EXAM No by pengtt


									EXAM No. 1-A, ESCI-1401 October 3, 2005                                                              page 1

Bubble in and write out your full name (Last name space First name) and social security number
(STUDENT ID) on the scantron
Multiple Choice (answer each question with the one most appropriate response—70pts, 2pts each)
1. Important: Bubble in A as the answer to question 1. Go on to the
   next question.
2. A feedback loop:
  (A) Is a mechanism that controls a system.
  (B) Can always be expressed as an exponential curve.
  (C) Is inherently inaccurate.
  (D) Always results in the transfer of energy
  (E) Cannot affect the input to systems.

3. In conducting controlled experiments testing the effectiveness of a new drug the control group:
  (A) Receives the same dose as all other groups.
  (B) Is the untreated standard for comparison.
  (C) Is often unnecessary.
  (D) Measures the number of successful treatments.
  (E) Is primarily used for public relations.

4.  When a population increases to the carrying capacity of its environment, which of the follow is most
   likely to occur:
 (A) A major epidemic will reduce population size by half.
 (B) The population will become extinct.
 (C) The population will increase exponentially.
 (D) The population size will remain more or less constant
 (E) Its environment will be destroyed.

5.  There are three theories of environmental ethics. The Anthropocentric theory is          ; the
   Biocentric theory is               ; and the Ecocentric theory is        .
 (A) self-centered; development-centered; environment-centered
 (B) animal-centered; human-centered; land-centered
 (C) human-centered; life-centered; Gaia-centered
 (D) morality-centered; ethically-centered; development-centered
 (E) human-centered; life-centered; environment-centered

6. In a formal experiment, the null hypothesis:
  (A) Cannot be disproved.
  (B) It is of no further interest.
  (C) Will always be disproved.
  (D) Agrees with other accepted facts.
  (E) Proposes that there is no difference between the treatment and the control.

EXAM No. 1-A, ESCI-1401 October 3, 2005                                                            page 2

For the next three questions, evaluate the four graphs of system behavior (A-D) shown above. Time is
on the X-axis and Quantity is the Y-axis for all four. Hint: One of the graphs shows radioactive decay of
an isotope, one shows the output of heat from a 60 watt bulb, one shows a population growing without
limit, and one shows the amount of water in a toilet tank during regular use. Pick the graph that best
illustrates each of the following concepts:
7. Negative feedback_b____
8. Half-life__d___
9. Positive feedback__a____

10. A key characteristic of pseudo-science is:
 (A) It does not seem scientific and does not use scientific jargon.
 (B) It proponents admit there are gaps that require further research.
 (C) All choices.
 (D) It depends on phenomena cannot be tested or falsified.
 (E) It is primarily concerned with invention and tool-making.

11. A paradigm is:
 (A) a constant in a mathematical equation,
 (B) a way of viewing the world,
 (C) a unit of measurement,
 (D) a scientific discipline,
 (E) an endangered species

12. Consider a situation where increased solar radiation reaches the Earth’s surface and raises the ocean
   temperature. This results in more evaporation, which produces more clouds. The increased cloud cover
   reduces the amount of solar radiation that reaches the surface of the Earth, resulting in reduced ocean
   temperature. This is an example of:
 (A) Uniformitarianism
 (B) Negative feedback
 (C) Greenhouse effect;
 (D) Atmospheric moisture balance;
 (E) Positive feedback;

13. Scientists believe that the permanent polar ice cap is melting. Open water absorbs more heat than ice
   because it is darker in color. Therefore, as ice melts and the water warms, the rate of melting may
   accelerate. This is an example of:
 (A) Environmental determinism
 (B) Negative feedback
 (C) Environmental continuity
 (D) Positive feedback
 (E) Catastrophe theory

EXAM No. 1-A, ESCI-1401 October 3, 2005                                                            page 3

14. In a statistical test, 95% confidence interval for a sample means signifies:
 (A) The mean is .95 x the standard deviation.
 (B) If 100 samples were taken from the population, ~95 of them would have a mean within the interval.
 (C) The sample mean is 95% of the population mean.
 (D) The mean will be wrong 95/100 times.
 (E) The sample size was 95% of the population.

15. A systems approach to environmental science requires:
 (A) General understanding of major system components and their interaction.
 (B) Complete understanding and exact measurement of all system components and their interaction.
 (C) Feedback loops
 (D) High-speed computer running specialized software.
 (E) Exact measurement of rates of change in the system.

16. If mice are introduced to a previously uninhabited island and their population doubles every 14
   years, the annual rate of increase is.
 (A) 10%
 (B) 5%
 (C) 15%
 (D) 70%
 (E) 1%

17. Iron, potassium, magnesium, and calcium are examples of which of the following:
 (A) nonmetallic minerals
 (B) the “big six” macronutrients
 (C) other macronutrients
 (D) micronutrients
 (E) by-products of nitrogen fixation
18. The principal of uniformitarianism:
 (A) Can operate over long time-scales.
 (B) Applies to geological evidence.
 (C) Finds the key to the past in the present.
 (D) All choices.
 (E) Is a basis for evolutionary theory.
19. There have been at least 1000 events when catastrophes vastly reduced the diversity of life on the
   entire planet. Usually this happens every million years or so.
 (A) True
 (B) False

20. Which of the following are heterotropic reactions?
 i. 6CO2 + 6 H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2
 ii. 5C6H12O6 + 24HNO3  30CO2 + 42H2O + 12N2 + ATP
 iii. 6CO2 + 6NH3 + 6O2  C6H12O6 + 6HNO3
 iv. CH4 + 2O2  2H20 + CO2

 (A) i only; (B) ii only, (C) ii & iv; (D) iv only; (E) i, ii, & iii

EXAM No. 1-A, ESCI-1401 October 3, 2005                                                          page 4

                    The next four questions refer to this diagram of the Nitrogen cycle.

21. The nitrogen cycle is one of the most important and most complex of the biogeochemical cycles. It is
   important because nitrogen:
 (A) dilutes carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere
 (B) Combines with sulfur to form living tissue
 (C) is toxic to most forms of life
 (D) is an important nutrient, necessary for life
 (E) is a greenhouse gas

22. The largest pool of nitrogen on the planet is:
 (A) Forests and land plants.
 (B) Ocean sediments
 (C) The oceans.
 (D) Industrial stockpiles
 (E) The atmosphere

23. The ratio of biological fixation of nitrogen to lightening fixation is approximately:
 (A) 1:1
 (B) 7:1
 (C) 1:10
 (D) 100:1
 (E) 2:1

24. Molecular nitrogen is returned to the atmosphere primarily by:
 (A) bacterial processes
 (B) internal cycling
 (C) Lightening
 (D) human activities
 (E) sea spray

25. The reason that some higher organisms have symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing
   microorganisms is because:

EXAM No. 1-A, ESCI-1401 October 3, 2005                                                             page 5

 (A) ammonia and molecular nitrogen are toxic to most life forms; the microorganisms remove it from
     the local environment
 (B) fixing the nitrogen adds coherence to the soil and reduces soil erosion
 (C) the nitrogen acts as a natural pesticide
 (D) nitrogen is necessary for life, and the microorganisms make the nitrogen available to the host
 (E) the organisms get lonely

26. Generally speaking, a nutrient that is water soluble will have lower flux rates in biogeochemical
   cycles that an insoluble nutrient
 (A) True
 (B) False

27. An autotroph:
 (A) Does not require nutrients;
 (B) Consumes primary producers;
 (C) Fixes carbon from CO2 to C6H12O6;
 (D) Can only be a type of green plant;
 (E) Cannot synthesize lipids or proteins

28. The algae that bloomed in Lake Washington were not native to the lake and only appeared when
   sewage was released into the lake.
 (A) True;
 (B) False.

29. If a population is 1,000,000 in the year 2000 and grows at a constant rate of 3.5% per year, in what
   year will it reach 2,000,000?
 (A) 2020
 (B) 2015
 (C) 2010
 (D) 2035
 (E) 2050

30. According the video World in the Balance, which of the following is the greatest single factor affecting
   the future rate of population growth in India is:
 (A) Breast feeding
 (B) Women’s reproductive options
 (C) Arranged marriage
 (D) Government programs
 (E) Reduced mortality

31. According the video World in the Balance, which of the following is the greatest single factor causing
   falling birth-rates in Japan is:
 (A) Enhanced educational opportunities
 (B) Arranged marriage
 (C) Women’s reproductive choices
 (D) Technology
 (E) Education reform

32. A major cause for population increase in developing countries has been:
 (A) rising birth rates
 (B) falling death rates
 (C) rising birth rate combined with falling death rate
 (D) improved educational
 (E) none of these

EXAM No. 1-A, ESCI-1401 October 3, 2005                                                         page 6

Match the following concepts from the history of environmentalism with their major proponent.

33. Critic of environmental movement: D                             A. Aldo Leopold

34. Land Ethic: A                                                   B. Abraham Lincoln

35. Romantic/Transcendental: E                                      C. Gifford Pinchot

36. Evolutionary/Ecological: C                                      D. Ayn Rand

                                                                    E. Henry David Thoreau

NAME_________________________________: ID#_______________________________:
Written Questions: Use these sheets to write your answers to the following questions.
Write your name and SSN on each sheet.

Write short definitions for 5 of the following terms in the space provided—try to give an
example if possible (2pts each):
First law of thermodynamics Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It changes form.

Second law of thermodynamics Entropy increases with each transfer of energy. The quality of
energy is degraded with each transfer.

Extinction event An event that greatly reduces the diversity of life on the planet, for example,
like the comet impact that wiped out the dinosaurs 55 M yBP.

Biogeochemical sink A biogeochemical reservoir that makes nutrients unavailable for life for
many millions of years. For example, the accumulation of CaCO3 on the seafloor.

Subduction Occurs when one tectonic plate moves under another—for example an oceanic plate
moving under a continental plate in California.

Limiting factor A nutrient or other essential environmental factor that is so completely utilized
by a population that further grow of the population is restrained—for example phosphorous in
Lake Washington for algae.

Open system A system that freely exchanges material or energy with another or systems—for
example the Earth is an open system for solar energy.

Exponential growth Growth rate in which the increment increases with every time-step

EXAM No. 1-A, ESCI-1401 October 3, 2005                                                     page 7

Closed system A system that cannot exchange energy or matter with another system—for
example the Earth is a closed system with respect to matter.

Independent variable In a plot, it is the variable that is not affected by changes in the other
variable. For example, time is the independent variable in a plot of population size.

Hypothesis A clearly stated idea that can be tested by experiment—for example it is a
hypothesis that a drug can cure a disease.

Theory An over-arching body of interrelated principals that explains the behavior of a system.
For example, the theory of an sun-centered solar system explains the movement of the planets.

Bonus Question: Name one of the 6 locations where the Islander team members had a
watering station for the Conquer the Coast Bike Ride.

Respond to two of the following questions in approximately 75-100 words each (5 pts each).
Write your name on every answer sheet. For full credit a student need about ¾ of the
information given in each answer and should get 1-2 points for attempting an answer.

    I.      Give examples of gaseous, water-soluble, and insoluble mineral forms of
            carbon and the rate and pathways the each moves through the biogeochemical
    CO2 is a gaseous form of C found in the atmosphere. It is taken up by green plants
    and made into organic material and it is given off by animals during respiration.
    Sugar (C6H12O6) is a water soluble form of organic carbon. It is created by green
    plants and used by higher consumers. Shell (CaCO3) is an insoluble form of C that is
    made by animals an remains as rock until it is subducted and discharged in volcanoes.

    II.     Explain why earthquakes are part of a process that is ultimately good for life
            on Earth.
    Earthquakes are a result of plate tectonics. The process forms new seafloor and keeps
    the planet stable. It makes fertile soil and maintains the supply of CO2 in the
    atmosphere. It helps to recycle insoluble nutrients like phosphorous. The ocean
    passes through the upper mantel every million years or so and keeps the chemical
    balance of the ocean. It is likely that life on earth would not have evolved without
    plate tectonics.

    III.    Give an example of uniformitarianism operating in geology or biology.
    The retreat of a glacier creates opportunities for plants to colonize land that was
    covered with ice. Closest to the edge of the ice you find the youngest plants and the
    least developed plant community. As you get further away, the plants are steadily
    older and community more developed. OR The formation of the Himalayas took

EXAM No. 1-A, ESCI-1401 October 3, 2005                                             page 8

   70M y for the sub continent to collide with the Asian plate. There are sea
   animal/shells in the top of the mountains that lived in the ocean while the plates were
   moving together.

   IV.     What are differences in the geochemical cycles for phosphorus and
           nitrogen and why are the differences important in environmental science?
   Phosphorus is insoluble and has no gaseous form so it move slowly. It is often a
   limiting factor in aquatic ecosystems because P can only be passed from organism to
   organism. It is an important fertilizer because crops exhaust the supply in the soil,
   but the only sources are mining or bird guano. Nitrogen is plentiful in the
   atmosphere, but has to be change from molecular N2 form to NO3 form to be taken
   up by organisms. This is something that can be done by bacteria or lightening or
   industrial processes. N has gaseous and water-soluble forms so it recycles rapidly.

   V.      Give an example of pseudo-science and explain why it is different from
   Eugenics was the pseudo-science of explaining peoples intelligence and other positive
   attributes on the basis of race. It proposed all sorts of measurements that would
   predict intelligence, but the experiments were biased. There was a strong political
   content in eugenics that was exploited by the Nazis. Science never has a political
   agenda and depends on experiments that can be repeated and unbiased trials. Science
   never claims to have found the final answer.

   VI.     Explain why the upper level consumers in an ecosystem must have lower
           biomass than the primary producers and consumers.
   The 2nd law of thermodynamics says that no transfer of energy can be 100%
   effective—some energy is lost as heat. So if you start out with a quantity of plant
   matter, when it is eaten, some of the energy will be lost and there will be a lesser
   biomass of the consumer. The same thing happens as secondary consumers eat the
   lower consumers, so each level becomes smaller and smaller.

EXAM No. 1-A, ESCI-1401 October 3, 2005   page 9


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