Chapter 4 powerpoint - Routledge

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					Chapter 4, Expansion and Flowering

    History of the Community from about 700 to
Muslim lands about 800 CE
Muslim Lands in 1250 and 1500 CE
The Spread of Islam: main phases
1. First phase – to c. 660 (end of the first fitna)
Syria, Iraq, most of Iran, Egypt and N. Africa to Tripoli (see previous session)

2. Second phase – c. 660-c720
Rest of Iran, into Central Asia, Sind, rest of North Africa, Spain (see previous session)

3. Third phase – c 1000-1600
Anatolia/Balkans: 1071-1453 (Fall of Constantinople)
Central Asia: further north
India: 1030( Lahore; Delhi, 1209) – c 1500
Southeast Asia: c 1290 – c 1550
Sub-Sahara Africa: 11th century – 16th century and continuing (parts of E. Africa earlier)
 Intrusions and retreats
   Crusades: 1099-1291
     Relatively unimportant at the time, more important
      for “Franks”
   Mongols 1227-1260
     Massive disruption; Mongols eventually converted
      and Islamicized
   Spain 1085-1492
     “Reconquista”; very important for Spain; less so for
      most of the Islamic world
Main dynasties
Umayyads 660-750
Umayyads of Andalus 756-1031
Abbasids 750-1258
Fatimids 969-1171
Ghaznavids 961-1186
Mamlukes 1250-1517
Saljuks 1055-1258
Mongols 1258-1370
Sultanate of Delhi 1206 (or 1209)-1526
Ottomans 1281-1924
Safavids 1501-1738
Mughuls 1526-1857
Table of dynasties from 7th century AD (1st H) to
16th century AD (10th H)
Main Ethnic Groups (esp. in central Islamic lands)

“O people, we have created you from a male and a female
and made you nations and tribes, so that you may come to
  know each other.
Certainly the most noble of you in God‟s sight is the one who
  most fears Him. God is Wise and All-knowing.” (Qur‟an

“We have made it a recitation (Qur‟an) in Arabic so that you
  may understand.” (Qur‟an 43:3)
 Arab
   Original Muslims
   Dominant through Umayyad period
   Arabic continues the main language for ritual and scholarship.
 Persian
   Converted early
   Persian ideas about government and administration influential from
      later Umayyad period on
     Persian language and culture reasserts itself from 9th century on.
     Becomes the main language of culture in Persian and Indian areas.
     Important in Ottoman, Safavid and Moghal empires.
     Important language for Sufism.
 Turk
   Mamlukes in Abbasid empire from c 800.
   Turkish dynasties: Saljuks, Ottomans, Uzbeks and others
   Turkish becomes an administrative, literary and Sufi language
 Mongol
     Invaded Islamic lands. Converted to Islam
     Il-Khans ruled to 1370
     Continuing influence on government and culture
     “Turco-Mongol” dynasties (e.g. Mughals)
 Others include:
   Berber (N. Africa and Andalus)
   Kurd (e.g. Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi al-Takriti)
   Circassian (from the Caucasus, many were Manlukes, esp in Egypt and Syria
   Indian ethnic groups
   Malays
   African ethnic groups
Outline of political History (Mainly the Central Lands)

 Later Umayyads
      Administrative reforms.
      More forceful control of tribes.
      Independent scholars: of Qur‟an, ḥadīth, beginnings of Fiqh, Kalam
      Disaffection of mawālī and Arab tribes.

 Early Abbasids (750-945)
      Capital shifted to Baghdad
      Persian ways continue to be adopted
      Administration more complex – wazīr (vizier)
      Islamic high culture develops
      Sunni collections of ḥadīth and basic works of fiqh
      Miḥna: ‘ulamā’ authority strengthened
      Translations of Greek philosophical works
      Recruit Turkish Mamlukes (840-)
      Caliphs lose effective power in provinces by 935
Ribat, Sousse, Tunisia. Founded in 821. Ribats were forts and residences for warriors who
   both engaged on devotional practices and fought in jihad, defending the city (in this case
   from Christians on the other side of the Mediterranean) and propagating the faith within
   in the country.
 Independent realms (some nominally recognized the
 Abbasid caliph):
  Andalus (711-1492)
    Umayyads (756-1031)
  Egypt: Tulunids (868-905)
  Iran (from 821):
    Saffarids (873-900) and Samanids (900-99) stimulate
     Persian culture.
Inside the Mosque of Ahmad Ibn Tulun, Cairo, 9th century. Ibn Tulun, son of a
   Turkish slave, was governor of Egypt who and made himself effectively
   independent of the „Abbasids. Their continuing influence at another level is
   suggested by the minaret, which resembles and is said to have been consciously
   pattern on that of the Great Mosque of Samarra.
 Shi‘i political movements
   Hamdanids (905-1003)
   Buyids in Baghdad (945-1055)
   Qarmatis (900-1077)
   Fatimids (909 in Tunis / 969-1171 in Egypt)
   Nizaris, “Assassins” (1094-1256, and after in different
   Shi„i scholarship begins to flourish (10th century)
 Later Abbasid period (1055-1258)
   Saljuk Turks effective rulers (sulṭāns) in Baghdad
     Defeat Byzantines at Manzikert (1071)
   Ghaznavids (961-1186) Afghanistan and Iran
   Crusades (1099-1291)
   Salah al-Din and Ayyubids (1171-1250) in Egypt and
   Mamluks (1250-1517) in Egypt and Syria
   Building of madrasas
 Mongols and after
  Chinggis Khan (d 1227) unified Mongols
  Baghad taken 1258; defeated at „Ayn Jalut 1260.
  Il-Khanids to 1336; lands then divided
  Timur: conquests 1379-1402
  Timurids (c1402 - c 1508)
 Later Empires:
   Ottoman 1281-
     Take Constantinople 1453
     Take Syria and Egypt 1516- 7
     Beseiged Vienna 1529, 1683
   Safavid (1501-1736) in Iran, Shi„i
   Sultanate of Delhi 1206-1526
   Mughals (1526-1858)
     Akbar (r. 1556-1605) (cf. Elizabeth I of England,1558-1603)
     Aurangzeb (r. 1658-1707)
God’s promise to the umma.

 Power and glory belongs to God, and to His Messenger, and
  to the believers. (Qur‟an 63:8)

 You are the best nation (umma ) ever brought forth to
  humankind, commanding right conduct, forbidding
  indecency, and having faith in God. (3:110)

 This promise appeared largely to have been fulfilled as of c
  1000 Hijri (1592 CE)
Allegorical representation of Mughal Emperor Jahangir and the Safavid Shah „Abbas of Persia, Mughal,
    ca. 1618. Courtesy of Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: Purchase,
Reflections on the Mughal image:

 Sense of confidence, stability and dominance
 Mughal Emperor‟s dominance over Safavid: relative size,
  position of lion and lamb
 Western influence (?): cherubs, lion and lamb.

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