by figuring the distance from the engine to
    the location of the fire.

   When taking hoseline up the outside of a building, a 50-foot section will reach four floors,
    while taking the same section inside a building via a stairwell will reach only one floor.

   If an operating hoseline is ordered to another position, it is more efficient and time saving to
    shut down, drain, and advance the line as a dry line if fire conditions allow.

Into Structures
   Advancing a hoseline into a structure requires careful placement of the pumper and hoseline,
    proper selection and length of hose, and proper execution by the hose crew.

   The hoseline must be placed to attack the fire while also being in a position to prevent any
    fire spread.

   A careful evaluation of the conditions is required prior to entering any structure or room.

   Entering a burning building without having a safe plan of attack and emergency exit can be

   At the entrance doorway, there should be plenty of hose available.

   The nozzleperson and other firefighters should all be on the same side of the hoseline and
    properly spaced on the line for easier movement of the hose.

   Prior to entering the structure, the door should be checked for heat with the back of the hand
    with the glove off.

   Crouching in a low or kneeling position while positioned to the side of the door, the door is
    opened and the line moved forward.
   Hoselines are usually advanced into buildings, but to attack some fires the hose may have to
    be brought through an adjoining property.

Up and Down Stairs
   When the fire is on a level other than the ground floor, firefighters will need to advance the
    line up or down stairs.

   The method used to advance the line to another floor depends on whether the fire is in an
    open stairwell or has taken control of the landing on the other floor.

   If the fire does not involve stairs, the best method is to advance an uncharged line to the fire

   The hoseline is advanced from the engine as described and the crew carries the shoulder
    loads into the building and up the stairs, allowing it to play out as needed.

   If it is necessary to run the hoseline up between the handrails, it should be done in a vertical
    manner and tied off with a rope hose tool or strap at the upper level.

   If the stairwell or the landing on the desired floor is involved with fire, the crew will need to
    advance a charged line.

   The nozzle is operated to darken down the fire at the next landing, then shut down, and
    quickly advanced to that level, where it is opened again to secure that level.

Using a Standpipe System
   Advancing hoselines using a standpipe system involves two different hoseline evolutions.

   First, the pump operator has to connect to the fire department connection on the structure.

   The second part involves the hose crew connection to the standpipe outlet and the advancing
    of hoseline to attack the fire.

   The pumper first establishes a water supply from the nearest hydrant whenever possible.

   The engine driver advances a supply line of medium, or large-diameter hose to the fire
    department connection.

   Once enough hose has been laid out, the driver removes all the caps from the siamese
    connection and checks the operation of the clapper valve.

   If the clapper is inoperable but open, a second line should be connected prior to charging the

   On occasion, the fire department connection will be damaged or inoperable.

   The supply line will have to be extended into the building to a first floor outlet.
   The advancing of the interior hoseline to attack the fire should use a standpipe pack that
    includes the attack hose, tools, and the appliances necessary to connect to an outlet close to
    the fire.

Working Hose Off of Ladders
   Advancing a hoseline up a ladder can be done while the line is charged or uncharged.

   The best and safest manner of advancement is to advance an uncharged hoseline up the
    ladder and into the building or onto a fire escape before it is charged.

   To remove the line from the building after use, the line is drained and the process used in
    advancing the hose is reversed.

   Another method to advance the line over a ladder involves using rope hose tools or straps.

Firefighter's Handbook, pages 247-251
Time: 30 minutes

Key Points
   Several different methods exist for establishing a water supply depending on the type of
    water source, hydrant style, the hose lays used, and whether or not a pumper will be used.

   Firefighters need to be able to connect directly to a fire hydrant.

From Hydrants
   Using an unsupported hydrant requires a hoseline to be connected to the fire hydrant without
    an engine at the hydrant.

   A finished hose load is usually used for a layout load.

   The load has a roll or several folds of hose to make any connections, a hydrant wrench and
    necessary adapters, and a rope to tie it all together and allow the hydrant to be wrapped.

   "Wrapping the hydrant" allows hose to be pulled far enough to reach the hydrant and help
    prevent the hose from being dragged as the engine pulls away.

   The layout person dismounts the apparatus and removes the layout load from the hose bed.

   The layout person pulls a sufficient amount of hose, advances it to the hydrant, and wraps
    either the hose or rope around the hydrant.

   The layout person should be positioned so as to prevent from being pinned between the hose
    and the hydrant.
   After unwrapping the hydrant, the firefighter removes the caps and attaches the hose or
    adapter by hand tightening the coupling.

   The hydrant valve is opened when water is called for and leaks and kinks are removed as the
    layout person returns to the engine.

   An engine can be connected directly to a fire hydrant or to a switch valve already in service to
    supply attack lines or to support another engine.

   A soft sleeve hose is typically connected to the large hydrant outlet or switch valve.

   Connecting a hard sleeve to a hydrant can also be done, but it is not recommended.

   Medium- or large-diameter hose is used to connect an engine to a hydrant as a standard
    operation or used when the soft sleeve cannot reach the hydrant.

From Static Water Supplies
   The supply of water from a static source requires the use of an engine and its hard sleeves to
    draft the water.

   Connecting a hard sleeve to a dry hydrant uses the same procedure as connecting to a regular
    hydrant, although without the normal concerns surrounding the creation of a vacuum.

   The placement of a hard sleeve and strainer directly into a water source is somewhat similar
    to using it on a hydrant.

Firefighter's Handbook, pages 251-254
Time: 20 minutes

Key Points
   Despite the best efforts of judging the needed length of a hoseline, there will be times when
    the line comes up short.

   All firefighters should be familiar with the techniques used to extend their hoselines.

   It is easier to extend the line using either a break-apart nozzle or a hose clamp.

   The preferred method of extending a hoseline is to use a break-apart nozzle.

   The other method is to use a hose clamp.

   Clamping a hose can be dangerous. The clamp must be safely operated and fully locked
    before releasing the clamp.
Firefighter's Handbook, page 254
Time: 15 minutes

Key Points
   The bursting of a section of hose is a dangerous situation that stops the flow of water to the

   It can also injure firefighters, bystanders, and cause additional property or water damage.

   The hoseline must immediately be shut down to remove the burst section, and the section
    should be replaced.

Firefighter's Handbook, pages 255-256
Time: 20 minutes

Key Points
   Hose lay procedures bring water to the fire location by placing supply hose between the water
    source and the attack engine.

   Supply lines and the hose beds on the apparatus are designed to use one of three lays.

Forward Lay
   Forward lay refers to the engine stopping first at the water source to drop off a supply line
    and then advancing to the location of the fire.

   By using a forward lay, the attack engine is closer to the fire with quick access to additional
    hoselines and equipment.

   An additional engine may still be required at the water source if needed to support the
    pressure or volume and will be required if the source is a static water source.

   The forward lay can also be used with a portable water tank operation.

Reverse Lay
   A reverse lay is done by dropping off the supply line at the fire location and the engine laying
    the hose towards the water supply.

   Usually the first engine is used as the attack engine, with the second engine doing the reverse
    lay and serving as the support or supply engine.

   Reverse lays can be used where a manifold, attack lines, and equipment can be dropped off at
    the fire with the engine going to the water source.

Split Lay
   The split lay is used where the fire and the water sources are in two different directions.

   The split lay has the first engine laying its line from a point or intersection to the fire location
    and the second engine laying its line from the point to the water source.

Firefighter's Handbook, pages 257-260
Time: 30 minutes

Key Points
   Master streams or heavy appliances are non-household water applicators capable of flowing
    over 350 gallons of water per minute.

   The wagon pipe is a permanently mounted master stream device on an engine.

   A deluge set is not permanently mounted, so it can be also be removed and operated from the

   A monitor pipe is a permanently attached master stream device with a prepiped waterway on
    an aerial device.

   A ladder pipe is a non-permanently mounted device that needs a hoseline for its waterway on
    an aerial ladder or platform.

   Master streams are ordered or called in two different manners.

   Rigging for master streams means that the devices are assembled and hoselines are run but
    not charged.

   Charging master streams refers to when the devices are charged and operated.

   When operating master streams with solid stream tips, the device is moved one foot away for
    every foot of vertical reach needed.

   For horizontal reach, each pound of pressure equals one foot of reach.

   The maximum reach is generally limited to three floors above the nozzle's height.

   The wagon pipe is a permanently mounted device that usually has a prepipe water connection
    needing no hoselines to be attached.

   The monitor pipe has a prepiped waterway with either a direct discharge valve if the unit also
    has a pump or needs a supply hoseline if not equipped with a pump.
   Deluge sets, when operated from the top of an engine, may have prepiped water connections
    to a pump and need no supply lines attached.

   Supply lines can be run from the discharge to the inlet if no prepipe water connection is

   When operating a portable deluge set on the ground, the intakes normally should be facing
    the fire building to counteract the nozzle reaction.

   The ladder pipe is not permanently mounted, and therefore needs one hoseline for rigging it
    up the ladder and another for supply.

Firefighter's Handbook, pages 260-261
Time: 20 minutes

Key Points
   Fire hose needs to be tested prior to being placed in use and then retested annually during its

   To ensure the accuracy of the testing program and for personal safety, a record keeping
    system must be utilized.

   The testing of hose begins with a visual inspection of the hose coupling.

   The inspection should check thread damage.

   Missing, worn, or damaged gaskets should be replaced.

   Any missing lugs, slippage of the hose, or loose collars should also be reported.

   The service test consists of testing the hose under pressure or, in the case of a hard sleeve,
    under a vacuum.

   Pressure testing is designed to check for hose failure. Proper safety precautions should always
    be taken.

   The hose is laid out in a straight line and a visual inspection is conducted.

   The hose is marked, using a new color each year, at the point where the couplings are

   A hose test valve is placed on the discharge of the pump to limit the flow rate of the water
    into the hose and to reduce the chances of injury if the hose fails during the test.

   The hoselines are attached to the pumping device and pressure tested.

   No more than 300 feet of length per line, with a nozzle or test cap at the other end, should be
    tested at one time.

   Local SOGs should define the maximum operating pressures for hoselines and pumps for
    each department.

   Hard sleeves are tested by being connected to a suction source and capped at the opposite end
    with a transparent cap.

   A vacuum of 22 inches of mercury must be reached and maintained for 10 minutes while the
    inner lining is viewed for any collapse.

Instructor's note: The times allocated in this lesson do not include any practical time for the skills
taught. Instructors need to allow practice time for students to practice and be evaluated on all
skills. See Section C, Part B, for the skill sheet master.

Time: 15 minutes

Key Points
   Fire hose, adapters, and appliances allow firefighters to move water from its source and from
    the engine's pump.

   It is important to know how to use the various appliances and tools to move water and to
    safely conduct fire suppression operations.

   The availability of tools and appliances provides firefighters with greater abilities to conduct
    fire suppression, especially during interior fire attack.

   Firefighters must understand the proper techniques for connecting, advancing, and operating
    the various tools available.

   These are basic skills of firefighting that must be practiced and drilled on continuously.

   Read Chapter 11 in Firefighter's Handbook, pages 265-292

   Optional: Complete Firefighter's Handbook Workbook, Chapter 11

Instructor Preparation
PowerPoint Presentation--Chapter 11
Transparency masters--Chapter 11
Overhead projector, slide projector, or LCD display
Various types of portable fire extinguishers

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