"Food Industry Waste Management, Ppt - PDF"
Hello … Welcome All !! 3R Waste Management South Asia Expert WORKSHOP August 30-Sept.1st, 2006 Kathmandu, Nepal “Industrial Waste Management: Reduction at Source, Reuse and Recycling for Sustainable Industrial Production” Dr. Mahmood A. Khwaja Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI) (www.sdpi.org) Organizers: UNEP/ROAP, ADB and IGES Sustainable Development SDPI Sustainable Development Policy Institute Policy Institute(www.sdpi.org) Independent, Public Interest Think Tank Provides advice to : Public organizations Private organizations Voluntary organizations Undertakes : Policy-Oriented Research and Advocacy. Established: August 1992 Diversity of Asia-Pacific Region Three of the world most populous countries Three of the world’s largest countries Thirteen least developed countries Twelve land locked countries Seventeen small island developing countries Size=1/3rd of the planet and Houses 2/3rd of world’s population Asia Pacific Region Majority of population live on <1US$/day Population expected to grow to 4 billion High Economic growth dire need for the growing population Economic development likely to occur at a cost to the environment. Asia Pacific Region Environmental Regulatory Enforcement and Compliance Continue to be the Main Problem Rapid Depletion and Degradation of Segments of Environment in South Asia Human-Induced Soil Degradation (1945-1990) Relative Severity of Air Pollution in Asian sub-regions Pollutant South Asia Southeast East Asia Asia Sulfur Dioxide x xx xxx Particulates xxx xx Lead xx xxx xxx = very severe; xx = severe; x = moderate but rising Source: GEMS (1996), WB (1995), WRI (1996), ADB (1997) Air Quality in 11 Mega Cities of the Asia and the Pacific Region City SO2 SPM Lead CO Bangkok L H M L Beijing H H L L Bombay L H L L Calcutta L H L L Delhi L H L L Jakarta L H M M Karachi L H H L Manila L H M L Seoul H H L L Shanghai M H L L Tokyo L L L L H = severe problem. WHO guidelines exceeded by more than a factor; M = Moderate to heavy pollution. WHO guidelines exceeded up to a factor; Source: L = Low Pollution. WHO guidelines are normally met or may be exceeded WHO, UNEP, 1992 Table 1. Use and local production/year of chemicals in Pakistan Type of Chemical Use Production (million tons) (000 tons) Pesticides (Agriculture) 0.449 13.84 Fertilizers 5.720 4021.60 Petroleum Products 16.350 Soda Ash: 247.00 Industrial Chemicals 0.324 Caustic Soda: 118.20 Consumer Chemicals 0.100 Sulfuric Acid:30.80 Paint and Varnishes -------- 9.40 Polishes and Cream -------- 0.86 In 1997 – 98, 387.540 thousands tons of inorganic chemicals, organic or inorganic compounds were imported. For the same year, the import of products of chemicals and allied industry was estimated to be 1369. 383 thousands tons Table 2. Industrial pollution levels (milligram/liter). Industry BOD COD TSS TDS Chemical 1400 - 9800 2300 - 18640 950 38000 Tanneries 800 – 1680 1020 – 2367 298 9104 Textiles 800 - 8500 1610 – 26500 1900 9680 Sugar 100 – 1100 200 – 1896 2850 17300 Fertilizer 400 – 610 860 – 1650 9720 Oil & Ghee 460 – 1470 1260 – 3280 576 15462 NEQS 80 150 150 3500 Table 3. Sulfur dioxide, particulate matter & oxides of nitrogen emission trends for the period 1980 – 1998 (in thousand tons) Pollutant 1980 1985 1990 1995 1998 Sulfur Dioxide 200 350 500 650 750 Particulate Matter 275 325 450 510 580 Oxides of Nitrogen 40 125 200 410 500 The World Must be More Productive In the last 30 years the labor component of business has seen a worldwide increase in productivity to over 300 from a base of 100 in 1970. Materials, Energy and Capital Productivity have stayed the same or dropped below the baseline. Need for sustainable production and consumption Circular Society A society in which all “Stakeholders” think, act, promote and contribute towards sustainable production and consumption resource recycling The society resolves restructuring through “Practical Modes” for Efficient utilization of resources Reduction in pollutants discharge/releases Practical Modes Cleaner Production Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) Ecological Industrial Parks Zero Waste Discharge Education for sustainable development Raise Public Awareness Laws, Policies and Regulations. Zero Waste Zero Waste is a goal that is both pragmatic and visionary, to guide people to emulate sustainable natural cycles, where all discarded materials are resources for others to use Zero Waste means designing and managing products and processes to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and materials, conserve and recover all resources, and not burn or bury them. Implementing Zero Waste will eliminate all discharges to land, water or air that may be a threat to planetary, human, animal or plant health. New Policies (3Rs) Because of the growing environmental problems and cost associated with landfills and incinerators for waste disposal, new policies are being developed to support 3Rs: Waste Reduction at Source Waste Reuse Waste Recycling Industry Raw Material Process 3Rs Products Waste Consumers Nepal The first action was taken in 1999 when the Nepalese government banned all kinds of plastic bags and bottles in the country’s Khumbu region China The national government banned, effective 2000, the use and production of white foamed polystyrene disposable food containers India In 1999, the Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests banned the use and sale of plastic bags less than 20-microns thick. The Municipal Solid Wastes (management & handling) Rules 2000, mandate recycling of dry waste & waste segregation at source. Philippines The Philippine’s new Solid Waste Management Act, signed into law in early 2001) includes a ban on disposable packaging. Regulated Disposable Goods in the Republic of Korea Workplace Regulated Items Restaurants and cafeterias (with Prohibited from using disposable cups, containers, and plates, wooden serving spaces larger than 33 chopsticks, toothpicks, disposable spoons, forks, knives, etc. square meters) Must not circulate advertising leaflets coated with synthetic resin Department stores, shopping Prohibited from distributing free plastic bags and shopping bags (can only centers, wholesale shops, and be purchased by customers) shops with sales floor space Must not circulate advertising leaflets coated with synthetic resin larger than 200 square meters Food manufacturing and processing Prohibited from using disposable lunchboxes made of synthetic resin business/spot sales food manufacturing and processing business Lodging facilities with more than Prohibited (from providing free disposable shaving sets, toothpaste, seven rooms and public baths shampoo, and hair conditioner Source: Green Korea 1999, Republic of Korea Ministry of Environment, available at http://www.moenv.go.kr/english/tit00/eng 10.html. Society Involvement Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997 For environmental - Protection - Conservation - Rehabilitation - Improvement Pollution control Promotion of sustainable development The act covers (POLLUTION) -Air -Water -Soil -Noise Hazardous Wastes Disposal Motor Vehicular Pollution Prohibition of Discharges or Emissions/PEPA 1997 NO PERSON SHALL DISCHARGE OF EMIT OR ALLOW THE DISCHARGE OF EMISSION OF ANY EFFLUENT OR WASTE OR AIR POLLUTANT OR NOISE IN AN AMOUNT, CONCENTRATION OR LEVEL OF WHICH IS IN EXCESS OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY STANDARDS OR, WHERE APPLICABLE, THE STANDARDS ESTABLISHED UNDER SUBCLAUSE (I) OF CLAUSE (G) OF SUB- SECTION (I) SECTION 6 (SECTION 11) Hazardous Substances and Wastes/PEPA-1997 Section 13 “no person shall import hazardous waste into Pakistan and its territorial waters, Exclusive Economic Zone and historic waters” Section 14 “Subject to the provisions of this Act, no person shall generate, collect, consign, transport, treat, dispose of, store, handle or import any hazardous substances except: a) under a license issued by the Federal Agency and in such manner as may be prescribed; or b) in accordance with the provisions of any other law for the time being in force or of any international treaty, convention, protocol, code, standard, agreement or other instrument to which Pakistan is a party Rules and Regulations for Implementation of NEQS National Environmental Quality Standards (Self Monitoring and Reporting by Industries) Rules, 2001 Provincial Sustainable Development Fund (Procedure) Rules 2001 Provincial Sustainable Development Fund (Utilization) Rules2001 Industrial Pollution Charge (Calculation and Collection) Rules 2001 Environmental Tribunals Procedures and Qualifications Rules, 2000 Environmental Samples Rules 2001 Hazardous Substances Rules, 2000 Cont. Rules and Regulations for Implementation of NEQS Composition of Offences and Payment of Administrative Penalty Rules 2000 Review of IEE/EIA Regulations, 2000 Environmental Laboratories Certification Regulations, 2000 Hazardous Substances Rules 1999 (HSRs-99). Implementation with immediate effect. HSRs - 99 covers Generation, Collection, Consignment, Transportation, Treatment, Disposal, Storage, Handling and Import of HS. HSRs-99 describe List of substances prescribe as HS Requirements for the grant of a license (PEPA – 1997, Section 14). Specifications and Standards General Safety Precautions Import Trade and Procedures Order , 2000 (ITPO - 2000) ITPO – 2000 Enforced with Immediate Effect ITPO Provides List of “Banned Items” (Negative List) ; including Hazardous Wastes ; List of “Restricted Items” including old machinery (> five years) & ODSs Major Generators of Solid Industrial Wastes in Pakistan S. No. Industry Wastes 1. Sugar Press mud 2. Pulp and Paper Lime mud 3. Fertilizers Gypsum/Calcium Carbonate (Calcite) 4. Iron & Steel Bast Furnace Slag / Steel Melting Slag 5. Non-Ferrous (Al, Zh, Cu) Tailings 6. Thermal Power Plants Coal Ash Industrial Waste Utilization Projects S. No. Waste Industry Utilization 1. Alumina wastes Alumina H2S Absorbent 2. Waste Iron Oxide Fertilizer Iron Oxide Pigments Catalyst 3. Spent Lux Mass Fertilizer Regeneration / Production of pure Sulphur 4. Waste Nickel Catalyst Vanaspati Ghee Electroplating grade Nickel Industries Sulphate 5. Black Sulphite Liquor Paper and Pulp Dispersing agent in Cement Waste Industry industry for fuel economy 6. Zinc Dross Galvanized Zinc Sulphite 7. Iron Rolling Scale Steel Ferric Chloride Plastic Wastes Utilization Without any further processing (except washing & drying), waste plastic bags may be used as a filling material to prepare items such as cushion, mats, ropes, mattresses, etc. Without using too complicated a technology, waste plastic bags may be converted into semi- solid matter, from which useful items like sheets, insulating sheets, cricket balls, sticks, slates, black-board, paper-weight pipes, etc. using suitable moulds may be prepared Chemicals Recovery 1.Utilization of Wastes from Chemical and Galvanized Industries - Preparation of Zinc Chemicals Pak.J.Sci.Ind.Res,36,(10),443 (1993) 2.Studies on Analyses , Purification and Utilization of Waste from Fertilizer Industry Pak.J.Sci.Ind.,Res., 33(7),261(1990). 3.Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Costs Associated with Cloth and Leather Exports from Pakistan, Environ. & Develop. Economics 6, pp. 383 – 403 (2001) Cleaner Production Program Good House Keeping (a) Resource Conservation & (b) Better Working Practices By implementing (a) and (b) above, the hydraulic and pollution loads reduced by 30-40% and 7 – 10 % , respectively, in waste water/effluents from Textiles, Tanneries and Paper Mills SUGAR INDUSTRY (Shakarganj Mills Ltd.) Improved Efficiency of Lagoons by installation of sand filter & oil skimmer NEQS (BOD & COD)compliance by evaporators maintenance and monitoring system Composting plant (mud cake mixing with distillery wastewater) CP – Cost & Savings Sugar Industry Cost for NEQS Compliance by CP Solution = 50,000 – 75,000 $ Cost for NEQS Compliance by end of pipe treatment plant = 125, 000 $ Tanning Industry Cost Recovery of plant for Chrome recovery(95%) and re-use (wastewater containing 25 – 30%) within six to seven months Self-monitoring and Reporting/SMART Program for Industry in Pakistan Industries in Pakistan are made responsible for: Systematically monitoring their environmental performance (Industrial Emissions) and Reporting of the data to EPAs SMART Takes into account resources and interests of both the industry and EPAs Saves EPAs considerable expenses, time and efforts. Involves industry in evaluation of environmental performance, leading to pollution control measures. Categorization of Industries For Industrial Liquid Effluents Category A (18) Category B (12) Category C (3+ others by EPA) Monthly Quarterly Biannually Priority Priority Priority Parameters Parameters Parameters For N.P.O.C (6-8) For N.P.O.C For N.P.O.C For Industrial Emissions Category A (11) Category B (7) Monthly Quarterly Priority Parameters Priority Parameter For N.P.O.C For N.P.O.C Actions for Promoting 3Rs Ban Waste Disposal and Exports Not to be land filled or incinerated Products must not be exported from developed to developing countries either for disposal or for recycling Regulations establish clear and effective mechanisms, including: Clear labeling Public participation Regular monitoring and reporting/SMART Program Strict and prompt enforcement of performance To protect the public interest Duly acknowledge progressive companies who act proactively Narrowing the Existing Gaps Ideal and Reality Goals and Actions Lesser the gaps – More the 3Rs and Closer to Sustainable Industrial Production and Consumption(SI P&C) 3Rs and SI P&C may lead to a sustainable Asia Pacific region, leading to a conceivable Sustainable world, inshAllah Many are involved … … collaboration is necessary! Labour unions Companies Local communities Industry Farmers Schools and 3Rs & SI P&C universities Consumers Governments – Public sector Donors NGOs Research IGOs community www.sdpi.org SDPI Sustainable Development Policy Institute