Cakes_ Cookies_ Pies and Candies

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• Get out your A Look From the Treetop
  Notes and Money Grows on Trees
  Information Sheet
              You Have a Quiz!
    Cakes, Cookies, Pies and
                 Chapter 24
             Guide to Good Food

“A meal is not complete, without something sweet!”
• Cakes, cookies, and pies are three of the
  most popular desserts.
• Candies are not generally considered a
  dessert, but because of their sweetness are
  sometimes served at the end of a meal.
• Most desserts are high in calories because
  they contain large amounts of sugar and fat.
• Desserts should never replace calories
  needed from other food groups.
• If you are eating a balanced healthy diet, it is
  okay to use some calories on dessert foods.
            Kinds of Cakes
• Shortened Cakes: cakes that contain fat.
  – Often called Butter Cakes.
  – Most contain leavening agents.
  – Tend to be tender, moist, and velvety.
• Unshortened Cakes: contain no fat.
  – Sometimes called Foam Cakes.
  – Leavened by air and steam.
  – Ex: Angel Food and Sponge Cakes
            Kinds of Cakes
• Egg content is also very different.
• Angel Food Cake contains egg whites
• Sponge Cakes contain whole eggs.
• Unshortened Cakes are light and fluffy.
• Chiffon Cake: cross between shortened
  and unshortened cake.
  – Contain fat and beaten egg whites.
  – Have large volumes.
             Cake Ingredients
• Basic Ingredients Include:
  – Flour
  – Sugar
  – Eggs
  – Liquid
  – Salt
• Shortened cakes contain fat.
• Most cakes contain a leavening agent.
• Unshortened cakes contain Cream of
      Cake Ingredients: Flour
• Provides structure through gluten
• Gluten hold the leavening gases that form
  as the cake bakes.
• Cake Flour will create a more delicate and
  tender cake because it has a lower protein
• All-Purpose Flour will work just fine in most
     Cake Ingredients: Sugar
• Gives sweetness.
• Tenderizes the gluten and improves the
  texture of the cake.
• Recipes may call for granulated or brown
  – Make sure all is free from lumps!
      Cake Ingredients: Eggs
• Give flavor and color.
• Coagulated egg proteins also add structure.
• Eggs hold the air that is beaten into them
  and aid in leavening.
• Evaporation of egg whites in cakes such as
  Angel Food Cake causes steam.
     Cake Ingredients: Liquid
• Provides moisture and helps blend the
• Most cakes call for milk.
      Cake Ingredients: Salt
• Provides flavoring.
• Cakes need far less salt than many other
  baked products.
       Cake Ingredients: Fat
• Tenderizes the gluten.
• Shortened cakes may contain butter,
  margarine, or shortening.
• Chiffon cakes contain oil instead.
    Cake Ingredients: Leavening
• Added to most shortened cakes to make
  the cake rise and become porous and light.
• Most recipes call for baking soda and/or
  baking powder.
    Cake Ingredients: Cream of Tartar
•   Added to Angel Food and Sponge Cakes.
•   It is an acid that makes egg whites whiter.
•   Makes cake grain finer.
•   Stabilizes egg white proteins which helps
    increase the volume of the baked cake.
  Cake Ingredients: Flavorings
• Not an essential ingredient, but do help
  make the cake special.
• You can add spices, extracts, fruits, nuts,
  an seeds to add variety.
     Food Science Principles of
         Preparing Cakes
• Successful cake baking depends on:
  – Measuring Accurately
  – Mixing Correctly
  – Baking
• Using the correct pan is important as well
  using the correct temperature.
       Measuring Ingredients
• The correct proportions of each ingredient
  will produce a cake that is light and tender.
• Too much or too little of an ingredient will
  affect the finished product.
• Too much flour = compact and dry cake
• Too little flour = coarse cake that may fall
             Mixing Cakes
• Mix the correct proportions of ingredients
  according to the method your recipe
• Overmixing will cause the gluten to
  overdevelop, resulting in a tough cake.
• Overmixing an Angel Food Cake will
  cause the air to be lost and result in a
  smaller cake.
            Baking Cakes
• Too small pans will cause batter to
• Too large pan will cause the cake to be
  too flat and dry.
• Grease and flour pans lightly.
• Place in preheated oven.
  Preparing Shortened Cakes
• There are 2 methods: Conventional and
  Quick Fix
• Conventional Method
  – Cream the fat and sugar together until light
    and fluffy.
  – Beat the eggs in to the creamed mixture.
  – Add dry ingredients alternately with liquid.
   Preparing Shortened Cakes
• Quick Fix Method
  – Measure dry ingredients and place in mixing
  – Beat the fat and part of the liquid with the dry
  – Add remaining liquid and eggs.
• Quick fix takes up less time and
  equipment than conventional.
   Preparing Shortened Cakes
• Pour cake batter into prepared pans.
• When finished baking, allow to cool in pan
  for about 10 minutes.
• Run tip of spatula around edge to loosen.
• Invert onto a cooling rack.
• Cake must be cooled completely before
Characteristics of Shortened Cakes
•   Velvety and Light
•   Interior has small, fine cells with thin walls.
•   Crusts are thin and evenly browned.
•   To crust is smooth and gently rounded.
•   Flavor is tender and pleasing.
 Preparing Unshortened Cakes
• Beat egg whites with sugar until they become
• Carefully fold in flour and remaining sugar into
  beaten whites.
• Pour into greased tube pan.
• Run a spatula through the batter to release large
  air bubbles.
• Immediately place upside down after pulling from
  the oven.
• Wait until it is cool before removing the pan.
  Characteristics of Unshortened
• Large volume
• Interior is spongy and pourous and has thin
  cell walls.
• Cake is tender and moist, but not gummy.
    Preparing a Chiffon Cake
• Combining egg yolks, oil, liquid, and
  flavoring with the dry ingredients.
• Beat until smooth.
• Beat egg white with sugar and cream of
  tartar until stiff.
• Fold egg white mixture into other mixture.
Characteristics of Chiffon Cake
• Large volume
• Interior is moist with thin cell walls.
• Cake is tender and has a pleasing flavor.
        Microwaving Cakes
• Shortened cakes prepared in the
  microwave come out moist and tasty.
• Unshortened cakes require a long cooking
  period and do not microwave well.
• Microwaves will not brown like
  conventional baking. Frosting will usually
  hide this.
    Filling and Frosting Cakes
• Fillings are spread between layers.
• You can buy frosting already prepared in
  cans or make it yourself.
• Frostings enhance the flavor and
  appearance of cakes.
• Frosting is the glue that holds the cake
    Filling and Frosting Cakes
• Decorators use frosting to personalize
• A few special tools are needed:

            Decorators Tube- cloth,
            plastic, or parchment bag you
            fill with frosting.
Filling and Frosting Cakes
    Coupler- plastic, one part
    inserted into the bag before the
    icing, other side goes on
    outside of bag to hold on tip.

      Tips- metal tips used to create
      designs of frosting.
                Kinds of Cookies
•    There are six basic groups:
    1.   Rolled
    2.   Drop
    3.   Bar
    4.   Refrigerator
    5.   Pressed
    6.   Molded
•    The ingredients for each are similar.
•    The dough differs in consistency and is
     shaped differently.
           Kinds of Cookies
• Rolled Cookies- a stiff dough that
  is rolled out and cut into cookies.
  – Ex: Sugar Cookies
• Drop Cookies- soft dough that is dropped
  or pushed from a spoon onto a cookie
  – Spread more than rolled cookies.
  – Ex: Chocolate Chip Cookies
           Kinds of Cookies
• Bar Cookies- a soft dough that is
  spread evenly in a pan.
  – Tend to be chewy and cakelike.
  – Ex: Brownies
• Refrigerator Cookies- contain a high
  proportion of fat. Dough is rolled into a
  tube, refrigerated and then cut
  into slices.
  – Ex: Pinwheel Cookies
            Kinds of Cookies
• Pressed Cookies- made from a
  rich, thick dough. Use a cookie press to
  – Sizes and shapes vary depending on disks.
  – Ex: Swedish Spritz Cookies
• Molded Cookies- a stiff dough that
  is shaped by hand.
  – Ex: Crescent Cookies
         Cookie Ingredients
• Basic Ingredients:
  – Flour
  – Sugar
  – Liquid
  – Fat
  – salt
  – Egg
  – Leavening Agents
          Cookie Ingredients
• Cookies contain more sugar and fat than
• Less liquid than cakes.
  – Rolled cookies often contain no liquid.
• Ingredients used and method of
  preparation determines softness or
  crispness of cookie.
• Special ingredients are often used: nuts,
  spices, chocolates, dried fruits.
           Mixing Methods
• Most cookies are made using the
  conventional mixing method (refer back to
  notes on cakes for this mixing method).
• Cookies are crisp and chewy rather than
  light and delicate like a cake- excessive
  mixing is not needed.
• Flour can be added all at once.
• Some cookies such as macaroons call for
  beaten egg whites (refer back to notes on
     Pans for Baking Cookies
• Most cookies bake on a cookie sheet.
• These have low sides allowing the cookie
  to bake more evenly.
• Using bright shiny sheets allow for a
  delicate brown crust due to the reflection of
• Dark pans absorb heat, and
  can cause cookies to have a
  dark bottom
     Pans for Baking Cookies
• Cookie sheets should be cool when you
  place cookies on them for baking.
• Warm sheets cause cookies to spread and
  lose their shape.
• When baking more than 1 cookie sheet at
  a time, you may need to rotate them during
  cooking time to aid in even browning.
       Microwaving Cookies
• Most microwaves are not big enough to
  efficiently cook dozens of individual
• Bar cookies do cook well in microwaves.
            Storing Cookies
• Store crisp cookies in a container with a
  loose-fitting cover.
  – They must remain dry to retain their
• Store soft cookies in a container with a
  tight-fitting lid.
  – Exposure to the air will dry them out.
• Do not store crisp and soft cookies
           Storing Cookies
• Bar cookies can be stored in their baking
  pan as long as they are covered.
• Cookies can be frozen for longer storage.
  – Many freeze well in both dough and baked
• Frozen dough must be thawed before
  shaping or molding for baking.
• You may shape dough and then freeze for
  later convenience.
     Extra Credit Opportunity
 Select a NEW cookie recipe that you have
               never made before.
Prepare and bake the cookies for your family-
   if you have a small family, cut the recipe in
Bring a note from home explaining the type of
           cookie made and have your
          parent/guardian sign off on it!
            10 Extra Credit Points!
             Kinds of Candy
• Crystalline Candies- contain fine sugar
  – Taste smooth and creamy.
  – Ex: fudge, fondant, and divinity.
• Noncrystalline Candies- do not contain
  sugar crystals.
  – Usually chewy and brittle.
  – Ex: caramels, peanut brittle, and toffee
       Food Science Principles of
            Candy Making
• All cooked candies begin with sugar syrup- a
  mixture of sugar and liquid cooked to a thick
• When making crystalline candy the sugar
  syrup needs to form crystals.
  – Crystals need to be small and fine.
• When making noncrystalline candy you do
  not want crystals to form.
• Crystals are formed when syrup is heated to
  a specific temperature.
      Food Science Principles of
           Candy Making
• Temperature is the most important part of
  candy making.
• A candy thermometer will provide the most
  accurate method of testing the temperature
  of your sugar mixture.
• Each type of candy requires a
  specific temperature.
• Chocolate is a favorite of many candy
• Melted chocolate can be used in a variety
  of ways.
• Chocolate is made from the beans of the
  cacao tree.
• The beans are roasted then shelled,
  pressed, and heated to form a liquid called
  chocolate liquor.
• Then some of the fat or cocoa butter, is
• The higher the cocoa butter content the
  higher the quality of chocolate.
• Baking and eating chocolate is made from
  chocolate liquor.
• You may purchase chocolate in several
  – Unsweetened- no sugar
  – Bittersweet
  – Semisweet
  – Milk chocolate
• More sugar is added along the way.
• White Chocolate is made from cocoa butter,
  sugar, milk solids, and flavorings.
  – Since there is no chocolate liquor it is technically
    not chocolate but rather an imitation.
             Although we think of the pastry chef as one who makes ALL of the bread,
             cakes, candies, and pies, a true pastry is defined as a dough made from fat,
             flour, and liquid that bakes in “layers”. The layers create what we refer to as

    Fat particles                                                                          In a pie crust
  shown here in                                                                          pastry, the fat is
yellow, and flour is                                                                       distributed in
      brown.                                                                            pieces throughout
                                                                                             the flour.

                                                                                        As the dough is
                                                                                     rolled out, the fat and
                                                                                     flour become layered

            As the pie crust bakes, the fat layer melts away and air pockets form in their place.
                     The new layers of air pockets plus the flour layers form “flakes”.
The    layered     pastry
doughs are used to make
a variety of breads,
candies, desserts, and of
course… pie crusts!

A pastry, whether it is a bread such as croissants
or a dessert such as Napoleons, is considered a
challenge to many bakers. The layers of fat and
flour are delicate and have to be handled with
                            Sugar, salt, or other
                            spices add flavor.
                                                    May include one or more kinds of
                                                    fat… animal fats such as lard or
                                                    butter, or vegetable fats such as
                                                    shortening or margarine. Even oils
                                                    might be used, especially to cut
                                                    levels of cholesterol.
                                                    Fat creates “tenderness”. Too much
                                                    fat makes the product crumbly or
Flour provides the                                  If using lard, decrease the amount of
structure of the product.                           fat by 15-20%.
Over-measuring flour
creates “toughness”.
Flour contains a protein
                                                     Liquids add the moisture and hold the
called gluten. This can
                                                     dough together… part of the structure.
also cause a tough
                                                     While the most common is water, milk
product if over-worked.
                                                     adds flavor and nutrients. Too much
                                                     liquid causes the product to become
                                                     soggy or sticky.
                                                                               3. Use a fork to
                                                                               “toss” the flour while
                                                                               very gradually adding
                                                                               water. Use your eyes
                                                                               and hands to judge
                                                                               consistency. It takes
                                                                               approximately ¼ cup
                                                                               water per 1 cup flour.

1.   Measure the flour and      Overworking the dough at this step causes the
     salt into a mixing bowl.   flour protein (gluten) to form long, tough strands.
     1 cup of flour and ¼
     tsp. salt will make a
     single crust.
2.   Put the solid fat into
     the bowl also. Use a
     pastry blender      to
     “cut in” the
     shortening, making
     coarse crumbs. (an
     experienced baker may
     use two knives or their       4. The flour mixture begins             5. Use your hands to form
     fingers) Use 1/3 cup          to form clumps…clinging                 dough into a soft, but not
     shortening per 1 cup of       together as water is added.             sticky ball.
                       Flatten the ball of
                       dough with your
                       hands. Flour the
                       surface, both sides
                       of the dough, and the
                       rolling pin.

                                                     Fold the crust in   Unfold the dough,
The direction you roll out a pie crust is very
                                                     half; pick up the   covering the entire
important! Always start in the center and roll
                                                     dough at the        pie plate. Carefully
outward. Pick up the rolling pin and return to the
                                                     foldline, and       lift and coax the
center before rolling in an outward direction
                                                     place it across     dough down into
again. A wooden rolling pin will “spin” if you are
                                                     the diameter of     the pan…don’t
doing it correctly…with a light, quick touch.
                                                     the pie plate.      push or stretch it!
Maintain a circle shape!
If using a metal pie pan, non-shiny is best for allowing the bottom
crust to brown. Glass (ceramic) pans come in 8, 9, or 10 inch
diameters. When using these, remember the rule of thumb
about using glass bakeware…..
                     lower the oven temperature 25 degrees!
In some pies, such as lemon
meringue, the bottom crust is
baked first and the cooked
filling is added later. Before
baking an empty crust, you
must poke holes in it with a fork
to allow steam to escape and
keep it laying flat in the pan.      Whether the pie has just a
                                     single bottom crust, or has
                                     a top crust also, the edges
                                     must be “finished” prior to
                                     baking. This pie shows two
                                     common                  edge
                                     presentations… one done
          This        all-American   with     a    fork  in    the
          apple pie looks great,     foreground, and one being
          especially since the       fluted in the demonstration.
          top crust was glazed
          with milk and sugar.                      The slashes cut
          The glaze eliminates                      in the top of a
          the dry- flour look and                   two-crust    pie
          allows it to brown                        aren’t just for
          nicely. It improves                       looks…they
          both      flavor     and                  allow the steam
          appearance!                               to escape!
          Bake your pie in the
Roll out the top crust of   Cut this top crust into        Lay part of the strips
the pie in the usual        strips, ½ inch wide.           across a colorful pie
        manner.                                            filling, all going one
                                                           direction and spaced ½
                                                           inch apart.
                                Weave the remaining strips of pastry over
                                and under the first strips. Flute the

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