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Verbals

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					Verbals
What Are Verbals?

Verbals are forms of verbs.
The three types we will study are…
 Participles
 Infinitives
 Gerunds
What Are Participles?

A participle is a verb form that …
  ends in –ing (present participle)
  Example: hiss + ing = hissing
  ends in –ed (past participle)
  Example: sharpen + ed = sharpened
  can be irregular
  Example: sweep + ed = swept
What Are Participles?
 A participle can be an adjective that…
  describes a noun or pronoun
  usually tells which one? or what kind?
  comes before the word it modifies

  Examples:
  the hissing snake (present participle – tells
   what kind of snake)
  the sharpened pencil (past participle – tells
   which pencil)
  Neatly swept floor (irregular past participle
   – tells what kind of floor)
What Are Participles?
 A participle can be part of a verb phrase.
 When part of a verb phrase, a form of be (is,
  was, were, am, have, has, had) comes before it.
 When preceded by a helping verb, the participle
  functions as a VERB, not an adjective.
                       Form
   Examples:           of be

   The snake is hissing. (present participle)
          Form    VERB PHRASE
          of be
  The pencil was sharpened. (past participle)
                    VERB PHRASE
   What Are Participial Phrases?
 A participial phrase …
   STARTS with a participle and includes other words that
     complete its meaning (complements, adv., prep phrases).
   ALWAYS acts as an adjective.
   can appear before or after the noun or1.pronoun itoff
                                                      Always set
     describes.                                       introductory
    is set off by commas (when nonessential) or at phrases
                                                      participial beginning
                                                      with a comma!
     of a sentence                                2. Set off
                                                          a noun
                                Describes Emily, which is NONESSENTIAL
   Participial   Phrase = participle + complements & modifiers
                                                          participial phrases
                                                          with commas!
                     Describes Hunter,
Examples:             which is a noun
 Telling funny jokes, Hunter entertained the class.
 Emily, laughing hysterically, fell off her chair. Tells which boy
 The boy sitting by her is my cousin.                   (noun)
Finding Participial Phrases
1. Find the main action (predicate) of the
   sentence and its subject.
                     S                  P

Example: My mom, watching the scary movie
   with me at the theater, screamed loudly and
   embarrassed me!
                            P
2. Find the participle (verb form that ends in –
   ing/-ed or irregular verb but acts as an ADJ).
                                      Participle
Example: My mom, watching the scary movie
   with me at the theater, screamed loudly and
   embarrassed me!
Finding Participial Phrases
3. Look for commas to mark the beginning and/or
   stopping point of the phrase.
Example: My mom, watching the scary movie
   with me at the theater, screamed loudly and
   embarrassed me!

4. If there aren’t any commas, ask these
   questions to determine which words or prep
   phrases complement (go with) the participle to
   make a PARTICIPIAL PHRASE:
   What? or Who? (DO)
   Adverb questions (when, where, why, TWE)
  Examples:
  1. The man wearing the black trench coat kept
     staring at me.
  2. The boy smiling brightly at Katie is a flirt.
Find the Participial Phrases and
Punctuate Them!
1. The teacher giving the lecture is funny.
2. The boy swearing on the bus got in
   trouble.
3. My favorite cousin standing over there by
   the door is getting married next week.
4. Running after his dog the man tripped
   and fell.
Find the Participial Phrases and
Punctuate Them!
1. The teacher giving the lecture is funny.
2. The boy swearing on the bus got in
   trouble.
3. My favorite cousin, standing over there
   by the door, is getting married next week.
4. Running after his dog, the man tripped
   and fell.
Explanation for commas: Number 3 contains a
non-essential participial phrase, and number 4
contains an introductory participial phrase!
Find the participles or participial
phrases in the following sentence.
Also, identify if it is used as an
adjective or as part of a verb phrase.


The blowing trees were
 etched against the
 darkened sky.
Find the participles or participial
phrases in the following sentence.
Also, identify if it is used as an
adjective or as part of a verb phrase.
           Adjective modifying trees
                                          Part of verb
                                            phrase
The blowing trees were
 etched against the
 darkened sky.
                Adjective modifying sky
Find the participles or participial
phrases in the following sentence.
Also, identify if it is used as an
adjective or as part of a verb phrase.


The closed barn doors rattled
 in the shrieking wind.
Find the participles or participial
phrases in the following sentence.
Also, identify if it is used as an
adjective or as part of a verb phrase.
                   Adjective modifying doors


The closed barn doors rattled
 in the shrieking wind.
                          Adjective modifying wind
Find the participles or participial
phrases in the following sentence.
Also, identify if it is used as an
adjective or as part of a verb phrase.


Searching feverishly the
 determined boy finally found
 his misplaced glasses.
Find the participles or participial
phrases in the following sentence.
Also, identify if it is used as an
adjective or as part of a verb phrase.

                      Adjective modifying boy


                       the
Searching feverishly, Adjective modifying boy
 determined boy finally found
 his misplaced glasses.
                         Adjective modifying glasses
Find the participles or participial
phrases in the following sentence.
Also, identify if it is used as an
adjective or as part of a verb phrase.


Prepared for battle the
 soldiers survived the air
 raid.
Find the participles or participial
phrases in the following sentence.
Also, identify if it is used as an
adjective or as part of a verb
phrase.                  Adjective modifying soldiers



Prepared for battle, the
 soldiers survived the air
 raid.
Find the participles or participial
phrases in the following sentence.
Also, identify if it is used as an
adjective or as part of a verb phrase.


The amused students were
 laughing at his humorous
 antics.
Find the participles or participial
phrases in the following sentence.
Also, identify if it is used as an
adjective or as part of a verb phrase.
                 Adjective modifying
                      students

The amused students were
 laughing at his humorous
 antics.
                       Part of verb phrase
The cook was preparing our meal.

1. Participle in verb
   phrase
2. Participle as
   adjective
3. Participial phrase
   as adjective                                                                     0%                 0%               0%




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The cook preparing our meal is my aunt.

1. Participle in verb
   phrase
2. Participle as
   adjective
3. Participial phrase
   as adjective                                                                     0%                 0%               0%




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The screaming baby was hungry.

1. Participle in verb
   phrase
2. Participle as
   adjective
3. Participial phrase
   as adjective                                                                     0%                 0%               0%




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The baby screaming for his mother
needed comfort.
1. Participle in verb
   phrase
2. Participle as
   adjective
3. Participial phrase
   as adjective                                                                     0%                 0%               0%




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The baby was screaming for his mother.

1. Participle in verb
   phrase
2. Participle as
   adjective
3. Participial phrase
   as adjective                                                                     0%                 0%               0%




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The tormented cat hissed at the mean
boy.
1. Participle in verb
   phrase
2. Participle as
   adjective
3. Participial phrase
   as adjective                                                                     0%                 0%               0%




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The cat was tormented by the mean boy.

1. Participle in verb
   phrase
2. Participle as
   adjective
3. Participial phrase
   as adjective                                                                     0%                 0%               0%




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Tormented by the mean boy, the cat
hissed.
1. Participle in verb
   phrase
2. Participle as
   adjective
3. Participial phrase
   as adjective                                                                     0%                 0%               0%




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