Clauses Clauses A clause is a group of words that has a subject (noun) and a predicate (verb). A Main Clause has a subject and a predicate and expresses a complete thought. This is the only kind of clause that can stand on its own. Also known as an Independent Clause. The student burped. The student burped and his mother frowned. Subordinate Clauses Subordinate Clauses (AKA Dependent Clauses) has a subject and a verb but does not express a complete thought, so it cannot stand alone as a sentence. The little girl cried when her brother said she was ugly. Practice: Subordinate Clauses, pg 166. 2. Maggie read the book while Seth looked for more information on the Internet. 8. If you aren’t too busy, we can fix your bike tire now. 10. Dr. Garcia, who has an office on the next street, lives not far from us. Practice: Subordinate Clauses, pg 166 - 167. 2. Whenever it snows, Alfonso and Max head for the slopes. 4. The band, which comes from England, will play at a local club Friday night. Adjective Clauses An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun. May begin with a relative pronoun: who, whom, whose, that, or which, or the word where or when. An adj clause usually comes after the noun it modifies. Movies that have both violence and comedy are my favorite. Several bands who I listen to will be playing at the festival. Adverb Clauses An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. It tells when, where, how, why, to what extent, or under what circumstances. An adverb clause comes before or after the main clause. Before he played in the baseball game, Roger Clemens took some human growth hormone. He threw the ball faster than he ever threw it before. Noun Clauses A noun clause is a subordinate clause that is used as a noun within the main clause of a sentence. A noun clause can be: a subject, a direct object, an indirect object, an object of a preposition or a predicate nominative. Noun Clauses: Examples Whoever wins the election will do the chicken dance. Subject The student will do whatever is required to pass. Direct Object I will be satisfied with whatever team wins the Super Bowl. Object of the Preposition Practice: Kinds of Subordinate Clauses, pg 170. 2. This week’s Newsweek magazine, which should arrive today, might be a good source of information. 4. Heather can take the test when she is ready. 6. Joanne will show you the watch that she wants for her birthday. 8. Whenever Luis prepares dinner, I get home on time. The 4 Kinds of Sentences A declarative sentence makes a statement. An imperative sentence gives a command or request. An interrogative sentence asks a question. An exclamatory sentence expresses a strong emotion. Homer: Aw, twenty dollars! I wanted a peanut! Homer's Brain: Twenty dollars can buy many peanuts! Homer: Explain how! Homer's Brain: Money can be exchanged for goods and services! Homer: Woo-hoo! The 4 Kinds of Sentences Homer: Marge? Since I'm not talking to Lisa, would you please ask her to pass me the syrup? Marge: Dear, please pass your father the syrup, Lisa. Lisa: Bart, tell Dad I will only pass the syrup if it won't be used on any meat product. Bart: You dunkin' your sausages in that syrup homeboy? Homer: Marge, tell Bart I just want to drink a nice glass of syrup like I do every morning. Marge: Tell him yourself, you're ignoring Lisa, not Bart. Homer: Bart, thank your mother for pointing that out. Marge: Homer, you're not not-talking to me and secondly I heard what you said. Homer: Lisa, tell your mother to get off my case. Bart: Uhhh, dad, Lisa's the one you're not talking to. Homer: Bart, go to your room. Practice: Kinds of Sentences, pg 172 2. Randy will go on vacation with his parents. 4. That was the best movie I’ve seen in a long time! 10. Don’t forget to bring your literature books tomorrow. Simple Sentences A simple sentence contains only one main clause and no subordinate clauses. Ralph: [whispering] Lisa, what's the answer to number seven? Lisa: [whispering] Sorry, Ralph. That would defeat the purpose of testing as a means of student evaluation. Ralph: [pauses] My cat's name is Mittens. Compound Sentences A compound sentence contains two or more main clauses. Ralph: That's my swing set, and that's my sandbox. I'm not allowed to go in the deep end. And this is where I met the leprechaun. Bart: Right, the leprechaun. Ralph: He told me to burn things. Practice: Simple and Compound Sentences, pg 174. 2. Sara worked last summer and saved enough money for a computer. 4. The delivery person arrived late, but the pizza was still warm. 8. Jose is on the yearbook staff this year; he won’t be writing for the newspaper. Sentence Fragments A sentence fragment is an error that occurs when an incomplete sentence is punctuated as though it were complete. Examples of Fragments Made pancakes with a cute girl. Sale was mad-good. Will play the Ottawa Senators. From Fragments to Sentences During church Reuben made pancakes with a cute girl. I bought tons of new clothes because that sale was mad-good. In the second round of the playoffs, the New Jersey Devils will play the Ottawa Senators. When Fixing fragments… Make sure you have a subject and a verb. Make sure it is a complete idea. Sometimes to correct a fragment, place it at the beginning, middle or end of an existing sentence. Fix these Fragments Walking on her hands. Off the hook. We watched Eli throw a touchdown pass. Which made us want to become professional quarterbacks. Run-on Sentences A run-on sentence is two or more complete sentences written as though they were one sentence. A fused sentence: when two or more sentences run together without any punctuation between them. ~ OR ~ A comma splice: when two or more sentences are separated only by a comma, instead of a comma and a conjunction (a connecting word) or a semicolon. Run-ons: the basic idea For the most part, run on sentences just plain sound strange and they just seem to keep going and going and going, there never seems to be an end to them and a lot of times, people will use the word “and” over and over and over again to the point where you, as the reader, are like, “This is nuts! When is this sentence going to end? It doesn’t even make sense,” but it doesn’t end, it just keeps going and going, and so basically Run-ons are a sign of something that is poorly written. You better Recognize those run-ons: Which is the fused sentence? Which is the comma splice? When A-Rod is playing well, Yankee fans love him, when he’s not playing well, they hate him. I have never been to Yankee Stadium I hope to watch a game there before they tear it down. Fixing Run-ons: Add some End Marks End Marks: periods, questions marks, and exclamatory marks. Early in the playoff series against the Tampa Bay Lightning, NJ Devils’ goalie Marty Brodeur did not play at his best he played better in the last three games. Early in the playoff series against the Tampa Bay Lightning, NJ Devils’ goalie Marty Brodeur did not play at his best. He played better last three games. Fixing Run-ons: Use a comma and a coordinating conjunction (aka a connecting word). Common coordinating conjunctions: and, but, or, for and nor. To fix this kind of run-on properly, use both a comma and a coordinating conjunction. Brodeur travels a lot to play hockey his kids don’t usually come with him. Brodeur travels a lot to play hockey, but his kids don’t usually come with him. Fixing Run-ons: Use a semicolon Warning: Semicolons should only be used when the ideas in both parts of the sentence are closely related. The first game in the series is on Tuesday, the second game is on Thursday. The first game in the series is on Tuesday; the second game is on Thursday.