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STPD6014 Kaedah Penyelidikan (Research Methodology) Tajuk: Peranan Penyelidik Topic: (The Role of the Graduate Student) by Prof. Dato’ Dr. Baharudin Bin Yatim B. Sc.(Hons.), Ph. D. (Kent) DSNS, DNS, JSM, KMN, PPT, PMC FIOP, FIFM, MInTeM, MISES The Graduate Program The graduate program in the faculty of science and technology (FST) are: • Masters by Research • Masters by Coursework and Research • Doctor of Philosophy by Research All programs involve research A student must be Mindful of factors contributing to success in research Aware of and practice the proper role of a graduate researcher Factors Contributing to the Success of Research Academic ability* Research competency Managerial skill Interpersonal skill Financial stability* Emotional Stability* Commitment to the program* Hard work* * Factors marked will not be discussed Research Competency This include (among others): Literature search and review Writing the research proposal Keeping of research records Writing progress reports Writing the thesis Writing papers for journals/conferences Theoretical competence Experimental competence The student has to develop these competencies mostly through own initiative Managerial Aspects of Graduate Studentship Pertaining to the regulations Registration, suspension and extension of study Payment of fees Minimum grade of B to proceed Conversion from masters to Ph.D. program Permission to write the thesis in English Notice of submission of thesis Defense of thesis Submission of bound thesis Managerial Aspects of Graduate Studentship Pertaining to procedures Submission of research proposal Presentation and defense of research proposal Procedure for working in the laboratory outside normal working hours Monthly progress reports Progress report for the semester Participation in Graduate Seminars Managerial Aspects of Graduate Studentship Pertaining to the research Planning the research Acquiring theoretical & experimental skills Executing the research plan Monitoring the research progress Keeping the research log book Submission of Progress reports Preparation of the thesis Care of the laboratory and equipment Interpersonal Aspects of Research A graduate student in carrying out his research will interact with: The supervisor or supervisory committee Graduate students in his group Graduate students in other groups in same program/school Groups in other schools/institutions Undergraduate students working under the same supervisor or group Technical support personnel Administrative support personnel The graduate student adept at interpersonal skills will find his path less bumpy The Student and the Supervisor Know who your supervisor or research committee members is/are Familiarize yourself with the work of your supervisor Ascertain with the supervisor how the routine meeting is to be carried out. The student is to see to its implementation Make notes of all meetings with the supervisor and give him a copy Keep your supervisor informed of progress and activities Submit report/manuscript to your supervisor on which you have put your best efforts – not rough outlines Allow your supervisor sufficient time to read your report or manuscript Ask your supervisor how he likes to see the manuscript for your thesis See your supervisor if you face any problems, don’t disappear and let him summon you The Student and the Group Each student in a research group may be working on a specific topic within a larger research program Each student has his own research plan which will inevitably affect the research plans of others in the group, e.g in the use of equipment The keyword is cooperation. If you cannot fit in the group consider transferring The students among themselves must set up a management team, appoint a coordinator, have regular meetings, etc. A well organized group can provide strong support to every member The Student and Technical Personnel The technical personnel assigned to a research group either on a full or part time basis is to assist the group, but not a slave to the group Instructions or requests for his services are to be given in a diplomatic manner It is suggested that requests be put down in writing Allow sufficient time for him to deliver any services Any complaints against a personnel must be made in a constructive way – the success of your research depends on his cooperation The Student and Administrative Personnel Administrative personnel either in FST or Graduate School administers Regulations and Procedures. To a limited extent they can also give counsel The student has to deal with the administrative personnel on matters of registration, semester report, notice of submission of thesis, request to write the thesis in English, notice of viva voce, the viva voce, final submission of thesis, notification of results, testimonials – all for the benefit of the student It is normal practice to be diplomatic in all exchanges PLAGIARISM TO PLAGIARIZE • TO STEAL AND PASS OFF (THE IDEAS OR WORDS OF ANOTHER) AS ONE’S OWN. • TO PRESENT AS NEW AND ORIGINAL AN IDEA OR PRODUCT DERIVED FROM AN EXISTING SOURCE. (WEBSTER’S COLLEGE DICTIONARY) • PLAGIARISM IS ILLEGAL (HARAM). The following guidelines on plagiarism were taken from Ronald B. Standler, 200. Plagiarism in Colleges in USA, http://www.rbs2.com/plag.htm When using another person's words, to avoid plagiarism one must always do both of the following: 1. Provide a citation in the text AND reference list or in a footnote, and 2. Either enclose their words inside quotation marks or put their words in a block of indented, single-spaced text. Paraphrasing without a citation is plagiarism Suppose one reads a book by Smith and encounters the short sentence: If the solution turns pink, it is worthless, and should be discarded. It is plagiarism to paraphrase this sentence as: When the liquid becomes light red, it is spoiled, and should be poured down the sink. The proper way to avoid such plagiarism is to cite the source in the text, or in a footnote, as in: Smith [citation/footnote number] has reported that when the liquid becomes light red, it is spoiled, and should be poured down the sink. No quotation marks are needed, because these are not Smith's exact words, but only a paraphrase. But a citation to Smith is still required. SOURCES OF PLAGIARISM A student 1. Copied paragraphs from various scholarly journals or books in the library, or 2. Removed an old term paper from the files in his fraternity and copied some, or all, of it. 3. Downloaded whole or part of report from the internet. REPORTED CASES OF PLAGIARISM IN USA quoted by Ronald. B. Standler Napolitano In January 1982, Gabrielle Napolitano, then in her senior year at Princeton University, plagiarized the majority of her 12- page term paper in a Spanish class from a book in the library. While she did cite the book in five footnotes, she did not include citations in the text for some paraphrased material and she did not include the indicia of quotations for "numerous" verbatim quotations. The professor was familiar with the book and immediately recognized the plagiarism. The Princeton University Committee on Discipline in February 1982 unanimously found Napolitano had plagiarized and recommended punishment of delaying her bachelor's degree for one year. Lamberis Anthony Lamberis, an attorney in Illinois, was enrolled in classes in an LL.M. program in Law at Northwestern University during 1970-71. In 1977, he submitted a thesis that was rejected as unsatisfactory. In 1978, he submitted a 93-page thesis, of which 47 pages were "substantially verbatim" from two sources that Lamberis did not cite. His professors detected the plagiarism in June 1979. Lamberis attempted to resign from the law school, but Northwestern University expelled him, then reported him to the Attorney Registration and Disciplinary Commission. The court held that Lamberis violated a provision in the Code of Professional Responsibility for attorneys. The court continued: The respondent violated this provision when he plagiarized the two sources. The essence of plagiarism is deceit. In this case, the deceit is aggravated by the level on which it occurred. Academic forums have a long and well-known tradition of evaluating each individual on his own performance. The respondent attempted to exploit this tradition to his own benefit; the purpose of his deceitful conduct was to obtain a valuable consideration, an advanced law degree, that would have undoubtedly improved his prospects for employment, reputation and advancement in the legal profession. Alsabti The license of a physician to practice medicine in Massachusetts was revoked, because – as a student in 1978, two years prior to earning his M.D. degree – he submitted four plagiarized articles for publication. The Board of Registration in Medicine found in 1988 that this plagiarism demonstrated a "lack of good moral character which is required to practice medicine." The Supreme Court of Massachusetts affirmed this revocation. Alsabti v. Board of Registration in Medicine, 536 N.E.2d 357 (Mass. 1989). Hand Michael Hand "earned" a Ph.D. in counseling psychology at New Mexico State University in 1982. In the Fall of 1987 an anonymous tipster sent to the University a copy two scholarly sources that Hand had plagiarized in his dissertation. In April 1988, the University rescinded the Ph.D. it had awarded to Hand. Hand v. Matchett, 957 F.2d 791 (10thCir. 1992). Summary TO AVOID PLAGIARISM: One should provide a citation for all substantial information that is taken from another source: •to give credit to the person who supplied the information or who first made the discovery, •to relieve the writer from the responsibility for the accuracy or truth of the information, •to lead the reader to a source of more detailed or complete information, or •to give the reader a sense of the historical evolution of ideas in the field. Closing Remarks The path of the research student is very challenging and full of portholes, but this is what makes it exciting A student intending to take this path will fare better if he is well prepared A large number of major contributions in the progress of science were the results of the work of graduate students The prospect of making meaningful contribution to human knowledge is the greatest incentive Have a nice trip!!
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