STPD6014 Kaedah Penyelidikan Research Methodology Tajuk Peranan Penyelidik Topic The Role of the Graduate Student by Prof Dato’ Dr Baharudin Bin by edk11657

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									     STPD6014 Kaedah Penyelidikan
         (Research Methodology)

Tajuk:      Peranan Penyelidik
Topic: (The Role of the Graduate Student)
                     by
 Prof. Dato’ Dr. Baharudin Bin Yatim
         B. Sc.(Hons.), Ph. D. (Kent)
      DSNS, DNS, JSM, KMN, PPT, PMC
        FIOP, FIFM, MInTeM, MISES
        The Graduate Program
The graduate program in the faculty of science and
  technology (FST) are:
• Masters by Research
• Masters by Coursework and Research
• Doctor of Philosophy by Research
All programs involve research
A student must be
   Mindful of factors contributing to success in
    research
   Aware of and practice the proper role of a graduate
    researcher
      Factors Contributing to the
         Success of Research
 Academic ability*
 Research competency
 Managerial skill
 Interpersonal skill
 Financial stability*
 Emotional Stability*
 Commitment to the program*
 Hard work*
* Factors marked will not be discussed
                 Research Competency
This include (among others):
   Literature search and review
   Writing the research proposal
   Keeping of research records
   Writing progress reports
   Writing the thesis
   Writing papers for journals/conferences
   Theoretical competence
   Experimental competence
The student has to develop these competencies
 mostly through own initiative
 Managerial Aspects of Graduate
          Studentship
 Pertaining to the regulations
      Registration, suspension and extension of study
      Payment of fees
      Minimum grade of B to proceed
      Conversion from masters to Ph.D. program
      Permission to write the thesis in English
      Notice of submission of thesis
      Defense of thesis
      Submission of bound thesis
Managerial Aspects of Graduate
         Studentship
Pertaining to procedures
   Submission of research proposal
   Presentation and defense of research proposal
   Procedure for working in the laboratory outside
    normal working hours
   Monthly progress reports
   Progress report for the semester
   Participation in Graduate Seminars
 Managerial Aspects of Graduate
          Studentship
Pertaining to the research
     Planning the research
     Acquiring theoretical & experimental skills
     Executing the research plan
     Monitoring the research progress
     Keeping the research log book
     Submission of Progress reports
     Preparation of the thesis
     Care of the laboratory and equipment
          Interpersonal Aspects of
                  Research
A graduate student in carrying out his research will
  interact with:
   The supervisor or supervisory committee
   Graduate students in his group
   Graduate students in other groups in same program/school
   Groups in other schools/institutions
   Undergraduate students working under the same supervisor or group
   Technical support personnel
   Administrative support personnel
The graduate student adept at interpersonal skills will
  find his path less bumpy
  The Student and the Supervisor
 Know who your supervisor or research committee members is/are
 Familiarize yourself with the work of your supervisor
 Ascertain with the supervisor how the routine meeting is to be carried
  out. The student is to see to its implementation
 Make notes of all meetings with the supervisor and give him a copy
 Keep your supervisor informed of progress and activities
 Submit report/manuscript to your supervisor on which you have put
  your best efforts – not rough outlines
 Allow your supervisor sufficient time to read your report or manuscript
 Ask your supervisor how he likes to see the manuscript for your thesis
 See your supervisor if you face any problems, don’t disappear and let
  him summon you
      The Student and the Group
 Each student in a research group may be working on a
  specific topic within a larger research program
 Each student has his own research plan which will
  inevitably affect the research plans of others in the group,
  e.g in the use of equipment
 The keyword is cooperation. If you cannot fit in the group
  consider transferring
 The students among themselves must set up a management
  team, appoint a coordinator, have regular meetings, etc.
 A well organized group can provide strong support to
  every member
      The Student and Technical
              Personnel
 The technical personnel assigned to a research group either
  on a full or part time basis is to assist the group, but not a
  slave to the group
 Instructions or requests for his services are to be given in a
  diplomatic manner
 It is suggested that requests be put down in writing
 Allow sufficient time for him to deliver any services
 Any complaints against a personnel must be made in a
  constructive way – the success of your research depends
  on his cooperation
 The Student and Administrative
           Personnel
 Administrative personnel either in FST or Graduate School
  administers Regulations and Procedures. To a limited
  extent they can also give counsel
 The student has to deal with the administrative personnel
  on matters of registration, semester report, notice of
  submission of thesis, request to write the thesis in English,
  notice of viva voce, the viva voce, final submission of
  thesis, notification of results, testimonials – all for the
  benefit of the student
 It is normal practice to be diplomatic in all exchanges
              PLAGIARISM

                TO PLAGIARIZE
• TO STEAL AND PASS OFF (THE IDEAS OR WORDS
  OF ANOTHER) AS ONE’S OWN.
• TO PRESENT AS NEW AND ORIGINAL AN IDEA OR
  PRODUCT DERIVED FROM AN EXISTING SOURCE.
         (WEBSTER’S COLLEGE DICTIONARY)


• PLAGIARISM IS ILLEGAL (HARAM).
The following guidelines on plagiarism were taken from Ronald B. Standler, 200.
Plagiarism in Colleges in USA, http://www.rbs2.com/plag.htm

When using another person's words, to avoid
plagiarism one must always do both of the following:

    1. Provide a citation in the text AND reference list or in a
    footnote, and

    2. Either enclose their words inside quotation marks or put
    their words in a block of indented, single-spaced text.
Paraphrasing without a citation is plagiarism

Suppose one reads a book by Smith and encounters the short
sentence:
   If the solution turns pink, it is worthless, and should be
   discarded.

It is plagiarism to paraphrase this sentence as:

   When the liquid becomes light red, it is spoiled, and should
   be poured down the sink.
The proper way to avoid such plagiarism is to cite the source
in the text, or in a footnote, as in:

   Smith [citation/footnote number] has reported that when
   the liquid becomes light red, it is spoiled, and should be
   poured down the sink.

No quotation marks are needed, because these are not Smith's
exact words, but only a paraphrase.

But a citation to Smith is still required.
      SOURCES OF PLAGIARISM

A student
1. Copied paragraphs from various scholarly
    journals or books in the library, or
2. Removed an old term paper from the files
    in his fraternity and copied some, or all, of
    it.
3. Downloaded whole or part of report from
    the internet.
        REPORTED
CASES OF PLAGIARISM IN USA

          quoted by

       Ronald. B. Standler
Napolitano
In January 1982, Gabrielle Napolitano, then in her senior year
at Princeton University, plagiarized the majority of her 12-
page term paper in a Spanish class from a book in the library.
While she did cite the book in five footnotes, she did not
include citations in the text for some paraphrased material and
she did not include the indicia of quotations for "numerous"
verbatim quotations.
The professor was familiar with the book and immediately
recognized the plagiarism.
The Princeton University Committee on Discipline in
February 1982 unanimously found Napolitano had plagiarized
and recommended punishment of delaying her bachelor's
degree for one year.
Lamberis
Anthony Lamberis, an attorney in Illinois, was enrolled in
classes in an LL.M. program in Law at Northwestern
University during 1970-71.
In 1977, he submitted a thesis that was rejected as
unsatisfactory.
In 1978, he submitted a 93-page thesis, of which 47 pages
were "substantially verbatim" from two sources that Lamberis
did not cite.
His professors detected the plagiarism in June 1979.

Lamberis attempted to resign from the law school, but
Northwestern University expelled him, then reported him to
the Attorney Registration and Disciplinary Commission.
The court held that Lamberis violated a provision in the Code
of Professional Responsibility for attorneys.
The court continued:
   The respondent violated this provision when he plagiarized
   the two sources. The essence of plagiarism is deceit. In this
   case, the deceit is aggravated by the level on which it
   occurred. Academic forums have a long and well-known
   tradition of evaluating each individual on his own
   performance. The respondent attempted to exploit this
   tradition to his own benefit; the purpose of his deceitful
   conduct was to obtain a valuable consideration, an
   advanced law degree, that would have undoubtedly
   improved his prospects for employment, reputation and
   advancement in the legal profession.
Alsabti
The license of a physician to practice medicine in
Massachusetts was revoked, because – as a student in 1978,
two years prior to earning his M.D. degree – he submitted four
plagiarized articles for publication. The Board of Registration
in Medicine found in 1988 that this plagiarism demonstrated a
"lack of good moral character which is required to practice
medicine." The Supreme Court of Massachusetts affirmed this
revocation.

Alsabti v. Board of Registration in Medicine, 536 N.E.2d 357
(Mass. 1989).
Hand
Michael Hand "earned" a Ph.D. in counseling psychology at
New Mexico State University in 1982.

In the Fall of 1987 an anonymous tipster sent to the University
a copy two scholarly sources that Hand had plagiarized in his
dissertation.

In April 1988, the University rescinded the Ph.D. it had
awarded to Hand. Hand v. Matchett, 957 F.2d 791 (10thCir.
1992).
                          Summary

                 TO AVOID PLAGIARISM:

One should provide a citation for all substantial information
that is taken from another source:
   •to give credit to the person who supplied the information
   or who first made the discovery,
   •to relieve the writer from the responsibility for the
   accuracy or truth of the information,
   •to lead the reader to a source of more detailed or complete
   information, or
   •to give the reader a sense of the historical evolution of
   ideas in the field.
                Closing Remarks
 The path of the research student is very challenging and
  full of portholes, but this is what makes it exciting
 A student intending to take this path will fare better if he is
  well prepared
 A large number of major contributions in the progress of
  science were the results of the work of graduate students
 The prospect of making meaningful contribution to human
  knowledge is the greatest incentive
                       Have a nice trip!!

								
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