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									                                                  Project Report
                                                     Version 1.0




                                                         By

                                                  Darshan Chipade
                                                  Mohammed Gooni
                                                     Syed Zaidi
                                                  Yogesh Banchhod




Instructor                                                         Mentors

Dr. Kwok Bun Yue                                                   Dr. Michel Izygon
                                                                   Peter Armstrong
                                                                   Insia Iftiqhar
                                                                   Claus Nilsson

                                                 November 28, 2009
                                            Capstone Project – CSCI 6838
                                                       Team# 5
                                                       Fall 2009
                                           University of Houston Clear-Lake
                                                  Houston TX, U.S.


University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                               i
Solar Power Plant iPhone Visualization


Abstract

Solar thermal power plant generates electricity from energy of the sun. The heat is generated

using sun tracking mirrors called heliostats. The heliostats reflect the sunrays onto a receiver

located at the top of a tower. The receiver consists of a fluid heated by the reflected sunrays from

the heliostat. This heat creates water vapor further sent to turbines to generate electricity.


The purpose of the project is to focus on the development of an iPhone/iPod Touch program

tovisualize a central heliostat along with eight eight heliostats at a user-specified location, time

and date. The user also provides information related to tower and heliostats. The application

renders the heliostat field and models the light emitted by the sun. The heliostats reflect the lights

onto the receiver. The interaction of heliostats with one another is modeled to the extent that they

can cast shadows and block the view of the receiver. The development platform is Xcode and

Unity 3D game engine. A Unity 3D game engine is used for rendering the graphics of shading

and blocking. The Unity game engine can improve 3D imagination of designers and serve as a

convenient and very intuitive tool for an interpretation of measurements and experiments on

solar concentrators. The heliostats can be visualized from sun and tower positions. This

application will be used for marketing the solar power plant.


            Explain the purpose of your program. How will it be used? This is
        important to provide an overview of your project.

            What are the main features of your GUI? Are there options of camera
        views?

               Pay attention to grammar.

            The technical paper is too long. Read the guidelines in the course
        website for technical report.


University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                            ii
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            There is too much detail, especially in section 4. You will need to cut
        them short by summarizing some and moving other into appendices.

               Overall, the technical report is better than the average.
       For examples of good technical report, see:

            o http://dcm.uhcl.edu/caps7g1/doc/final_report.doc

            o http://dcm.uhcl.edu/caps09g5/pages/Final_Report_2_version_2.pdf


    




Acknowledgement


With affection and deep appreciation, we acknowledge our indebtedness to our professor Dr.

Kwok Bun Yue, Chair, Division of Computing and Mathematics, for giving us an opportunity to

explore our skills and innovations beyond the prescribed syllabi of our coursework by granting

us the permission to work at Tietronix Inc. We further extend our gratitude to our mentor Dr.

Michel Izygon, CEO, Tietronix Inc., for providing us with an opportunity to work on the latest

iPhone technologies and all the required software and hardware. We are also thankful to the team

of mentors from, Tietronix Inc., including Peter Armstrong, Insia Iftiqhar, and Claus Nilsson

for the guidance throughout the course of our project and providing us with the required

information and details which helped us in resolving the critical issues.




University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                      iii
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                                                                  Table of Contents


The table of contents does not seem to be correct. For example, Section 5 is
missing. The page numbers seem to be off.


Contents
  Executive Summary .................................................................................................................................... ii
  Acknowledgement ..................................................................................................................................... iii
  Table of Contents ....................................................................................................................................... iv
  List of Tables .............................................................................................................................................. v
  1.    Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 1
  2.    Project Requirements ........................................................................................................................... 3
  3.    Development and Work Environment ................................................................................................. 4
  3.1          Assumption and Dependencies ..................................................................................................... 5
  4.    Project Methodologies ......................................................................................................................... 5
  4.1. Phase 1: Analyze .................................................................................................................................. 5
  4.2. Phase 2: Design .................................................................................................................................... 7
  4.3. Phase 3: Development / Implementation ............................................................................................. 8
  4.4. Phase 4: Deployment ........................................................................................................................... 8

University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                                                                                            iv
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  4.5. Phase5: Testing Validatin and Verification ......................................................................................... 8
  Appendix A: Team Information ................................................................................................................... i
  Appendix B: Project Management .............................................................................................................. ii
  Appendix C: Major Task and Contributions .............................................................................................. iii
  Appendix D: Screen Shots .......................................................................................................................... v
  Appendix E: Acronyms and Abbreviations ............................................................................................. viii




                                                                  List of Tables


Table 1: Game Engines Comparison                                                                                                                          5

Table 2: Team Contributions                                                                                                                               iii




                                                                 List of Figures
Figure 1: Solar Power Plant                                                                                                                               1

Figure 2: Heliostat View                                                                                                                                  1

Figure 3: Sun, Tower and Heliostats Position                                                                                                              1

Figure 4: Unity 3D Game Engine                                                                                                                            4

University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                                                                                   v
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Figure 5: MAC OS                            4

Figure 6: iPhone/iPOD Device                4

Figure 7: Sun Vector Geometry               9

Figure 8: Sun Azimuth and Elevation        10




University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09   vi
1. Introduction

Solar Thermal power plants generate (grammar) electricity from the energy of the sun. They

use a field of a few thousand mirrors to reflect the sun rays onto a receiver located at the top

of a tower. In the receiver a fluid is being heated by the concentrated sunlight and then water

vapor is generated and sent into a regular turbine. These power plants were studied

extensively in the 70‟s and 80‟s. There is a strong renewed interest in the technology, and for

the past few years a number of new projects were

started that need updated software tools for their

design and operation.

The Solar Power Plants based on solar thermal

energy in the Mojave Desert, USA and Spain
                                                        Figure 1: Solar Power Plant
Field view is as shown in Figure 1.



                                           Figure 2.shows the heliostat view of the Solar Power

                                           Plant project.



Figure 2: Heliostat View




Figure 3.shows the relation between sun, Tower,

and     Heliostat position
                                                        Figure 3: Sun, Tower and Heliostats Position




University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                               1
Solar Power Plant iPhone Visualization

The purpose of the project was the development of a suite of software (that is not your

purpose. That is the goal of Tietronix.) that can support the solar plant designers as well as

the plant operators. This project focused on the development of an iPhone (and/or iPod

Touch) computer software program which visualizes the heliostats and central tower of a

simplified solar power plant at a user-specified location, time and date. (How will it be used?)


The scope of the project was to visualize a cell consisting of a central heliostat and eight

neighboring heliostat at a time. Why is this important? The part of the project was to the

position the sun and heliostat as per the calculation given in paper [1] using user input. Also,

display (grammar!) the shadowing and blocking among the heliostats.


This project is beneficial from marketing point of view, to demonstrate the working of the

Solar Power Plant at a user-specified location, time and date.


The subsequent sections discuss about the project requirement, research work, unity (??)

iPhone details, project methodology, details related to implementation of sun, tower,

heliostats and blocking/shading.




University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                           2
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2. Project Requirements
    Major project requirements are as follows:

    The readers may not need to know all these details. On the other hand, you will need to

    describe the major requirements, such as the ability to display the grid of nine heliostats in

    3-D format, the ability of real-time movement of the camera, the ability to alter the

    location of sun and date and time, etc.

     User Input screen

        User should able to enter the inputs such as date, time, heliostat measurement, tower

        measurement, field layout, tower placement.

     Grid Layout screen

        In grid field layout, the user interface shall display a simple 2D grid of the given

        dimensions. The user shall be able to touch a cell in the grid to indicate which cell is

        to be graphically displayed in 3D. When the user has selected the desired cell to be

        rendered, the user shall touch a button to indicate that the application will begin the

        rendering process.

        The orientation of each heliostat shall be computed based upon the relative position of

        the sun and tower and the heliostat‟s location in the field.

     Computation of Sun position, Heliostat position and blocking/shading.

     Cell View screen

        Graphically render the field in 3D on the iPhone (and/or iPod Touch)

        Graphically render the reflections (shiny texture) on the mirrored surface of

        neighboring heliostats.

        The user shall be able to navigate through cells using navigation arrows.

        The application shall display the Sun position information on the screen.

University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                             3
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     Different Views

         User should able to view cell view in different cameras such as Sun view, Tower view

         and Heliostat view.



3. Development and Work Environment
Unity iPhone 3D Game Engine:

                                  Unity is an integrated authoring tool for creating 3D video

                                  games or other interactive content such as architectural

                                  visualizations or real-time 3D animations.


Figure 4: Unity 3D Game Engine
                                  The editor runs on Windows and Mac OS X and can produce

                                  games for Windows, Mac, or iPhone platforms.


                                  Figure 4 serves no purpose. Instead, discuss why it is necessary

                                  to use a game engine, what main features Unity provide that are

                                  crucial, What may happen if a game engine is not used, etc.


MAC OS

MAC OS is required for the iPhone development purpose.

It support the unity iPhone software application, which is useful

to develop the unity iPhone application.


                                                                           Figure 5: MAC OS



                                  iPhone/ iPOD Device

                                  The unity iPhone application is need to deploy on the iPhone /

                                  iPOD device is the major requirement of the project,


University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                             4
    Figure 6: iPhone/iPOD
    Device
Solar Power Plant iPhone Visualization




Mac OS and iPhone are so popular that no detailed elaboration is needed. Instead, you may
focus on the challenges provided by these platforms on the design of GUI and the integration
with program logic and game engine.



        3.1 Assumption and Dependencies


      Date Time not considering the weather condition on that time. ??? There must
be many other assumptions and simplifications. Why do you single this one out?




4. Project Methodologies
    4.1. Phase 1: Analyze

     Research Work
      Our team perform the research on different game engines such as SIO2, Unity iPhone,

        OOLONG and Torque. The research is mainly focus on the cost of the software and

        development time. You will need to establish first why a game engine is needed and

        what metrics are used to select them first. Why did you select Unity eventually? What

        versions of Unity are there and which one did you pick? Why?

                                  Table 1: Game Engines Comparison

        Properties             SIO2               Unity iPhone       OOLONG        Torque

        Cost                   Free               iPhone             Free          $150
                                                  publication cost

        User Friendly          No                 Yes                No            No

        Other Tools            Blender required   No                 No            No

        Compatibility          Win/MAC            Win/MAC            Win/Mac       Win/Mac

        Shadowing              Yes                Yes                Yes           No



University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                        5
Solar Power Plant iPhone Visualization


        iPhone simulator       Yes             No                  No              Yes

        Documentation          Limited         Good                Limited         Limited



     Approaches/ Proposed Solution


         Complete Unity project (selected approach)

        In this approach, GUI is created using unity iPhone API. It allows using the external

        API‟s. This is the good approach as it allows navigating through GUI and rendering

        modules. No Work around is required for the same. This approach does not allow

        using some of the XCode related features. Only Unity application needs to run which

        eventually results in better performance. (I am not sure whether the readers

        understand what XCode is at this point. What are the challenges of using XCode in

        Mac/iPhone development?)

                XCode – Unity Combination

        In this approach, GUI is created using XCode and rendering is using Unity iPhone.

        This approach was very complicated; it required work around using flag to navigate

        through GUI and rendering modules. This approach allows using all the XCode

        features. However, XCode and Unity both application need to run all the time. XCode

        and Unity does not work vice-versa. (meaning?)




University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                        6
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    4.2. Phase 2: Design

        4.2.1. GUI framework

        This is one of the critical tasks in iPhone application. iPhone devices are small in size

        which makes it very tedious to design the GUI design suitable to touch panel. In this

        application, there are many user input required. So to make user friendly GUI design,

        separate GUI form created for different types of input such as Date and Time input,

        Heliostat input, Tower input, Field layout input and Summary. The main windows

        combine all the user input windows. Summary form displays all user inputs and also

        allow user to modify the given input.



        4.2.2. Store/Retrieve information framework

University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                            7
Solar Power Plant iPhone Visualization

        User preference setting stored in players setting in the file. „StoreData‟ class is

        created to handle the Store/Retrieve user settings. Only one instance of „Store Data‟

        object created throughout the application using Singleton design pattern. When user

        submit the information, all the user input related information get stored in the file.

        „Load Button‟ provided to the user in order to load the previously used input.



        4.2.3. Current Date and Time population

        Current Date and Time is automatically populated into the date and time field

        respectively.




        4.2.4. Validation framework:

        Each user input is validating as per the requirement. Once user submits the form,

        validation process executes and it will pop the error message window which will

        eventually display all the error messages in the particular form.



    4.3. Phase 3: Development / Implementation


        The development of the Phase 3 began with the calculation of sun, heliostat. In this

        phase we calculated the shading and blocking of the heliostat as well. Our aim was to

        verify the sample values provided in paper [1] with the calculation part completed by

        our team in this phase. Section 4.3.1, 4.3.2 and 4.3.3 gives the brief overview of the

        sun, heliostat, shading and blocking respectively. Section 4.3.4 and 4.3.5 gives the


University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                         8
Solar Power Plant iPhone Visualization

        detailed description about the implementation of Solar thermal power plant using the

        Unity game engine.


        I don‟t think the readers need to know so much detail below. You may put some in the

        appendix.



        4.3.1. Sun Calculation
        According to [1], the implementation of sun calculation finds the position of the sun

        in the true equator and equinox of date frame of reference. The position is found to

        within an accuracy of 0.01 degrees (36 arc seconds) in celestial longitude. Since the

        sun‟s minimum angular size is about 0.525 degrees, this method is accurate to within

        1.9% of the mean solar diameter. It is not clear whether you used this method.




                                           Figure 7: Sun Vector Geometry




University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                        9
Solar Power Plant iPhone Visualization

        The above diagram is the geometry included to calculate the sun vector at a particular

        date and time. Using date, time, north latitude, east longitude and elevation we

        calculated the following vectors

             
             S           =        Geocentric Sun Position Vector

             
             R           =        Station Position Vector

             
                        =        Sun‟s slant range vector

             
             S           =        Topodetic Sun position vector


            E            =        Sun‟s Elevation


            Az           =        Sun‟s Azimuth




                                     Figure 8: Sun Azimuth and Elevation

         Figure 8.shows the Sun azimuth and elevation in the topodetic east-north-up field

                                               coordinate

University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                         10
Solar Power Plant iPhone Visualization


        4.3.2. Heliostats This is to compute the relative location of the heliostats and

              should be covered in summary earlier to provide rationale on why nine

              heliostats are displayed.

        According to [1] a method for systematically determining how heliostats interact with

        and affect the performance of a physically adjacent neighbor in the simple case of a

        grid layout with a cylindrical receiver. A field of heliostats is approximated by a grid

        of n rows and m columns. The grid is said to be composed of cells. Each cell is

        square, with its length provided by the user. One of the cells contains a tower. The

        tower‟s location is specified by its row and column numbers respectively, and the

        center of that cell forms the origin of the field (Figure 8). The center heliostat is called

        the representative heliostat. The field coordinates of the representative heliostat in

        each cell are derived from the cell size and location in the grid. The coordinates of the

        vertices of the heliostat is to represent the shape of the reflective surface to an

        adequate fidelity. In the case of a rectangular heliostat, four vertices are sufficient.




University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                               11
Solar Power Plant iPhone Visualization


                                     Figure 9. Cell Representation


        Figure 9.shows the cell representation of heliostats. The red node represents the center

        heliostat and neighboring heliostats are represented by blue nodes. This cell happens

        to be directly to north of the tower.


        4.3.3. Shading and Blocking

        Shading

        Shading is the degree to which neighbors cast

        their    shadows      onto     the   representative

        heliostat. Shading will be viewable from the

        sun view. Figure shows two heliostats,

        neighboring      heliostat     and   representative

        heliostat. When sun rays are passed on the neighbor heliostat it creates shading on the

        representative heliostat which is visible in the figure. The projection of the

        neighboring heliostat onto plane of representative heliostat shows the intersection

        where shading is taking place.



        Blocking

                                                         Blocking is the degree to which light is

                                                         being reflected from each representative

                                                         heliostat and is intercepted, or blocked,

                                                         by its neighbors. Blocking will be

                                                         viewable from the tower view. In the

                                                         figure there are two heliostats shown,


University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                             12
Solar Power Plant iPhone Visualization

        neighboring heliostat and the representative heliostat. The neighboring heliostat

        intersect some part of the representative heliostat which is shown as a projection onto

        plane of representative heliostat, so when the sunlight is passed on the representative

        heliostat it will not be reflected completely to the tower.

        Unity-PRO version has a built in functionality for blocking and shading, but, Unity-

        iPhone does not support blocking and shading. Following technique is used to show

        blocking and shading:



        ???




        4.3.4. Implementation

        4.3.5. Again, too much detail.

        Visualization Screen

        Visualization screen renders the Solar Thermal power plant on the iPhone/iPod touch.

        The development platform is Unity 3D game engine which renders the graphics for

        Solar Thermal Power plant. The Unity game engine enhances 3D imagination of the

        designers. Unity is a multiplatform 3D game engine targeted largely for indie

        developers and casual games, although the scope appears to be expanding. Platforms

        include Mac (widget, browser and standalone), Windows (browser and standalone),

        iPhone and Wii. The initial development phase began with the implementation of the

        sample 3D models like cube, sphere and cone etc. Unity game engine comes with a

        built in function to create these 3D models. The screen basically in our project

        visualizes the plane, heliostat, sun, tower, buttons and compass etc. The detailed

University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                          13
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        description including implementation, positioning, and textures of the 3D models

        rendered in our project is mentioned below.


        Assumption


        The entire development was done the Unity game engine. Unity game engine comes

        with certain inbuilt features. Whenever a new project is built in Unity the following

        assumptions are made


             i. A scene view is created which portray the vision in three dimensions.


            ii. A Project view is created with the new project. All the 3D objects created are

                  directly added in the project view.


           iii. A 3D object added to the scene always comes with an Inspector window. This

                  window allows user to change the position, rotation and scale of the 3D

                  model directly.


           iv. In order to run the project Unity provides with the play button or play ctrl+p.


            v. Unity comes with the iPhone view (Tall view and Horizontal view).


    A. Plane


    a. Creation


   The plane in Unity game engine actually imitates the ground in Solar Thermal Power

   plant. The plane was created using the Unity game engine built in function. To create a

   plane we had to follow the path GameObject=> Create other => Plane in Unity 3D

   game engine. A three dimensional plane with basic texture appeared in a 3D view.

University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                         14
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    b. Positioning and Scaling


   The positioning and scaling of the plane was done using the Transform window which

   appeared once the plane was created. The position of the plane was set to origin (0, 0, 0).

   The scale was initially set to default and later was adjusted based on the positioning of the

   other 3D models.


    c. Textures


    The plane once created comes with a default grey colored texture. The final texture

    implemented in the Visualization screen was Good Dirt ground. The Good Dirt ground

    is simply a .psd image created in Adobe Photoshop. To change the default texture to a

    Good dirt ground we had to add image to the material section in the Inspector window.

    This plane imitates a ground like appearance giving the feel of presence of actual field in

    the Solar Thermal Power plant.


    B. Center Heliostat


    The Visualization screen comprises of a central Heliostat surrounded by the eight other

   Heliostats. Initially we created a center Heliostat and just duplicated the other Heliostats

   using the Unity game engine command „ctrl+d‟.


    a. Creation


    The Heliostats implemented in the Visualization screen is in a rectangular form. The

   heliostat which appears in the Visualization screen is the flattened cube created in the

   Unity game engine. To create a heliostat we had to follow the path GameObject=>




University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                           15
Solar Power Plant iPhone Visualization

   Create other => Cube in Unity Game engine. A three dimensional cube appeared in the

   3D view.


    b. Positioning and Scaling


   The positioning and scaling of the cube was done using the Transform window which

   appeared once the cube was created. The position of the cube was set to origin (0, 0, 0)

   initially. The scale was initially set to default value which is minimum (1, 1, 1). As the

   development further progressed the z-axis was set to minimum value i.e. 0.5 units. With

   this change in dimension the cube appeared to be like Heliostat. The width and height of

   the heliostat is user defined and changes accordingly. Every time the position and the

   width of the Heliostat changes they will always face toward the Tower.


    c. Texture


    The cube once created comes with a default grey colored texture called as diffuse-

    default. The final texture implemented in the Visualization screen was Heliostattexture.

    The Heliostattexture is simply a .psd image created in Adobe Photoshop. To change the

    default texture to a Heliostattexture we had to add image to the material section in the

    Inspector window. This flattened cube imitates a heliostat giving the feel of presence of

    Heliostat in the Solar Thermal Power plant. The Heliostats are engraved with well defined

    border which is helpful to distinguish between the Heliostats while considering the

    blocking and shading part.


    C. Sun


    a. Creation


University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                        16
Solar Power Plant iPhone Visualization

   The sun implemented in the Visualization screen replicates the sun in our day to day life.

   The sun created is nothing but the Point Light which is an inbuilt feature of Unity game

   engine. To create a Point light i.e. we had to follow the path GameObject=> Create

   other => Point light in Unity Game engine. A three dimensional sun appeared in the 3D

   view.


    b. Positioning and Scaling


   The positioning and scaling of the sun was done using the Transform window. The

   position of the sun was fixed to (10, 18, 9) initially. The initial position was fixed in such

   a way that the light source could easily reach on to Heliostat and plane. The scale of the

   sun is set to default value which is minimum (1, 1, 1). Our aim was to dynamically change

   the sun position as per the date and time entered by the user in the User Input screen. As

   are team progressed with the calculation part we had to change the fixed sun position to

   dynamic position. The calculation of sun position was done using Unity game engine Java

   Script which is different from a regular Java Script. Unity game engine provides with

   excellent feature to add the scripts directly to the 3D object for the dynamic movement.


    c. Flare


   The Sun created in Unity game engine does not give the exact appearance of the sun. In

   order to create a similar look and feel we implemented a sun flare texture. This texture

   was created in Adobe Photoshop as a .psd image. The Inspector window created with the

   sun provides with the feature to attach the sun flare directly. The sun flare which is noting

   but the point light gives the exact replica of the sun in three dimensional view.


   Range and Intensity

University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                            17
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    The Range characterizes the area covered by the sun in 3d view of the Unity game engine.

    As the range of the sun increases the area covered also increases vice-versa. The Sun

    range was fixed to 60 in the Visualization screen. The sun range feature can be changed

    directly from the Inspector window. Intensity of the sun is the state or quality of being

    intense; extreme degree. Intensity in Unity game engine is similar to brightness control.

    The Intensity of the sun ranges from 1 to 9(minimum to maximum). The Intensity was

    fixed to 8 by our team. With this range and intensity fixed the rending of the sun appears

    exact in the Visualization screen.




    D. Tower


    a. Creation


   The Tower in Unity game engine is the receiver in Solar Thermal Power plant. The Tower

   was created placing two cylinders with different diameter and height on each other. The

   cylinder with smaller height is placed on top of the other cylinder. To create a Tower we

   had to follow the path GameObject=> Create other => Cylinder in Unity 3D game

   engine. A three dimensional tower with basic texture appeared in a 3D view. In order to

   fix the two cylinders together Unity game engine provides parent-child feature. The

   cylinder with smaller height forms the child of the parent cylinder with greater height.


   b. Scaling and Positioning


   Once the Tower was created the positioning was very important factor. As a team we

   decided to place the Tower at the origin (0, 0, 0) so that all the Heliostats always faced the


University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                            18
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   Tower. The scaling of the Tower includes the diameter and height of the two cylinders. In

   order to model the two cylinders as Tower our team decided to fix the diameter, height

   and also include the parent-child feature of the Unity game engine. The cylinder with

   greater diameter and smaller height will form the child and the cylinder with smaller

   diameter and greater height will form the parent. The height of the Tower was adjusted in

   such a way that the reflected the sun rays easily reach the receiver located on top of the

   Tower


   c. Texture


   The texture of the Tower was fixed to default-diffuse.


    E. Cameras


   Unity game engine comes with default camera whenever a new project is created. The

   main purpose of camera is to view the different objects like cube, cylinder and sphere in

   3D view. Unity comes with excellent feature to add multiple cameras in particular scene.

   In order to make the Visualization screen more lively and less imaginative we added

   multiple cameras in the screen like Tower view, sun view and mirror view etc.


    a. Creation


   Unity comes with the default camera called as Main Camera. This main camera can be

   used for viewing the different 3D objects. In order to create different views like Tower

   view, sun view and mirror view etc. our team decided to use multiple cameras in a scene.

   In order to create these cameras we had to follow the path GameObject=> Create other

   => Camera in Unity 3D game engine. Using the same path we created multiple cameras


University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                        19
Solar Power Plant iPhone Visualization

   for the Tower view, sun view and mirror view etc. The cameras created were renamed

   directly in the project window as Tower view, sun view and mirror view camera

   respectively.


    b. Positioning


   The main camera created is randomly placed in the scene. The position of the main

   camera can be changed directly from the Inspector window created with the main camera.

   In our visualization screen we are not using Main camera for viewing any of the 3D

   objects. We have used the specially created cameras for the three different views. Initially

   when the Tower view, sun view and mirror view cameras were created they were

   positioned randomly. The positioning of the different cameras and their viewing angle are

   described in detail below.


    F. Camera Views


    a. Tower view


   Tower view camera was created to view the Heliostats aligned in a particular position on

   plane from the top of the Tower. The alignment of this camera was tricky as the position

   of the Heliostats changed according to the user inputs. So, it was important that the Tower

   view camera always showed the Heliostats positioned on the plane. Our team decided to

   place the Tower view camera on top of the Tower in such a way that Heliostats are always

   visible irrespective of the change in the positions of Heliostats. We used the parent-child

   for the dynamic movement of the camera. The Tower view camera was made child of the

   Tower. We also created a lookAtMirror.js Java script in Unity game engine. This script

   was attached directly to the Tower view camera. The purpose of this script was to

University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                          20
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   dynamically align the camera in such a way that it always showed the Heliostats

   positioned.


    b. Sun view


   Sun view camera was created to view the Heliostats aligned in a particular position on

   plane from the top of the sun. The alignment of this camera was critical as the position of

   the sun and Heliostats changes according to the user inputs. So, it was important that the

   Sun view camera always showed the Heliostats positioned on the plane. Our team decided

   to place the sun view camera on top of the sun in such a way that Heliostats are always

   visible irrespective of the change in the positions of sun and Heliostats. We used the

   parent-child for the dynamic movement of the camera. The Sun view camera was made

   child of the Sun. We used the lookAtMirror.js Java script in Unity game engine. This

   script was attached directly to the sun view camera. The purpose of this script was to

   dynamically align the camera in such a way that it always showed the Heliostats

   positioned.


    c. Mirror view


   Mirror view camera was created to view the Tower aligned in a fixed position on plane

   from the central Heliostat. The alignment of this camera was different as compared to

   other cameras as the position of the Tower was always fixed and Heliostats position

   always changed. Our team decided to place the Mirror view camera in front of the central

   Heliostat in such a way that Tower is always visible irrespective of the change in the

   positions Heliostats. We used the parent-child for the dynamic movement of the camera.

   The Mirror view camera is made child of the central Heliostat. We used the


University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                         21
Solar Power Plant iPhone Visualization

   lookAtCylinder.js Java script in Unity game engine. This script was attached directly to

   the Mirror view camera. The purpose of this script was to dynamically align the camera in

   such a way that it always showed the Tower positioned.


    d. Left side view


    Left side camera was created to view the Heliostats aligned in a particular position on

    plane from the left side of the plane. This was an additional camera created by our team

    by putting some extra efforts. The alignment of this camera did not depended on any 3D

    objects in field. Our team made sure that Left side view camera always showed the

    Heliostats positioned on the plane. We decided to place the Left side view camera to the

    left of the plane in such a way that Heliostats are always visible irrespective of the change

    in the positions of Heliostats. We used the lookAtMirror.js Java script in Unity game

    engine. This script was attached directly to the Left side view camera. The purpose of this

    script was to dynamically align the camera in such a way that it always showed the

    Heliostats positioned.


    G. Buttons


   The Visualization screen consists of Views, Edit configuration and Grid layout buttons.

   The Views buttons was created for user to visualize the different views like Tower view,

   sun view, mirror view and left side view. By clicking on these views user could visualize

   the different viewing angles. The Edit configuration and Grid layout buttons were created

   for the user to go back to the User input screen and change the inputs as per his

   requirements. The detailed description of the creation of buttons is mentioned below.


    a. Views button

University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                            22
Solar Power Plant iPhone Visualization

   The Views button was created at the top left corner of the Visualization screen. Our team

   created a C sharp code called MainGUI.cs in Unity game engine. The script created was

   directly attached to the Main camera. This View button is subdivided into multiple

   cameras like Tower view, sun view, mirror view and left side view. User can click can on

   any of the view and visualize the Solar thermal power in different angles.


    b. Edit configuration


   Edit configuration button was created on the top right side of the Visualization screen.

   The main function of this button was to go back to the User input screen. With this button

   user could edit their inputs at any time while running the application.


    c. Grid layout


   Grid layout button was created on right side just below the Edit configuration on the

   Visualization screen. By clicking on this button user will taken back to the Grid layout

   scene. User can select the different cell and can effectively see the change in the

   Visualization screen.


    H. Creating Shading Using Clone objects

    Shading was simulated on a heliostat by creating the clone of the heliostat. A clone of a

    heliostat was created as the simulation of the heliostat starts; each heliostat will have its

    respective shading heliostat. The shading heliostat will have different texture than the

    regular heliostat so as to clearly view the effect of shading on the heliostat.

    Coordinates and positioning of the heliostat was given to their respective shading

    heliostat. The heliostat was divided into four parts (top-left, top-right, bottom-left,

    bottom-right) and the shading on each part was simulated using built-in function

University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                            23
Solar Power Plant iPhone Visualization

    Instantiate (newObject, Vector3(x,y,z) transform.rotation) by passing the x,y and z

    coordinates which are calculated using following formulas:

    Top-Left:

        X= cpx+0.07

        Y= cpy – [(hscale_y-axis – sscale_y-axis)/2]

        Z= cpz – [(hscale_z-axis – sscale_z-axis)/2]

   Top-Right:

        X= cpx+0.07

        Y= cpy – [(hscale_y-axis – sscale_y-axis)/2]

        Z= cpz + [(hscale_z-axis – sscale_z-axis)/2]

Bottom-Left:

        X= cpx+0.07

        Y= cpy + [(hscale_y-axis – sscale_y-axis)/2]

        Z= cpz – [(hscale_z-axis – sscale_z-axis)/2]

Bottom-Right:

        X= cpx+0.07

        Y= cpy + [(hscale_y-axis – sscale_y-axis)/2]

        Z= cpz + [(hscale_z-axis – sscale_z-axis)/2]




    4.4. Phase 4: Deployment/ Integration

         This is very important phase in the iPhone software application.



University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                  24
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         In order to deploy the unity iPhone application on iPhone/iPOD device following

         formalities need to be done:

         a. Purchase and use certified apple License

         a. Install the Apple certificate on the development machine.




    4.5. Phase 5: Testing, Validation and Verification

        In order to improve the software quality, testing performed in two different phase as

        discussed below:

        Unity Testing: Performed the testing for each module development

        Integration Testing: Tested application after integration all the module and deploy on

        the iPOD touch device.

        Validation: Validated the user input.

        Verification: Verified the development against the requirement document. Also,

        verified the calculation against the Peter‟s paper[1] and the test cases given by

        Tietronix.

5. Lesson Learned

    Professional Touch

    This project is the great experience in our M.S. degree curricula. It provided us an

    opportunity to interact with the professional persons and also allow us to work in

    professional work environment.

    Research Work




University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                         25
Solar Power Plant iPhone Visualization

    From research point of view, this project provided more opportunity to research different

    application software, development environment.

    New Dimension and View

    This project gives us new view to look at the software application, it included the new

    dimension in our career. The Visualization / Game view is the most beneficial for us

    which we learn from this project.



6. Conclusion and Future Work

    Solar Power Plan iPhone Visualization is the software application to develop the

    visualization of field of Solar Power Plant. This application renders and displays a cell

    containing central heliostat and eight neighboring heliostats as per user input on

    iPhone/iPOD device. This application also provides the different views of the cell view

    such as Sun view, Tower View, and Heliostat view. This project is over all the great

    experience for our team, we learned a lot and latest technologies.

    This is completely new development on the iPhone./iPOD touch device. So as per the

    capstone project time permit, we restrict our software development to basic software

    application for iPhone/iPOD device.

    In future this software application might required following thing in order to make more

    user-friendly.

    Future version should able to render multiple cells simultaneously. It is nice to see the

    complete day‟s visualization instead of particular time and date. Also, different software

    application need to use to make software more use-friendly.




University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                         26
Solar Power Plant iPhone Visualization




7. References: Use a standard format such as IEEE and ACM.

    [1] “An Algorithm for the Shading and Blocking Computations of a Field of Heliostats

    Arranged in a Grid Layout”, Peter Armstrong,Tietronix Software, Inc;September 3 2009.

    [2] Unity Web Forum http://forum.unity3d.com/

    [3] The Solar Project http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Solar_Project

    [4] iPhone Publication http://unity3d.com/unity/features/iphone-publishing




University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                    27
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Appendix A: Team Information
                                           Team #5
              Title: Simplified Solar Power Plant Visualization for the iPhone
                          Team URL: http://dcm.uhcl.edu/capf09g5/
                        http://groups.google.com/group/iphone-team-5/



                                    Name: Yogesh Banchhod (Team Leader)
                                    Email: ypbanchhod@gmail.com
                                    Phone No: 832-247-9551
                                    Major: Computer Science
                                    Role: Programmer/Research


Name: Darshan Chipade
Email: dchipade@gmail.com
Phone No: 832-350-0417
Major: Computer Information System
Role: Programmer/Researcher/
        Webmaster



                                  Name: Syed Zaidi
                                  Email: syedhmz@gmail.com
                                  Phone No: 251-455-2639
                                  Major: Computer Science
                                  Role: Programmer/ Documentation


Name: Mohammed Gooni
Email: mohammedgooni@gmail.com
Phone: 832-316-9449
Major: Computer Science
Role: Programmer/Researcher /Testing



University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                         i
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Appendix B: Project Management




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Appendix C: Major Task and Contributions


                                      Task and Contributions

                                           Table 2: Team Contributions

Sr                                                     Yogesh Mohammed   Darshan    Syed
                           Tasks
No                                                     (in %)   (in %)    (in %)   (in %)

 1                   Project Selection                   25         25     25       25

                     Project Analysis
 2                                                       25         25     25       25
                     (Brainstorming)

 3                    Research Work                      25         25     25       25


 4           Website Creation, Maintenance               10         20     60       10

       Preparing Instructor and Mentor Meetings
 5                                                       40         20     20       20

             Sun Calculation SCRIPT-I
            Heliostat Position SCRIPT-II
 6                                                       20         40     20       20
            Blocking Script SCRIPT-III
            Sheading Script SCRIPT-IV
        Widget Alignment to iPhone resolution
 7               Widget Validation                       40         40     10       10

       Store and retrieve input information using
 8                                                       40         40     10       10
                           file
                      Tower Display
 9                                                       10         35     35       20

      Implementation Sun View, Heliostat View
10                                                       10         30     50       10
            Using Script-I and Script-II
         Perform blocking and sheading using
11             Script-III and Script-IV                  20         20     30       30

       Create Sun View, Tower View, Heliostat
12                                                       10         30     50       10
                        view

13    Deployment on iPhone/ iPod Touch Device            10         40     25      25


University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                 iii
Solar Power Plant iPhone Visualization


                  Documentation :
14     SRS, Abstract, Functional Specification,   30   25   25   20
             Presentation, Final Report

15                        Testing                 25   25   25   25


16                      Integration               25   25   25   25




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Appendix D: Screen Shots




                 Figure 10: Input Screen




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                 Figure 11: Grid Layout Screen




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                         Figure 12: Cell View




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Appendix E: Acronyms and Abbreviations

Heliostats
Design. The heliostat used in Solar One is shown in Figure 10.1. The reflecting element of a
heliostat is typically a thin, back (second) surface, low-iron glass mirror. This heliostat is
composed of several mirror module panels rather than a single large mirror. The thin glass
mirrors are supported by a substrate backing to form a slightly concave mirror surface.
Individual panels on the heliostat are also canted toward a point on the receiver. The heliostat
focal length is approximately equal to the distance from the receiver to the farthest heliostat.
Subsequent “tuning” of the closer mirrors is possible.

Receiver-Tower
The receiver, placed at the top of a tower, is located at a point where reflected energy from the
heliostats can be intercepted most efficiently. The receiver absorbs the energy being reflected
from the heliostat field and transfers it into a heat .transfer fluid. There are two basic types of
receivers: external and cavity.

Tower Design. The height of the tower is limited by its cost. The weight and windage area of
the receiver are the two most important factors in the design of the tower. Seismic
considerations are also important in some locations. The weight and size of a receiver are
affected by the fluid choice as discussed previously. Typical weights for a 380 MW (1.3 × 109
Btu/h) receiver range from 250,000 kg (550,000 lb) for an external receiver using liquid sodium
to 2,500,000 kg (5,500,000 lb) for a cavity air receiver. These would be placed at the top of a
140 to 170 m (460 to 560 ft) tower if a surrounding heliostat field is used.

Field Layout
Decisions regarding the best position for locating heliostats relative to the receiver and how high
to place the receiver above the field constitute a multifaceted problem, in which costs and
heliostat “loss” mechanisms are the variables. We first discuss some of these loss mechanisms
and then how they interact in shaping an optimum heliostat field.

Shadowing and Blocking. In previous chapters we discussed the problem of one collector casting
a shadow on an adjacent collector, thereby reducing the energy output of the shaded collector.
For central receiver systems, there are two such interaction processes that reduce the amount of
energy reaching the receiver. These are shadowing and blocking by adjacent heliostats.

Shadowing occurs at low sun angles when a heliostat casts its shadow on a heliostat located
behind it. Therefore, not all the incident solar flux is reaching the reflector. Blocking occurs
when a heliostat in front of another heliostat blocks the reflected flux on its way to the receiver.
Blocking can be observed in a heliostat field by noting reflected light on the backs of heliostats.


University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                         viii
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Blocking and shadowing represent the next most important loss factor in central receiver system
performance. Although at noon, when the sun‟s altitude is a maximum, there is usually no
blocking or shadowing for a well designed field, significant blocking and shadowing does take
place in the mornings and afternoons, especially in the winter, when the sun is low in the sky.
Because of this, the annual average blocking and shadowing losses are also significant.




University of Houston Clear Lake-Fall 09                                                     ix

								
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