SeaService Leadership Association Symposium by uploaddoc

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									Women’s Leadership
   Symposium
      July 2008
“If    you aim at nothing, you’re
      sure to hit it every time.”

                 Author unknown
Aiming for Good Health??
         Six Essential Nutrients
 Carbohydrates
 Fats
 Protein
 Vitamins
 Minerals
 Water
              Energy Nutrients
   Carbohydrates 4 calories/gram weight

   Protein        4 calories/gram weight

   Fat            9 calories/gram weight

   Alcohol       7 calories/gram weight
       Nutrients…Your Needs ????

   Depends on: gender, age, health, activity

   Research done to determine needs but exact
    amounts not known.

   Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) published by
    the government for guidance; note the word
    “reference”
          DRI – The Components

Dietary Reference Intake includes:
 RDA (recommended daily allowance – ie. levels
  to meet the needs of most healthy people

   AI (adequate intake) – used when not enough
    evidence to establish an RDA
      Six Essential Nutrients
 Carbohydrates
 Fats

 Protein

 Vitamins

 Minerals

 Water
       Carbohydrates…The Fuel
   Primary energy source for the body
   Second largest component of the diet
    What’s number one?
   Needed for brain function (130 grams/day)
   Remember…4 calories/gram
             Carbohydrates

 Quick energy – can be used as soon as they
  enter the bloodstream
 Excess stored as glycogen (liver and
  muscles) or as fat. How many calories as
  glycogen?
 Two types: simple and complex; both
  provide energy
     Types of Carbohydrates

     Simple                   Complex
sugar, honey, soda       bread, cereal, pasta
candy, cake, fruit       rice, starchy veggies
Decrease HDL              Fiber Rich
Increase Triglycerides    Nutrient Rich
          Sources of Carbohydrates

   Plant foods primarily



   Milk (lactose = milk sugar)



   None in protein and fats
           Carbohydrate Target

   45-65% of total calories per day

Example: 2000 calorie diet
    2000 x .45 = 225 grams
    2000 x .65 = 325 grams

For a 2000 calorie diet – 225-325 grams per day
            Daily Carbohydrate
   Bread and Starches - 10 servings (15 x 10= 150)
   Non-Starchy Veggies - 4 servings (5 x 4 = 20)
   Milk - 3 servings (12 x 3 = 36)
   Fruit – 4 servings (15 x 4 = 60)

   TOTAL = 266 grams carbohydrate
Portion Explosion
                   BAGEL
  20 Years Ago                             Today




140 calories                         350 calories
3-inch diameter                      6-inch diameter

            Calorie Difference: 210 calories
SPAGHETTI AND MEATBALLS
   20 Years Ago                             Today




 500 calories                          1,025 calories
 1 cup spaghetti with sauce            2 cups of pasta with sauce
 and 3 small meatballs                 and 3 large meatballs

               Calorie Difference: 525 calories
                     Protein
   Not a major source of energy

   20% of an adult’s weight (muscles, enzymes,
    hormones, DNA)

   Growth and repair of cells/tissues

   Composed of amino acids
                  Amino Acids
   Essential and non-Essential
   Complete (animal) vs. Incomplete (plant)
   Complementary Proteins
     Beans + nuts/seeds
     Green veggies + grains
     Grains + legumes (rice + beans)
     Grains + nuts (bread and PB)
     Grains + dairy (cereal and milk)
   What about Soy?
               Protein Target?

   0.36 grams/per # of body weight
    Example: 150# x 0.36 = 54 grams/day

   20-25% total calories

 Daily Protein
   54 grams = 8 ounces
(1 ounce weight of protein = 7 grams protein)
         Daily Protein Examples
   Chicken Breast - 3 oz = 21 gms Protein

   Milk – 3 cups skim = 24 gms Protein

   Egg – 7 gms Protein
   Total = 52 grams Protein
                         Fats
   Also called lipids and includes triglycerides, fatty
    acids, cholesterol
   9 calories/gram
   Functions: cell membrane structure
                insulation
                absorption of fat soluble vitamins
                hormones, neurotransmitters
                    Types Fat

      Saturated                  Unsaturated
   Gen from animals           Non animal sources
   Solid at room temp         Types: monounsat
   Raise LDL cholesterol              polyunsat
   Tropical oils !!!!         Liquid at room temp
                               Nuts, olives, avocado,
                                oils
        Hydrogenation of Fats
 Unsaturated fats become saturated
 Why do it???

 Found mainly in fried fast foods, baked

  goods, shortening, and hard margarines
 Trans fat Target: 2 grams/day max!!



    WORSE FORM OF SATURTED FAT
       Sources of Fatty Acids
Saturated     Monounsaturated   Polyunsaturated
animal fat     olive oil         corn oil
coconut oil    canola oil        soybean oil
palm oil       peanut oil        safflower oil
                                 sunflower oil
Fat and Cholesterol Levels
  Type Fat     HDL      LDL
 Sat Fat      -       Raise
 Monounsat    Raise   Lower
 Polyunsat    Lower   Lower
 Trans Fats   Lower   Raise
                   Fat Target


   20% total calories (45 grams/day for 2000 cals)

   Saturated and trans fats – not required

   Very low fat diet – not recommended
            Daily Fat Example
   For 45 grams Total Fat

        1 Tablespoon oil
        2 Tablespoons Ranch salad dressing
        1 Ounce dry roasted almonds
                   Cholesterol
   A fat
   Functions: component of cell membranes, bile
    and hormones
   Body makes its own (800-1500 mg/day)
   Not as bad as saturated fat for clogging arteries
   High levels can cause atherosclerosis
   Problems result with low HDL or high LDL
          Cholesterol Sources
      Food          Cholesterol/mg
Egg yolk                 213
Shrimp (3 oz)            165
Meats (3 oz)             70-85
Whole milk (8 oz)        30-35
Cheeses (1 oz)           25-30
            Re: Cholesterol Intake

   Not required in any amount (liver makes it)
   Goal: less than 300 mg/day if low risk
   Goal: less than 200 mg/day if high risk
   Goal: Triglycerides < 150 mg/dl
     **sugar and alcohol influence triglycerides
   Goal: saturated fat < 20 grams/day
          Vitamins and Minerals
   Found in every food group in various quantities
   Assist in breaking down fats and carbs and small
    extent protein

   No calories

   Regulate many functions/processes

   40+ required; many have RDA or DRI value
            Vitamins
Water-Soluble        Fat-Soluble
B vitamins (8)       A, D, E, K
C
Not readily stored     Easily stored
Toxicity uncommon      Toxic possible
                     Minerals
   Major: greater than 5 grams ( a nickel)
    sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium

   Trace: amts smaller than 5 grams
     iron, zinc, copper, selenium, fluoride,
     chromium, molybdenum
           Vitamins & Minerals

   Functions and Food Sources - Handouts
      Do you need a supplement?
   Heavy menstrual bleeding?
   Pregnant or lactating?
   Strict vegetarian?
   Eating a very low calorie diet?
   Routine unbalanced, unhealthy meals?
   Tips
                      Water
   60% of body weight
   Carries nutrients through and wastes out of the
    body
   Lubricates and cushions around joints
   Temperature regulation
   Shock absorber for eyes and spine
   Maintains blood volume
   Muscle and blood weight is largely water
   Fad diets “work” short term due to water loss
   Pint per pound lost
                    Water Target

   Women – 2.7 liters/day
   Men – 3.7 liters/day
   8 glasses a day??? Doesn’t have to be water.
   Sources: water, tea, coffee, juice, soda and fruits and
    veggies
   Old myth debunked…coffee is NOT a strong diuretic
   Alcohol IS a strong diuretic – does not count toward
    fluid requirements
   Don’t over do it !!
               Phytochemicals
   Important food component but not a nutrient
   Only in plant foods
   Phytochemical powerhouses: fruits, veggies and
    whole grains
   Many serve as antioxidants
   Many yet to be discovered???
                      Antioxidants
   Neutralize free radicals
   Free radicals are unstable molecules that are produced as a
    byproduct of chemical rxns in the body. Free radicals seek out a
    tissue to attach to so that it can become more stable. Once
    attached to a cell, the free radicals cause a chain of events,
    including DNA damage, that is harmful to the cell.

   Antioxidants help slow or possibly eliminate some of the
    damaging effects of the free radicals

   SINGLE MOST IMPORTANT DIET CHANGE…???
     Increase Fruits & Veggies
   MORE MATTERS


          TARGET: 6-9 servings/day
     Essential Nutrients Summary
   Carbohydrates – primary fuel source
   Fats – fat soluble vitamin absorption; hormones,
           neurotransmitters
   Protein – growth/repair
   Vitamins & Minerals – catalyst for metabolism
   Water – medium for metabolic functions
What’s on your plate?
      Summary- Daily Targets

4-5 servings of veggies (1/2 – 1 cup per/svg)
3-4 servings fruit
3 servings dairy
6-8 oz lean meat or complimentary protein
8-10 servings whole grains, starchy veggies
3-4 tablespoons fat (healthy)
Nutritional Challenges in
 Operational Settings


   Nutritional Density

   Nutritional Variety

   Weight Management
             Operational Eating
              Nutrient Density
   How are items prepared?



   What about movie night?



   How are you hydrating?
              Operational Eating
               Nutrient Variety
   What is your routine?

   Any special meals?

   Where’s the fiber?

   What about MRE’s?
            Operational Eating
            Weight Management
   Portion size?
   Celebrating with food?
   Boredom creeping in?
   Snacking between meals?
   Care package challenges?
   Soothing with food?
   Uniform tightening?
   Candy to the rescue?
             Returning Home
   Family pressures
   Portion control
   Exercise
   Fruits and veggies
   Celebrations
   Restaurant challenge
            Tools for Success
   Targets
   RDIs (handouts)
   MREs (handouts)
   References
 Nutrition Resources You Can Trust
American Dietetic Association www.eatright.org
Produce for Better Health Foundation
www.fruitsandveggiesmorematters.org
Food Guide Pyramid www.mypyramid.gov
American Hearth Association
www.americanheart.org
www.deliciousdecisions.org
USDA National Nutrient Database
www.usda.gov
What about exercise?
   EXERCISE…
EVERY DAY THAT YOU
        EAT

								
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