Causes for European expansion by gjjur4356

VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 29

									                Economy
• A set of culturally specific processes that
  members of a society use to provide
  themselves with material resources.
Production, Distribution and
      Consumption
         Mode of Production
• A specific, historically occurring set of
  social relations though which labour is
  deployed to wrest energy from nature by
  means of tools, skills, organization and
  knowledge.
       Means of Production
• The tools, skills, organization, and
  knowledge used to extract energy from
  nature.
      Relations of Production
• The social relations determining people’s
  access to the given means of production.
                Eric Wolf
• 1) Kin-Ordered Mode of Production

• 2) Tributary Mode of Production

• 3) Capitalist Mode of Production
Kin-ordered mode of production
• In a kin-ordered mode of production,
  labour and resources are acquired
  primarily on the basis of reciprocity
  between people who are related by
  descent and marriage.
              Reciprocity
• Reciprocity is the exchange of goods and
  services of equal value, involving an
  obligation both to give and to receive.
Direct link between a society’s
 subsistence strategy and its
social and political organization
• For example, in societies ordered by a kin
  mode of production, social stratification is
  egalitarian, with no social classes or major
  economic differences between the
  different groups.
  Tributary Mode of Production
• A mode of production occurring in
  societies with some degree of social
  stratification, where resources and labour
  are extracted from many producers by
  political domination.
               Zemindars
• Chiefs of leading villages who held
  hereditary patrimonial rights to receive
  tribute form certain areas.
  English East India Company
• Chartered by the government to pursue
  economic conquest in distant seas.
Battle of Plassey = 1757
Immediate consequences of British
           occupation:
• Ousted local governor
• Stole 5 million pounds sterling from the state treasure of
  Bengal
• Took over the rights of local merchant class
• Set up a monopoly over export and import trade
• Gained direct control over 10,000 weavers who were
  forced to deal exclusively with the East India Company
• The East India Company became the official civil
  administration of Bengal
• Introduction of two forms of property: landlordism and
  individual peasant proprietorship
  Under new forms of property:
• Land became the property of registered
  tribute payers, who had to pay the taxes
  stipulated in return for private rights of
  ownership and inheritance.
                 Taxes:
• Fixed permanently, not affected by
  changes in price of produce or value of
  crops grown.

• Payment had to be made to government
  whether or not crop was successful.
                 Zemindars
• Instead of having rights over people’s labour:
  transformed into property owners.
• Required to turn over to the British
  administration nine-tenths of the tribute received
  from their peasants, retaining one-tenth for
  themselves.
• New class of 3,000 landlords with right to sell,
  mortgage, and inherit land.
• Could raise rent at leisure, and evict tenants.
Right to exact tribute = converted
  into rights to private property
• Increased tax burden ruined thousands of
  Bengali cultivators and artisans.

• Reduction in agricultural incomes by 50%,
  undermining the agrarian economy and
  the self-governing village structure.
                Tribute

• Covered cost of warfare and continuous
  British occupation.
        Land and tax reform

• Used to reorient Indian agriculture toward
  the production of profitable commodities,
  e.g. raw cotton and opium.
• Until end of 18th century, Indian textiles
  were a very important export product.

• England began the process of
  industrialization, manufacturing textiles in
  large scale = Need to place commodities
  in international market.
• Indian textiles were banned from British
  markets, at the same time that India was
  required to admit entry of English
  manufactures duty free.

• Consequence = destruction of specialized
  Indian textile production, contributing to
  the de-industrialization of India.
 Capitalist mode-of-production
• A) The means of production are property
  privately owned by the capitalist class;
•   B) Labourers do not own means of
    production.
C) Production is intended to produce profit.
D) Extensive division of labour.
E) All factors of production and products are
  commodities.
      Exercise for party of 5:
• Read section called “Institutionalized
  Sharing” in your textbook (pages 246-7)
  and compare and contrast Cree and
  capitalist attitudes toward sharing and
  individual accumulation.

								
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