Jason Linder October 1st, 2010 Annotated Bibliography Current Entries Penenberg, Adam. “Video Games Modifying Behavior Towards Good.” FastCompany.com. Fast Company, 14 July 2010. Web. 10 Aug. 2010. <http://www.fastcompany.com/1669932/behavioral-videogames>. Interview with Michael Fergusson, founder of Ayogo, a Vancouver social games company. Speaks to using “casual social games” as a catalyst to behavior change. Touches on: brain chemistry and “biochemical rewards” that create “compulsion loops” via both pattern recognition/completion and reciprocal social obligation. Their games seek to motivate small actions with small rewards, and they consider “play” an intellectual, evolutionary trait. Dole, Adam. “Gaming for Behavior Change.” Method.com. Method 10x10, Aug. 2010. Web. 18 Aug. 2010. <http://method.com/uploads/files/pdf/Method_10x10_Gaming_for_Behavior_Change.pdf>. White paper from Method studio. Game-like mechanisms can leverage our needs and tendencies to create behavioral change. Additionally, games build value and brand loyalty around products and services. Games can engage users on an emotional level, rather than simply functional -- and create meaning. Describes a “hierarchy of needs” wherein meaning is created by fulfilling more and more extended and adjacent needs via one product or service. Understanding that hierar- chy for any one sector can help identify opportunities for behavior change. Describes 4 design attributes important to gaming elements: Entertaining, Competitive, Visual, Rewarding. Red Dead Redemption. New York, NY: Rockstar Games, 2010. Computer software. First-person shooter, 3D world type game. Premise is based on the American old-west in the style of the “Western” cinema genre. Game includes primary “missions” that sometimes involve multiple steps or activities to complete. In lieu of an overt scoring system, over the course of the game a player builds up their character’s capabilities and reveals the underlying narrative of the game. Via positive or negative actions (such as either helping or killing bystanders) a player can effect the way his character is perceived by the NPCs of the game-world. In addition to the primary mission system, players may roam free in the game world (with some areas needing to be unlocked by completing a percentage of the missions) and engage in secondary missions such as hunting and shooting skills, trea- sure hunting, herb gathering, or several other old-west activities. Reward system seems to be primarily two-fold: revealing the underlying narrative (which is very cinematic) and shaping a character’s capabilities and perception. Game also includes an online component where participants can cooperate or compete within the same game-world. These online missions may often require teamwork to complete, and/or may alter the reward system to model direct social competition. Schell, Jesse. “Design Outside the Box.” Speech. DICE 2010. Red Rock Resort, Las Vegas. 18 Feb. 2010. G4TV. Web. 22 Aug. 2010. <http://g4tv.com/videos/44277/dice-2010-design-outside-the-box-presentation/>. Presentation given at DICE games conference in early 2010. Covers 4 main areas: Facebook & social gaming impact, exploiting psychological tricks in games, the trending desire for authenticity, and the potential future impact of disposable technology + sensors everywhere. Very much a shotgun blast of converging ideas that point to the exploration space: Game Mechanics + Sensors everywhere = behavior change. More details: Facebook and social gaming is weird. Virtual money can be had by gameplay, direct payment, or lead generation. Using real social networks as competition (e.g. Mafia Wars) causes rationalization on spending more and more time and money on the game (which leads to further rationalization: “Only an idiot would spend all this time on money on this if it wasn’t worthwhile - I am not an idiot, therefore it is worthwhile.”) WebKinz and the psychology of children imbuing their stuffed animals with real personalities. Club Penguin and free gameplay until the point you want to use your points on something -- build up a reason to spend money before needing to spend it. (Opposite of retail model.) Games are more and more breaking into reality. (Also TV, Groceries, Fast Food, etc.) This is due to a desire for more authenticity to combat the “bubble of bullshit” we live in (presumably being the marketing-driven, self-image altering popular culture.) Sensors and points are everywhere: gas, airline, hybrid car dashboard, Wii, DSi, Kinect. More tech. divergence will lead to more: in tooth- brushes, web-enabled cereal boxes, tattoos, tax incentives, etc. All this tracking for incentives may add up and have a greater purpose of inspiring us to be better people overall. (Especially if this data is all available to our grandchildren.) Games mentioned: Farmville, Mafia Wars, Club Penguin, Wii / Fit, Guitar Hero, WebKinz, Xbox/PS3 Achievements, fantasy sports, Weight Watchers, Geocaching, Simpson’s scavenger hunt, DARPA Red Balloon challenge. Fahey, Michael. “Making A Game Out Of Today’s War.” Kotaku. 14 May 2009. Web. 27 Aug. 2010. <http://kotaku.com/5252157/making-a-game-out-of-todays-war>. Article describing the case of the unreleased fps game, “Six Days in Fallujah”. Covers the issue of whether video games (and other interactive media) can be used to document and explore serious issues in the same way that film and written media have in the past. Video games are still seen as “light entertainment”, so controversy erupts because the perception is that serious topics aren’t appropriate for the medium. “Our point is that videogames are interactive, and they’re the medium of choice for an entire generation. Therefore, we should use this medium to deal with relevant issues while they’re still relevant.” The key relevance to thesis is the fact that the game industry is starting to explore experiences other than “fun” as the primary goal. “Participants in Fantasy Serious Game Solve Real Problems.” ExpertClick. 19 July 2010. Web. 27 Aug. 2010. <http://www.expertclick.com/NewsReleaseWire/Participants_in_fantasy_serious_game_solve_real_problems,201032756. aspx>. Article covers a recent management/leadership roleplaying game by Steve Balzac called “Long Ago and Far Away”. The game puts players into a fantasy scenario where they solve real problems. How players react to game situations may indicate how they might react to real world situations. Compares this kind of serious roleplaying game to practice in sports -- gives businesses an opportunity to practice where they typically always work in the real world. Balzac says most roleplaying exercises used today are too focused and do not allow natural behaviors to emerge. Relevance: the idea of a roleplaying game designed to accomplish or practice real-world goals and scenarios. McGonigal, Jane. “Gaming Can Make a Better World.” Speech. TED Long Beach, CA. Feb. 2010. TED.com. Web. 27 Aug. 2010. <http://www.ted.com/talks/jane_mcgonigal_gaming_can_make_a_better_world.html>. TED talk discusses how to use “epic games” to solve real-world problems. Covers how much time is spent globally playing video games, and the kinds of reasons people keep playing (sense of urgency, optimism, surprise, successes (i.e. wins)). This creates legions of gamers who are virtuosos at: urgent optimism (willing to try again and again), social fabric (building trust), blissful productivity (sense of satisfaction when working), and epic meaning (feeling part of a triumphant story.) Suggests that there is a “mass exodus” to virtual worlds in order to escape real-world problems. But what if the 4 things gamers are good at could be transferred to solving those problems? Also suggests online games are evolving our species to be able to work more collaboratively. Games created: “World Without Oil”, “Superstruct”, “Evoke”. Key relevance: the existing structure of the gamer world might be harnessed to tackle big problems. Wark, McKenzie. Gamer Theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2007. Print. Gamer Theory’s primary thrust is to examine a philosophically based theory of existence based on the way game themes, mechanics, meanings, and subtext bounce between the real world and the game world. It imagines the construct as the world as “gamespace”: the world reconsidered as a series of less and less perfect games. While this philosophical examination proved mildly interesting, it didn’t provide anything directly relevant. However, many of the platforms for examination -- leveling, targeting, stages, maps, etc. -- created inspiration for investigation how to translate to an IRL interaction. “Flow (psychology).” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 05 Sept. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Flow_(psychology)>. Describes the “positive psychology” concept of Flow -- an optimum mental state where one is fully immersed and engaged in an activity. (I.e. being in the zone.) Primary conditions include: the activity has a clear set of goals, there is a balance between challenge level and skill level, and that clear feedback is present. Other components include control, rewards, and altered time-perception. Essentially, seems like a goal state for optimum productivity and learning. This would be very relevant to game design, particularly to serious games, in that in order for the game to remain interesting and engaging, a participant would need to be experienc- ing something akin to Flow. Plat, Marsha. “Game Mechanics in Farmville and Foursquare.” Web log post. Hot Tub. Hot Studio, 02 July 2010. Web. 06 Sept. 2010. <http://hottub.hotstudio.com/2010/07/game-mechanics-in-farmville-and-four- square/>. Personal blog post briefly comparing the game mechanics in Farmville and Foursquare. Discusses the idea of a “compulsion loop” -- essentially the “achieve goal: get reward” scenario that games seek to create in order to keep someone playing. Also notes how Farmville’s compulsion loop is based on an “appointment gaming” mechanism in that rewards are tied to timely completion of goals, with a penalty for being late. The author preferred the non-appointment rewards in Foursquare’s badges system to the appointment penalties in Farmville. Primary relevance here is the concepts of compulsion loops and appointment mechanisms. Also a nice personal perspective. Crowley, Dennis. Photograph. Flickr. 27 Nov. 2009. Web. 6 Sept. 2010. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/dp- styles/4141140976/>. Photo of checkout terminal at Target. Displays a running average of last 10 “scores” (appears to be a Pass/Fail type of score). This would seem to indicate that Target is inserting a game mechanic into the process of a boring job. Apparently employees place bets with one another for a weekly high score. Houston, Thomas. “Andy Baio Talks Motivating Real Life via Games at SXSW.” Switched.com. 14 Mar. 2010. Web. 07 Sept. 2010. <http://www.switched.com/2010/03/14/andy-baio-talks-life-as-a-game-metagames-and- motivation-at-sxs/>. Recap of Andy Baio’s 2010 talk at SXSW, “Gaming the Crowd.” (Cannot find video or slides from event.) Talk covered how games are beginning to bleed into real life, the workplace, and the marketplace. Touched on: dashboard graphics in hybrid cars, Obama campaign’s leader board and achievements, Nike+, the Panic Status Board, the Guardian’s paperwork game, MS Office Ribbon Hero, Target’s cashier rating system, and Jesse Schell’s DICE presentation. Davies, Andrew. Web log post. Adavies.org. 15 Mar. 2010. Web. 6 Sept. 2010. <http://www.adavies.org/ blog/2010/03/15/gaming-the-crowd/>. Notes on Andy Baio’s 2010 talk at SXSW, “Gaming the Crowd.” (Cannot find video or slides from event.) References to: Achievement Unlocked, Upgrade Complete, Target’s cashier terminals, Kickstarter.com, Obama campaign, Ribbon Hero. Five components of a good game: Options (i.e. player choice), Feedback (points, metrics), Recognition (awards, collectibles), Goals, and Community. Parkinson, Jay. “Does Viewing Data about Your Life Increase Healthy Behavior?” The Future Well. 31 Mar. 2010. Web. 07 Sept. 2010. <http://thefuturewell.com/2010/03/31/does-viewing-data-about-your-life-increase- healthy-behavior/>. Wonders whether the models used by Mint and Prius to change their user’s behavior can be applied to improving health. Points out that there has been little study on what data should be tracked in order to influence behavior change. Proposes the following, that the ideal data should be: Passive, Non-invasive, Real-time, Focused, Simple to understand, Linked to personal benefits, Linked to public benefits, tend toward positive feedback, keep negative feedback non-threatening, and socially connected. “Serious Game.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 06 Sept. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Serious_game>. Describes the concept (or category?) of a “Serious game”: a game designed for a primary purpose other than entertainment. (Education, military, heath care, etc.) Frankly, a pretty disappointing definition, but useful for the sub-category list including: Advergames, Edutainment, Simulators, Persuasive games, Art games, and “Militainment”. “Gamification.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 07 Sept. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Gamification>. Defines the term “Gamification” as the integration of game mechanics or dynamics into various entities in order to drive participation or engagement, or to induce a desired behavior. Lists specific mechanics: leader boards, leveling, currencies, stored value, privileges, super-powers, status indicators, random reward schedules. Points to the field of “Behavioral Economics” as the underlying science behind ramification, and suggests key concepts are: Bounded Rationality, Framing Alternatives, Selfishness, and Intertemporal Choice. Wright, Will. “Will Wright Makes Toys That Make Worlds.” Speech. TED. Monterey, CA. TED.com. Mar. 2007. Web. 6 Sept. 2010. <http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/will_wright_makes_toys_that_make_ worlds.html> Using a description of Spore as the backdrop, Wright expresses his belief that by enabling people to experience long-term dynamics in a compressed timeframe, learning about these concepts is accelerated. Additionally discussed the game dynamic of empathy for created content: when players create their own characters and environments, they become more invested in the game. Spore enables design at every level of the game: creature, character, culture, technology. Encourages a “failure space” for learning, and tries to create “amplifiers for imagination.” “Game Mechanics.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 07 Sept. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Game_mechanics>. Defines Game Mechanics as a construct of rules to produce a game. Effectively, game design is the creation and structuring of game mechanics. Suggests that game mechanics is an engineering concept while “gameplay” is more of a design concept (I don’t know about that, seems oversimplified.) Includes a list of gameplay mechanics and win condition mechanics. Schonfeld, Erick. “SCVNGR’s Secret Game Mechanics Playdeck.” TechCrunch. 25 Aug. 2010. Web. 07 Sept. 2010. <http://techcrunch.com/2010/08/25/scvngr-game-mechanics/>. Publication of “Game Mechanics Playdeck” for the game/company SCVNGR. Actual deck includes 47 cards, each with a specific dynamic and examples. (Would be nice to get and cite the actual deck.) Examples of mechanics included are: Appointment Dynamic, Behavioral Momentum, Cascading Information Theory, Envy, Progression Dynamic, and Virtual Items. Lots of potential explorations could be based on these. Pink, Dan. “Dan Pink on the Surprising Science of Motivation.” Lecture. TEDGlobal 2009. July 2009. TED.com. Web. 7 Sept. 2010. <http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/dan_pink_on_motivation.html>. Discusses how the common assumptions about extrinsic motivation systems (e.g. monetary, carrot & stick) are often wrong. When a task requires narrow think- ing and is fairly obvious and straightforward, extrinsic rewards do work. But when a task requires lateral or conceptual thinking, extrinsic rewards mostly do not work and may even be harmful. Sometimes the bigger the reward, the worse the performance. He proposes an intrinsic reward system based on: Autonomy, Mastery, and Purpose. Relevant on two possible levels. First, as games often involve rewards systems, to what degree can these rewards become intrinsic. Second, is it possible that vic- tory or enjoyment in a game is in fact more of an intrinsic type of reward? Is it a shortcut (for lack of a better word) to Autonomy, Mastery, and Purpose. I.e. does playing a game give those kinds of satisfaction? And therefore does that lend more legitimacy to games as motivation systems? Hill, Dan. “The Street as Platform.” Cityofsound. 11 Feb. 2008. Web. 08 Sept. 2010. <http://www. cityofsound.com/blog/2008/02/the-street-as-p.html>. Remarkably lush description of the thicket of data that emanates from the modern “street” (where street could just as easily mean “city”). Takes the form of describing the scene one morning, exploring how transit systems, gps, stocking systems, traffic systems, advertising displays, and on and on are all busily ticking away data as people go about their lives. A goldmine of inspiration for data sources. Also examines the consequences and issues contained in whether these data sources are locked-down or open-source. Schell, Jesse. The Art of Game Design: a Book of Lenses. Burlington, MA: Elsevier/Morgan Kaufmann, 2008. Print. * Thorough description of the field of game design and associated processes and methods. Breaks down the process of game design into a series of “lenses”, a series of techniques, attitudes, experiences, and mechanics. Relevant as a solid overview of game design from an interaction and experience design perspective. Good, Owen. “Urgent Evoke: The Game That Seeks to Do Good, in Real Life.” Kotaku. Mar. 2010. Web. 02 Oct. 2010. <http://kotaku.com/5483215/urgent-evoke-the-game-that-seeks-to-do-good-in-real-life>. Description and short review of Jane McGonigal’s game “Urgent Evoke”. Mildly critical of the game’s heavy-handed altruism, but generally encouraged about the potential for growth in this type of game. Urgent Evoke. Web. 20 Sept. 2010. <http://www.urgentevoke.com/> Artifacts and synopses of the first incarnation of the Evoke game, which ran from March to May in 2010 (10 weeks total.) Also some “lessons learned” and plans for future seasons could prove useful. Webster, Andrew. “EpicWin App Turns Real-life To-do Lists into a Game.” Ars Technica. July 2010. Web. 02 Oct. 2010. <http://arstechnica.com/gaming/news/2010/07/epicwin-app-turns-real-life-to-do-lists-into-a-game.ars>. Background info on the Epic Win iPhone app (e.g. the visual designer also did Little Big Planet.) Epic Win. Rexbox & SuperMono, 2010. Computer software. The actual app. Seems like more work than a normal to-do list app (not the greatest “add new” functionality), but the artwork is very engaging, and while I don’t think it helps me actually get more done, it does encourage me to keep going back to the app. “Alternate Reality Game.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 20 Sept. 2010. <http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternate_reality_game>. For summary purposes - also many links to examples and background. “Location-based Game.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 20 Sept. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Location-based_game>. For summary purposes - also many links to examples and background. “About Me.” Ian Bogost. Web. 20 Sept. 2010. <http://www.bogost.com/about/about_me.shtml>. Background info on Bogost. Rest of site, particularly the blog, may prove useful for further research. “Player Experience Design.” XEO Design. Web. 20 Sept. 2010. <http://www.xeodesign.com/>. Background info on Nicole Lazzaro. Rest of site, particularly the blog, may prove useful for further research. “Machines Designed to Change Humans.” Stanford Persuasive Technology Lab. Web. 20 Sept. 2010. <http://captology.stanford.edu/>. Main page for Fogg’s lab information. Primarily used as summary, noted for future research. “Magic: The Gathering.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 20 Sept. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Magic:_The_Gathering>. Summary of history and how the game works. Plenty of source links for later if needed. “Majestic (video Game).” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 20 Sept. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Majestic_(video_game)>. Summary of game and history. 2 good source links for further research later. “I Love Bees.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 20 Sept. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I_ Love_Bees>. Summary with lots of references. “Automatic Identification and Data Capture.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 20 Sept. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automatic_identification_and_data_capture>. Primarily included because I hadn’t known this specific term for these types of sensors, etc. St. John, Warren. “Quick, After Him - Pac-Man Went Thataway - NYTimes.com.” The New York Times. 09 May 2004. Web. 20 Sept. 2010. <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E01E3DA173CF93A A35756C0A9629C8B63>. Nice article explaining the game and examining some of the bigger possibilities of gaming in the real world. Additionally cites a few other games in the same realm. Bogost, Ian. Persuasive Games: the Expressive Power of Videogames. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2007. Print. Bogost argues that videogames create influence via “procedural rhetoric”. This concept essentially posits that it is the process of playing through a videogame’s rule-based structure that has the most impact—more than the written or spoken content and more than the visual imagery or animations. Games—and vid- eogames in particular—have the unique ability to create meaningful expression by engaging a participant in a process that can explain other processes. Either through a direct simulation or through abstract representations, the rule-systems of games are the most important aspect of game design for creating influence and behavior change. The written and visual content should support this, but are not enough by themselves to be persuasive. In other words, it’s the playing aspect of the game that has the biggest impact.