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					ITU Standardization and its new Environment
           Brussels, 19th September 2002

                     Houlin ZHAO
      Telecommunication Standardization Bureau (TSB)
       International Telecommunication Union, Geneva
     Place des Nations - CH-1211 Geneva 20 - Switzerland
      Tel: +41 22 730 5851        Fax: +41 22 730 5853
         ITU Home page address:

1837   Invention of the first electric telegraph
1844   Samuel Morse sent his first public message over a telegraph Iine
       between Washington and Baltimore
1865   Foundation of the International Telegraph Union by twenty States
17 May with the adoption of the first Convention. First Telegraph Regulations.
1876   Alexander Graham Bell patents his invention of the telephone

1924     Paris - Creation of CCIF (International Telephone Consultative Committee)
1925     Paris - Creation of CCIT (International Telegraph Consultative Committee)
1927     Washington - Creation of the CCIR (Intl. Radio Consultative Committee)
1932     Madrid - Plenipotentiary Conference. Telegraph Union changes name to
         International Telecommunication Union

1947     ITU becomes a Specialized Agency of the United Nations
1956     Geneva - CCIF and CCIT merged into CCITT (International
         Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee)
1992     Geneva - Plenipotentiary Conference. Creation of 3 Sectors:
         ITU-T replaces CCITT, ITU-R replaces IFRB, CCIR, and ITU-D replaces TCD

                                 ITU Landmarks                                   TSB

                                                               Radiocommunication               Telecommunication
                                                                                                                                   Development Sector
                                                                     Sector                    Standardization Sector

                                                                 World/Regional                       World
                                                                   Conferences                  Telecommunication                                                   World Conferences
                       Council                                                                    Standardization                                                    on International
                                                               Radiocommunication                                                     Conferences
                                                                    Assembly                     Assembly (WTSA)

                                          Radio Regulations                         Study                               Study                            Study
                                                Board                               Groups                              Groups                          Groups

Coordination      Secretary-General                                                 Advisory                            Advisory                        Advisory
                                                                    Director                          Director                          Director
 Committee     Deputy Secretary-General                                              Group                               Group                           Group

                  General Secretariat                                Bureau                           Bureau                            Bureau

                                                              Structure of the ITU                                                                                 TSB
   mainly financed by Governments

   work dominated by industry

   procedures very efficient, no longer slow

   seek effective cooperation with SDOs to share the work

   should be open to emerging technologies

   should be open to researchers / students

   try to keep its pre-eminent status

           Situation of ITU Standardization            TSB
CCITT    (International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee):
1956    1st Plenary Assembly
1960    2nd Plenary Assembly      Red Books
1964    3rd Plenary Assembly      Blue Books
1968    4th Plenary Assembly      White Books
1972    5th Plenary Assembly      Green Books

1976    6th Plenary Assembly     Orange Books
1980    7th Plenary Assembly     Yellow Books
1984    8th Plenary Assembly     Red Books
1988    9th Plenary Assembly     Blue Books

ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union - Telecom. Standardization Sector):
1993 1st World Telecommunication Standardization Conference (WTSC-93), Helsinki
1996 2nd World Telecommunication Standardization Conference (WTSC-96), Geneva
2000 3rd World Telecommunication Standardization Assembly (WTSA-2000), Montreal

                            CCITT and ITU-T                                TSB
"The functions of the Telecommunication Standardization Sector

shall be, bearing in mind the particular concerns of the developing

countries, to fulfill the purposes of the Union relating to

telecommunication standardization, as stated in Article 1 of this

Constitution, by studying technical, operating and tariff Questions

and adopting Recommendations on them with a view to

standardizing telecommunications on a worldwide basis"

                      Functions of ITU-T                       TSB
                           WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION
                           STANDARDIZATION ASSEMBLY

                                                   ADVISORY GROUP

             STUDY GROUP           STUDY GROUP         STUDY GROUP

- Workshop / forum           WORKING      WORKING            WORKING
                              PARTY        PARTY              PARTY
- Focus Group
- Joint Group
                                          R      R      R       R
- Project team
            R = RAPPORTEUR GROUP

            Organizational Structure of ITU-T                          TSB
Study Group 2:       Operational aspects of service provision, networks and

Study Group 3:       Tariff and accounting principles including related
                     telecommunications economic and policy issues

Study Group 4:       Telecommunication management, including TMN

Study Group 5:       Protection against electromagnetic environment effects

Study Group 6:       Outside plant

Study Group 9:       Integrated broadband cable networks and television and
                     sound transmission

Study Group 11:      Signalling requirements and protocols

                  ITU-T Study Groups and TSAG                         TSB
Study Group 12:         End-to-end transmission performance of networks
                        and terminals

Study Group 13:         Multi-protocol and IP-based networks and their

Study Group 15:         Optical and other transport networks

Study Group 16:         Multimedia services, systems and terminals

Study Group 17:         Data networks and telecommunication software

SSG:                    IMT-2000 and Beyond

TSAG:                   Telecommunication Standardization Advisory Group
         (Priorities: IP, Mobility, next generation, security, …)

                  ITU-T Study Groups and TSAG                            TSB
                                                                3 months minimum                                4 weeks

                                                                                         1 month
                                                                      7 working days
                                                                Consultation period                  meeting
  SG or WP

  SG or WP                   Edited text                                      Text
determination                 available                                    distributed

                Chairman's                    Director's                                               SG           Director's
                 request                    announcement                                             decision      notification

                                           Director's request

                                                                                          Deadline for
                                                                                      Member States' replies

                  Approval of new and revised Recommendations -
                             Sequence of events (TAP)
                                          (a)                                                                  3 weeks
                               4 weeks
                                 LC                   (b)
                                                                                                     Director’s            SG
                                                                                                   Announcement           Meeting
 SG or          Edited      Director’s          (c)                                                 and Posting
  WP             Text     Announcement
Meeting         for LC     and Posting
                                                                                         3 weeks   (b)
                             for LC
                                                                               (a)         AR
                                                                                                         (a)             Approved
                                                      Comment                     Director’s
                                                      Resolution                Announcement                          Director’s
                                                                    Edited       and Posting                         Notification
                                                                     Text          for AR
 LC:      Last Call
 AR:      Additional Review

                                         AAP Sequence of Events                                                     TSB
                                                       (extract from Rec. A.8)
•   Questions (projects)
•   Contributions driven (normal contributions, delayed contributions,
    temporary documents)
•   face-to-face meeting:
    - debate, determination, approval of reports, approval of Questions
    - SG/WP meetings: decision making; Rapporteur meetings: develop texts
•   Decision = consensus, unanimous agreements
•   Recommendations (Amendments, Corrigenda, supplements)
    draft Recommendations, determined draft Recommendations
    approved Recommendations, pre-published Recommendations,
    published Recommendations
•   Implementor’s Guides
•   Meeting reports
•   Electronic submissions, web consultations, email, ftp
•   Paperless meeting – LAN/Wireless – LAN connections in meeting rooms

                          Working methods                        TSB
2001 - Best selling texts (in the order of sales number from 09/01):
H.323            G.707/Y.1322      G.783       G.703       G.991.2      G.709       H.248
H.225.0          G.729             Q.763       Q.931       G.704        G.703
G.807/Y.1302     Q.763             Q.931       H.248 Annex K            G.871/Y.1301
P.862            G.711

Some well-known ITU-T Recommendations:

E.164      E.190       E.212
G.652      G.655       G.692       G.703       G.704            G.711       G.720
G.723 Annex A+disk     G.723.1     G.729+Annex A+disk           G.780-series (SDH)         G.826
G.957      G.982       G.990-series (xDSL)
H.225.0    H.245       H.248       H.263       H.323            H.324       H.450
I.365      I.432       I.731       J.112       J.117
M.3010     M.3100      M.3400
Q.931      Q.1700-series (IMT-2000)
T.30       T.37        T.38        V.34        V.44     V.59    V.90        V.92
X.25       X.36        X.509       X.680-series (ASN.1)         X.690       X.840-series
Y.1310     Y.1540

                  Best Sellers of ITU-T Recommendations                                            TSB
                   before   1988   1989-1993   1993-1996    1997-2000      2001-2004

    Approval        4 years         2 years    18 months    9 months          2-9
    time                                                    (exceptional     months
                                                             5 months)

    Publication    2-4 years        2 years    1-1.5 year     6-12         3-9 months
    time                                                     months

Notes: 1.   Pre-published Recommendations, available on ITU-T Website, from a few days
            to four weeks after approval of the text.

       2.   Recs in force, pre-published, superseded/obsolete: available on ITU-T Website.

       3.   Forms of publication: paper, CD-ROM, electronic bookshop, online, etc.

       4.   FREE ONLINE ACCESS SINCE JANUARY 2001 (one free access per member,
            3 free downloads for public)

       5.   “Approval time” counted between “determination/consent” and final approval

                  Approval and publication time of
Three major items:

-      IP-related issues

-      IMT-2000

-      Accounting rates

Other items:

-      Multi-media, access networks (xDSL), optical transmission,
       security, numbering and addressing, inter-operabilities,
       IPR, etc.

                      ITU-T's main work areas                       TSB
 E.164 …

 G.707 (SDH), G.709 (OTN), G.722 (7 kHz), G.728 (16 kbit/s), G.729 (8 kbit/s), G.99x (xDSL) …

 H.248 (gateway), H.323 (multimedia systems) …

 I.365 (FR), I.432 (B-ISDN), I.732 (ATM) …

 J.112 (Cable TV), J.16x + J.17x (IPCablecom) …

 M.3120 (CORBA for TMN) …

 Q.933 (DSS1), Q.1300 (TASC), Q.1930 (BICC), Q.27xx (B-ISDN), Q.29xx (DSS2) …

 T.37, T.38 (IPfax), T.12x (multimedia conference) …

 V.29 (9.6 K modem), V.34 (34 kbit/s), V.90/V.92 (56 kbit/s) …

 X.25, X.75, X.76 (FR), X.85 (IP over SDH), X.86 (Ethernet over LAPS), X.121, X.4xx (MHS), X.5xx (Directory),
  particularly X.509, X.68x/X.69x (ASN.1), X.8xx (security), X.9xx (ODP) …

 Y-series: dedicated to IP and GII

 Z.100 (SDL), Z.14x (TTCN), Z.3xx (MM languages) …

                        ITU-T’s products for IP-networks                                          TSB
   Quality of Service (QoS)

   Numbering and routing

   Security

   Tariffs and Accounting rates

   Interworking

        Ensuring global interoperability   TSB
                        01/2000         12/2001       difference

      Administrations      189            189             -

          ROAs             161            179            + 18

           SIOs            189            234            + 45

        Associates          -              30            + 30

          Others           40              39             -1


                          ITU-T Members                               TSB
Administrations (96/2208)               ROAs (87/1783)                    SIOs (167/1875)
U.S.A.              342         NTT                 188         Lucent          166+58 +
China               232         FT                  184         Ericsson        147+5+
Germany             187         BT                  148         Siemens         136+17+
France              106         DT                  134         Nortel            91+51+
Russia               99         ATT                  77         Alcatel           35+23+40+18+
U.K.                 95         KDDI                 69         CSELT             69
Canada               63         Telecom Italia       65         NEC               47
Japan                63         Swisscom             65         Nokia             46
India                62         KT                   59         Fujitsu           42
Ukraine              58         Telenor              58         Telecordia        36
Italy                56         Royal KPN            58         Motorola          27+8
Syria                53         Telia                46         OKI               32
Korea                50         Telekom Austria      37         ETRI              32
          Total:   1466 (66%)             Total:   1188 (67%)          Total: 1126 (60%)

                                                                          (Note – Cisco: 13)

              Top Members participation (07/98-08/00)                                      TSB
- ITU-T work is shared by Governments and Industry Members
  (service providers and telecom equipment vendors)

- Individual Industry Memberships in ITU Sectors

- 13 out of 14 Study Group Chairmen (including TSAG) appointed
  are from Sector Members

- Classic telecom members (to attract new IT Members)

- Director’s Informal Consultation meeting (with Industries)
  known as “Martigny meetings”, twice: Feb. 2000 and Feb. 2001

- Key point of ITU Reform: Industry Members’ rights and duties

                    Industry Members’ role               TSB
                                                                                                    Annual fee
   Budget         SDO            Membership fees                            Note                      (US$)

(25,000,000 $)   ITU-T       Minimum mandatory           ½ unit (31,500 SFr)                   20,000
40,000,000 SFr               Other optional
20,275,000 $      ETSI       Mandatory according to      45 units (5,000 Euros/unit)           211,050
 (21,909,000                 turnover
                  IETF       Depending on                350 $/500 $ per meeting per person,   1050/1500 x ?
                             participation               3 meetings per year
 1,200,000 $     ECMA        Mandatory                   $ 42,000 / $ 18, 000 / $ 10,000       42,000
                                                         standards free
(18,300,000 $)    ISO        Through national            Shared by national members            (individual
29,305,000 SFr               members                     (five big members pay 9% of the       company up to
                                                         budget)                               50,000)
(11,900,000 $)     IEC
19,000,000 SFr
 (4,456,200       3GPP       Shared by 6 SDOs                                                  Average
   Euros)                                                                                      500,000/SDO
 4,000,000 $
 1,840,000 $     3GPP2       Shared by 5 SDOs                                                  Average
                  W3C        Mandatory                   50,000 $ / 5,000 $, standards free    50,000
                  IEEE       Mandatory                                                         5,000
 2,870,000 $      ATM        Mandatory + meeting fees  $ 14,000/5,000/3,500/1,500,            14,000+1,000/1,100 x?
                                                       $ 250/275 per meeting
                                                       4 meetings/year, standards free
  (Some SDOs receive secretariat support from their members; such expenditures are not counted in the budget.)

                            Company’s dues to SDOs
                         (ITU-T Associates = US $ 6,000)
     ITU                                                                     ISO, IEC
(ITU-T and ITU-R)                                                              …..
                            Forums / Consortia / SDOs
            1394TA      3G.IP        3GPP        3GPP2       AIM          AMF
            AMI-C       AOEMA        AOW         ARIB        ATM Forum    BINTERMS
            Bluetooth   Cable Modems CBOP        CDG         CIF          CII
            CommerceNet CommerceNet J Committee T1           COS          CPR
            DHF         DISA         DOPG        DSL Forum   ECE          ECHONET
            ECMA        ECOM         ECTF        EDIFICE     EDS          EEMA
            EIDX        EMA          EMF         ERTICO      ETSI         EWOS
            FCIA        FCIA-J       FIPA        FRF         FS-VDSL      FSAN
            GSM Assoc. HNF           Home API    HomePNA     HRFWG        IDB Forum
            IEEE        IETF         IFIP        IFSA        IMTC         IMWA
            IPv6        IrDA         ITS America ITS UK      JAVA         JCTEA
            JECALS      JEDIC        JEMA        JICSAP      JIMM         JMF
            LONMARK     MCPC     MITF        MMCF         Mobile Web
            MOPA        MPLS Forum MSF           MWIF        OASIS        ODVA
            OIF         OMG          OSGi        PCCA        PCISIG       PCMCIA
            PHS MoU     PICMG        PKI         POF         Salutation   SCF
            SCTE        SDL Forum    SDR         SSIPG       STA          TIA
            TINA-C      TM Forum     TOG         TSC         TTA          TTC
            UMTS        USBIF        UWCC        W3C         WAP          WDF
            Web 3D      WfMC         WIN Forum   WLIF        XTP Forum

                            ITU positioning                                            TSB
    cooperation since the 1970s; common texts since 1992
    WTSA-2000 Resolution 7, Recommendation A.23
    Joint President Cooperation Group (JPCG)  World Standards
    Cooperation (WSC)
•   IETF
    ITU-T Member since 1995
    MoU PSO, July 1999; provide secretarial support to PSO, since 08/01
    Joint management team meetings in 11/99 and 08/01; ENUM, H.248, T.37 …
•   ETSI
    ITU-T Member since early 1990s
    MoU cooperation in June 2000
    MoU on e-business in March 2000
•   GSC (Global Standards Collaboration): Since March 1994

                   ITU-T coordination with SDOs                      TSB
   ITU-T Rec. A. 4: communication with forums and consortia

   ITU-T Rec. A. 5: referencing documents of other organizations
    in ITU-T Recommendations

   ITU-T Rec. A. 6: cooperation and exchange of information
    with SDOs

   Invitation to the Informal Forum Summit by the Director of TSB
    (December 3-4, 2001)

                   ITU-T Cooperation with
                   forums / consortia / SDOs
                   A.4                                                     A.5                                    A.6

             ASN.1 Consortium                      ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses)          ARIB
                ATM Forum                                               ATM Forum                              Committee T1
                DSL Forum                                              Committee T1                               CWTS
ETIS (e-and telecommunication info. services)   CWTS (China Wireless Telecommunication Standard Group)            ECMA
          FRF (Frame Relay Forum)                                        DSL Forum                                ETSI
            IMTC (Multimedia)                   ECMA Standardizing Information & Communication Systems            IEEE
             IPDR Organization                   ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)           JCTEA
                IPv6 Forum                                                  FRF                                   NIST
MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching) Forum        IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)       SCTE
    MSF (Multiservice Switching Forum)          ISOC/IETF (Internet Society/Internet Engineering Task Force)       TIA
                   OASIS                          JCTEA (Japan Cable Television Engineering Association)           TTA
    OIF (Optical Internetworking Forum)                                 MPLS Forum                                 TTC
     OMG (Object Management Group)                 NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology)
             SDL Forum Society                                             OASIS
    TM Forum (Tele Management Forum)                                         OIF
    W3C (World Wide Web Consortium)                                         OMG
                                                  SCTE (Society of Cable Telecommunications Engineers)
                                                      TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association)
                                                                         TM Forum
                                                    TTA (Telecommunications Technology Association)
                                                     TTC (Telecommunication Technology Committee)

                                          Members for Rec. A.4, A.5
                                            and A.6 relationship
   Cooperation on common subjects (liaisons, communications,
    mutual participation)

   Cooperation on workshops

   ITU-T provide draft texts and other documents to SDOs to post for
    public consultation

   ITU’s permission for SDOs to reproduce ITU-T texts

   More to be done for mutual benefit: market study, joint promotion,
    mutual reference, joint conferences, efficient coordination, common IPR
    policy, etc.

   “Informal Forum Summit”, Geneva, December 2001

                 Cooperation activities with SDOs
    Some forums become A.4 members of ITU-T

    FS-VDSL Forum will become a Focus Group of ITU-T SG 16

    Another Forum is considering to become a Focus Group of ITU-T

    Home page connections for ITU-T and Forums/Consortia

    ITU-T SG 16 management member be included in the Forum

    New approaches…


                New relationships between                    TSB
               Forums/Consortia and ITU-T
   ITU-T already defined processes for working with other organizations,
    and TSAG enhanced these to include working with IETF

   Guidelines were prepared for the SGs, including issues such as:
    - how to interact on ITU-T and IETF work items, including:
      * how ITU-T learns about existing and proposed new IETF work items
      * how IETF learns about ITU-T work items

   Representation, including:
    - IETF recognition at ITU-T meetings and vice-versa
    - communication contacts
    - mailing lists

   Document sharing, including:
    - drafting
    - the passing of documents between the Organizations
    - cross referencing

                    Cooperation with IETF                           TSB
   IETF protocol defined in RFC 2916

   E.164 number can be used to look up a Uniform
    Resource Identifier (URI)
    - Web addresses most commonly known URIs

   Allows using E.164 number in context of combined PSTN & IP
    services (email, fax, SIP address, coordinates, other?)

    For example:
    +44 1206 762335 

                      What is ENUM?                      TSB
   Define and implement administrative procedures that
    coordinate delegations of E.164 numbering resources
    into the agreed DNS name servers

   Director of TSB, on behalf of Administrations, to
    control the implementation of ENUM under on a trial basis, while the registering is
    done by RIPE NCC

           ITU-T Responsibilities regarding                TSB
   ICANN Board of Directors, 3 from PSO
    Mr. Schink (Siemens) (ITU proposed candidate)

   ICANN Independent Review Panel (IRP)
    Nominating Committee
    6 members:
    Mr. H. Zhao         3 years PSO (Director of TSB/ITU)
    Mr. T. Lee          2 years PSO
    Ms. C. Liu          3 years ASO
    Mr. J. K. Park      2 years ASO
    Mr. S. Hemphill     3 years DNSO
    Mr. O. Iteann       2 years DNSO

   GAC: Mr. R. Shaw and Mr. R. Hill

              ITU’s involvement in ICANN                    TSB
   President of ICANN call for reform in February 2002

   TSB Director conducted informal consultation with ITU
    Members in March/April

   TSB Director presents a paper to ICANN on its reform, offering
    to assist ICANN in certain areas, on 17 April 2002

   ITU Council-2002 unanimously supported TSB Director’s

   Many contacts between ITU-T and the outside partners concerned

   TSB paper of 9 August 2002

   ITU PP-02 Decision (Resolution 102)

   Hope for a successful ICANN reform

                          ICANN Reform                          TSB
   “Consensus: after WTSA-2000, the ITU-T procedures are now
    very streamlined and efficient so that any perception of slowness
    can no longer be attributed to the ITU-T methods…”
   “fully recognized that Sector Members have a significant
    leadership role in the ITU-T technical standardization
   “ITU-T is and should remain the unique worldwide venue for
    industry and governments to work together in developing,
    providing and promoting global consensus-based
    telecommunication requirements and standards for the
    Information Society”

                 Industry Views on ITU-T
                 Martigny, February 2001

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