Causes for European expansion by gjjur4356


• A set of culturally specific processes that
  members of a society use to provide
  themselves with material resources.
Production, Distribution and
         Mode of Production
• A specific, historically occurring set of
  social relations though which labour is
  deployed to wrest energy from nature by
  means of tools, skills, organization and
       Means of Production
• The tools, skills, organization, and
  knowledge used to extract energy from
      Relations of Production
• The social relations determining people’s
  access to the given means of production.
                Eric Wolf
• 1) Kin-Ordered Mode of Production

• 2) Tributary Mode of Production

• 3) Capitalist Mode of Production
Kin-ordered mode of production
• In a kin-ordered mode of production,
  labour and resources are acquired
  primarily on the basis of reciprocity
  between people who are related by
  descent and marriage.
• Reciprocity is the exchange of goods and
  services of equal value, involving an
  obligation both to give and to receive.
Direct link between a society’s
 subsistence strategy and its
social and political organization
• For example, in societies ordered by a kin
  mode of production, social stratification is
  egalitarian, with no social classes or major
  economic differences between the
  different groups.
  Tributary Mode of Production
• A mode of production occurring in
  societies with some degree of social
  stratification, where resources and labour
  are extracted from many producers by
  political domination.
• Chiefs of leading villages who held
  hereditary patrimonial rights to receive
  tribute form certain areas.
  English East India Company
• Chartered by the government to pursue
  economic conquest in distant seas.
Battle of Plassey = 1757
Immediate consequences of British
• Ousted local governor
• Stole 5 million pounds sterling from the state treasure of
• Took over the rights of local merchant class
• Set up a monopoly over export and import trade
• Gained direct control over 10,000 weavers who were
  forced to deal exclusively with the East India Company
• The East India Company became the official civil
  administration of Bengal
• Introduction of two forms of property: landlordism and
  individual peasant proprietorship
  Under new forms of property:
• Land became the property of registered
  tribute payers, who had to pay the taxes
  stipulated in return for private rights of
  ownership and inheritance.
• Fixed permanently, not affected by
  changes in price of produce or value of
  crops grown.

• Payment had to be made to government
  whether or not crop was successful.
• Instead of having rights over people’s labour:
  transformed into property owners.
• Required to turn over to the British
  administration nine-tenths of the tribute received
  from their peasants, retaining one-tenth for
• New class of 3,000 landlords with right to sell,
  mortgage, and inherit land.
• Could raise rent at leisure, and evict tenants.
Right to exact tribute = converted
  into rights to private property
• Increased tax burden ruined thousands of
  Bengali cultivators and artisans.

• Reduction in agricultural incomes by 50%,
  undermining the agrarian economy and
  the self-governing village structure.

• Covered cost of warfare and continuous
  British occupation.
        Land and tax reform

• Used to reorient Indian agriculture toward
  the production of profitable commodities,
  e.g. raw cotton and opium.
• Until end of 18th century, Indian textiles
  were a very important export product.

• England began the process of
  industrialization, manufacturing textiles in
  large scale = Need to place commodities
  in international market.
• Indian textiles were banned from British
  markets, at the same time that India was
  required to admit entry of English
  manufactures duty free.

• Consequence = destruction of specialized
  Indian textile production, contributing to
  the de-industrialization of India.
 Capitalist mode-of-production
• A) The means of production are property
  privately owned by the capitalist class;
•   B) Labourers do not own means of
C) Production is intended to produce profit.
D) Extensive division of labour.
E) All factors of production and products are
      Exercise for party of 5:
• Read section called “Institutionalized
  Sharing” in your textbook (pages 246-7)
  and compare and contrast Cree and
  capitalist attitudes toward sharing and
  individual accumulation.

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