Blood Sugar (PowerPoint download)

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					Blood Sugar
Hormones that affect blood sugar
• Pancreas contains two types of cells (one
  produces digestive enzymes, other
• Hormones are produced in the islets of
• Islets contain beta/alpha cells that produce
  insulin and glucagon
• Insulin is released when BS levels increase
                    Adrenal Glands
• Located above kidneys
• 1 = two glands in one shell
• Inner = adrenal medulla, surrounded by
  the adrenal cortex
• Medulla regulated by the nervous
  system, hormones regulate adrenal
• Medulla produces two hormones:
• Epinephrine (adrenalin), norepinephrine
• Epinephrine accelerates HR and body
  reactions during crisis
• Norepinephrine increases HR and BS
                     Adrenal Cortex
• Produces three types of hormones
• Glucocorticoids, mineralcoroticoids and
  small amounts of sex hormones
• Glucocoritcoids help meet the demands
  of stress
• Mineralcorticoids help regulate
  salt/water balance
Hormones that Affect Metabolism
• Thyroid gland
• Located at the base of the neck
• Produce thyroxine (T4) and triodothryonine
  (T3) which regulate body metabolism and the
  growth and differentiation of tissues
• Those who secrete higher levels of thyroxine
  oxidize sugars and other nutrients at a higher
Hormones that Affect Metabolism
• If MR decreases, receptors in the
  hypothalamus are activated
• Nerve cells release thryroid releasing
  hormone (TRH) which stimulatesthe pituitary
  to release thryoid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
• TSH is carried by the blood to the thyroid
  which will then release thyroxine
  – thryroxine raises metabolism by stimulating
    increased sugar use by cells
• Thyroid gland also contains calcitonin - acts
  on the bone to lower the level of calcium
  found in the blood
                               Other Glands
• Parathyoid gland
  – Four - located in the thyroid
  – Produce parathyroid hormone (PTH) which will
    increase calcium levels in the blood and lower the
    levels of phophates (Fig 5 pg 386)
• Anterior Pituitary Gland
  – Produces growth hormone
  – Promotes protein synthesis by increasing the
    uptake of amino acids
  – GH causes a switch in cellular fuels from glucose to
    fatty acids - results an increase in blood sugar