Legal Regimes on Defining
Geospatial Vision for India
Mr. Malay Adhikari
M. Sc. (Physics), LL.M. (International Law),
Research Scholar, Center for Air & Space Law,
NALSAR University of Law, Hyderabad.
Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
Map India 2010, Gurgaon, 21st January, 2010
Objective of Presentation
Right data is received timely in
right place by the end-users and
its best value
Scheme of Presentation
1. Definition of Law, International Law, International Space Law
2. Importance of Policy & Law for Geospatial Vision
3. Legal Issues in Geospatial Vision
4. Reflection of Above Issues in National Map Policy
5. Legal Deficiencies in National Map Policy
6. Requirement of Legal Framework in NSDI
7. Legal Solutions
Definitions of International Law &
International Space Law
• International Law (IL) regulates the relations between or among states.
IL not only regulates the behavior of states, but also regulates the conduct
of Intl. Organization, Individuals and Non-state entities to certain extent.
• International Space Law (ISL) is a branch of international law
• ISL can be defined as “body of rules governing the use of outer space for
the benefit of mankind.”
Importance of Policy & Law for
• A vision requires policy to guide in the
• Law requires to implement the policy .
• Adjudication of policy is more tougher
than that of law.
• Harmonization of policy & law – Must for
successful geospatial vision.
Legal Issues in Geospatial Vision
1. Sovereignty & Sensed States
3. National Security
4. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)
5. Quality & Pricing
6. Public-Private Partnership (PPP)
7. GIS in Court
9. Human Rights
10. Insurance of data
Reflection of Above Issues in
National Map Policy (NMP) of India
• National Security
• PPP Model
Legal Deficiencies in NMP
• National security is as important as defence because concept of
national security has been widened and encapsulated the
phenomena of Human Security.
• Therefore national security includes economic security, food
security, social security, information security and climate security
etc. along with defence security.
• Liability arises in each and every stage of value-addition of maps.
• Deficiencies –
(i) NMP highlights only defence;
(ii) Liability issues are not covered in case of deficiency in value-
addition of maps.
Requirement of Legal Framework
• For public accessibility of data efficiently.
• Set up mechanism of institutional coordination
between different bodies and Government
agencies like National Remote Sensing Centre,
Geological Survey of India and Survey of India.
• To create consciousness regarding geospatial technology
developments amongst legal fraternities who are directly or
indirectly attached with law and law-making process of India.
• To fulfill this purpose, national, state, district and panchayat level
committees should be constituted with effective coordination.
• Industry-academia partnership for research and development in
geospatial technology and law interface.
• All the legal problems coming up must be viewed and analyzed in
the indigenous context and legal solutions could be appropriated
with national interest.
• To make legal framework to attract FDI in geospatial industry.
Legal Solutions (Contd…)
• Formation of an independent central legal
committee, taking all the members from the
relevant bodies, to monitor all the legal
developments in geospatial sector in India and
• To establish a separate tribunal - NATIONAL
GEOSPATIAL DISPUTE REDRESSAL TRIBUNAL,
to redress the disputes related with.
It is a truism that law always follows
technological developments. The main reason is
that the society is often unable to predict
technological developments, and understand
their impact on itself. So a national geospatial
law following National Geospatial Data Authority
Bill is need of the hour.