TOPIC: FACILITATION PROCESS Obj: To stimulate the skill, capability of facilitators and local teams towards care, hope, change, leadership and transfer. To enable community to build and/or develop systems to support and sustain change, hope, care and leadership. Facilitator should have prepared the venue and sitting arrangements (in a circle form; facilitator sitting among them) and also make sure all necessary materials are in place before the meeting commences. Activity 1: opening up a discussion The facilitator introduces himself (give name, where you come from/street or compound) and asks the participants to do same. Ask participants to answer the following questions; 1. Does this community conduct meetings? 2. Has there ever been a meeting in the community discussing problems and solutions? 3. Was there a leader during the meeting? 4. Does every body contribute their opinions during meeting? 5. Is everybody‟s opinion taken seriously? Facilitator‟s corner: ensure that all their answers are written down on a board of paper. Optional: divide the group into two groups (male or female) based on the number of participants. Facilitator ask: 1. let women discuss if they like having meeting alongside the men in the community 2. Let men discuss if they like having alongside with the female. 3. Do females prefer a male leader? 4. Do males prefer female leader? 5. What do you call a person who encourages and guide a group of people? The facilitator can link the participants‟ responses to the hint below. Hint: Who is a facilitator? A facilitator is a knowledgeable and skillful person who guides a group of people to discover their potential without being bias about their responses. What do you want to see in a facilitator (quality)? Likely response: A facilitator should be flexible should be observant Should not impose his or her values on the people. Should be much of a listener rather than being passive Should be discipline Should be skillful should be creative should be tolerant should be approachable should be able to think fast should be accountable should be accessible Should be knowledgeable should encourage open communications should be active should have feed back skill should be focus (keeping discussion on track) The facilitator should ask the What do you understand by facilitation? Facilitation is a process of using strategic questions (open ended questions are question that can lead to discussion-what do you like about your community?) to stimulate a people to discover their strength in other to tackle their concern. Further more, facilitation gives room for participation, sharing of ideas and transferring of knowledge. It‟s also an act of assisting local responses towards change. What do you understand by the word team? What is a Facilitation Team? A facilitation team is a pool of resource people with experience in community responses, which have the belief that local communities have strength to respond to their own challenges. It is also a way of working together to achieve a common goal, using facilitation approach as a tool. Facilitation Team ways of working; What ways of working help to achieve the vision of the facilitation team? SALT Tool Salt is a process used by the facilitation team or a facilitator to strengthen community responses. We use the word SALT to remind us of our ways of working: S-Share-Stimulate-support, Share A- Appreciate, Analyze L-Learn- Listen T-Transfer-Team Share: This is a process of communicating knowledge and understanding within a group/community context. The facilitation team relates their experiences with the local community and also learns from the community‟s experience. STIMULATE: Most people in the community respond to issues such as epilepsy, but in areas of emerging concerns such as HIV/AIDS people need motivation and encouragement to discover their own abilities to deal with these issues affecting them. SUPPORT: Support is not only demonstrated by giving materials or bringing expertise. As the visiting team accompanies, appreciates and learns more about the people‟s strength, it is possible to encourage them solve their problem by letting them to discover their strengths. Often people are not aware of their own strength, and this is true of all. APPRECIATE: The background attitude is appreciation of what people in a community are already doing; the first attitude is not one of looking for all the problems and weaknesses, but rather appreciating what is working. ANALYZED: The team will continually ANALYZED and STIMULATE analysis as the community gradually opens up discussion on significant issues, and acknowledges the underlying roots, such as HIV, orphans & vulnerable children and stigmatization and discrimination. It will become natural to reflect on what the community itself can do to response. SALT should normally happen as a series of visits, not only one. LEARN: The visiting team is in the community to learn, to understand, an again to appreciate, the strength of people to manage on their own lives. LINK: The LINK function will be expressed when the team begins to ask themselves the question, „who is not in this discussion?‟ For example, if discussion happens mainly with elders in a first visit, the team will find a way to meet with the youth. If discussion happens with the “upright citizens of a place, the team can seek a way to talk „troublemakers‟. If men are the first to discuss, then the team will want to discuss with women. This does no happen by criticizing those who are already active, but by always including others. And as discussion opens with different people in a community, the team will help to create opportunities to LINK the different conversations together. TRANSFER: Transfer is the function of the team members, to take something back to their own communities and organizations, and apply the approach there. Transfer also happens when community members link to others outside their own community (community to community transfer), and influence change in other places. For example, as stigma is reduced in one neighborhood, the idea that it is possible to live well with HIV will be shared to other places, through extended family links, and sometimes more systematically as well. The SALT team can encourage TRANSFER from one community to another (community to community transfer). TEAM: Here it is important for the TEAM to LEARN, and SUPPORT each other, to ask question about the connections, rather than point them out or attempt to „enlighten‟ the community about connections as the team sees them. This phase of the process is very important, to keep the responses in the hands of the community and not take over as „knowledgeable‟ persons. Action & Reflection Action-reflection means that the should prepare by remembering what SALT means, and the main topics of discussion, what are: Strengths: ability Concerns Hopes Ways of working: How do family and community now respond to the concerns and hopes mentioned? Digest After Action Review During a SALT visit, the team should help each other to follow the SALT approach. After a SALT visit, it is very important that the team immediately (before going home) discuss & reflect what they have learned from the experience, and how they could do better as a SALT team. LOCAL RESPONSE LOCAL RESPONSE MEANS decision taken and acted upon in the places where people live and connect (home and neighborhood community), change is recognized and measured, and motivation is from the community, not from outside. Community achieves effective responses when they acknowledge the problems they face, share concerns and make decisions and action. One of the strengths of the Salvation Army approach is that the boundary between church and the wider community is blurred. Whilst most of the facilitators usually come from within the Corps or other local church congregations, the responses being stimulated include those of community members more widely, regardless of church affiliation or attendance. Local response can be stimulated through a process of accompaniment, team work with local community members. The background to this and the practice of shared confidentiality. Concept transfer expands local responses and maintains their dynamic nature. They are based and the understanding that care for people lead to change in the community. STIMULATING LOCAL RESPONSES: Invitation can come in many ways, through a family, a person usually through a common link- YCD, Frontier or in a facilitation team process or because of a visit for some other purpose in which concerns and the possibility of change are mentioned. The expression of a problem by community members could be starting point for a relationship which may lead to an invitation. To respond to invitation is as responding to it. “If all money went direct to the communities there will be need for facilitation support, in order to develop the community‟s own strategy for response. Otherwise that money can be wasted.” „How have I changed in practical everyday terms? How have my attitudes to my neighbors changed? How have the changes in my own behavior improved my own and others‟ sense of wellbeing and competence to stay healthy?‟ This is an area ripe for further exploration. Accompaniment Accompaniment is the foundation for expressing care. Accompaniment is the behavior of being with people. It implies respect, the ability to listen and conviction that community can work together positive change. Accompaniment is shown through collective participation, reflection and application. This is based on the belief that people and communities have the power to respond to identify their concern, make decision, act and measure the effectiveness of their actions. Those accompanying local responses are integrated into the reality of others, rather than remaining on the outside and giving advice or direction. In accompaniment it encourages community memory formation, a community is a relationship, not a mechanism, so there is a history of how change has happened and how new things have entered the community. The community can be facilitated through a memory to identify present concern. People can realize that they have faced challenges of the moment and begin to plan action. Theme Definition Care is a supportive presence that accompanies people in their situation, for example, visiting neighbors or community visits. It reflects mutual support between family, neighbors, community, and a relationship of being with interacting with others. Care is often expressed and experienced as a relational through presence in homes and neighborhoods. Care has been translated in different language as love in action. Caring relationship is an enabling environment and catalyst for change. How is care sustained? What type of care is most effective for change to happen? Change occurs by the demonstration of care or he direct experience of care itself, which allows people to see the reality of HIV, and may result in a change in understanding and attitude. This may also occur in the person giving the care. Care helps to make change more likely to happen. Change does not just happen simply in persons in isolation but when the care and the change process is relational in nature, the change is expensive it is a foundation scaling. Who are the influential people to lead their communities into a sustainable change? The care to change linkage is also termed “care/prevention” linkage. It is a key strategic approach to expansion of circles of involvement in local community and organizational response to HIV/AIDS. Hope is the belief that something positive can happen, that change can happen. Hopes relates to both present and future. It is not only a belief but also an experience that a situation can and will be better. It requires valuing of the past, belief in the future and action in the present. This is not necessary tied to circumstance (i.e. it is not material based), it is something inside people. Hope can be individual or collective, that is, in some situations it may not be individually owned but, be in connection to others. Transfer: It refers to the sharing of meanings across boundaries, which include knowledge, experience and particularly concepts, or ideas such as care, community, change, leadership and hope. It also includes s transfer of ways thinking and approaching the situations such as team work and participation. It does not really mean transfer of activities. Transfer may occur spontaneously, or reflect a level of development within a community that demonstrate that they see needs beyond their own community and actively seek to engage in the process of sharing. The process is an experience of shared learning, as well as a contributing influence to going to scale at a national level. Who are the people involved in transfer as it continues to expand? What method can be used to sustain the spirit of originality in each community as transfer takes place? Spiritual life: The belief that the spiritual dimension is a significant part of everyday life and physical well being. It is a belief in the continuity of life beyond the physical. This notion is an important part of a holistic view of people and responses. “To produce and sustain anything of good quality, we need to go step by step in the process. All of us working together, sharing load, will bring success. If any part is eliminated, we will have a gap that weakens our work in communities.” Community counseling Community counseling is a process for helping a community to acknowledge issues, losses and feelings, as these are the emotional dimensions of relationship, intimacy, family life and future, and collective responsibilities and rights. The nature of HIV and AIDS makes it an issue particularly suited for this process. Counseling with a community is a process for helping acknowledgement and agreement to happen, leading to problem solving and behavior change. This has developed in response to HIV and AIDS, because so much change is needed in order to overcome this disease. The facilitators of the process are sometimes called community counselors, but they often have other tasks. Their function is to help sustain motivation, so some call them “community motivators”. Community counseling is an ongoing series of Facilitated community discussions, in which feelings and issues are explored and acknowledged, norms and actions are assessed, choices are considered, and decisions and commitments are made about the life of the community. Note: participatory methods and activities can also be used to strengthen community consciousness of the realities among then. This consciousness is the source of acknowledgement and action planning in the ongoing discussion meetings. Home visits in the same neighborhood also influence the consciousness of the group. Home visits are a necessary part of the strategy of community counseling. Issues within homes can be shared through developing relationship and using a counseling approach. These visits, with their own kind of confidentiality, will help concerns to come out in the community discussions. We as facilitators should not fear the opening of concerns in the community discussion. We can help issues to be acknowledged without direct reference to infected or affected individuals-without “naming names”. When home visits and community discussions are happening together, the change of attitudes and actions within the neighborhood will be faster. When home visits and community discussions are happening together, the change of attitudes and actions within the neighborhood will be faster. A pattern for home: In home visits and community discussions, a similar pattern can be followed. The facilitator greets, and helps everyone to feel at ease. Through some questions the facilitator opens the conversation, and then follows the line of discussion, keeping focus on what will lead to deeper reflection. At the end, some should summaries, and finally there should be agreement about what will happen next. This is not a formal outline, but a pattern to be expressed according to the cultural context. What guides the counselor? Expressions of feeling, emotion, comment about relationship, and any element of telling the truth and letting something out into the open-these are guideposts along the way to shared understanding and acknowledgment. Sometimes the counselor will need to pose a question to provoke thinking or challenge the surface of what is being said, in order to help the truth to come out. Counseling includes listening, reflecting back what has been heard, checking whether all agree or understand in the same way, helping people in the group to talk with each other about the meanings of their life together, asking probing questions, clarifying, challenging at times . . . for the sake of the community‟s self-awareness, belonging, and reconciliation, from which agreement and action can form. As truths about community life and risk are acknowledged in ever deeper levels of shared confidentiality, a sustained counseling process is needed to help the reflection on meaning, and to facilitate movement out of despondency or helplessness into positive action. Community counseling helps a community do the work of acknowledgement so they will be able to invest in life. Planning for response represents investment in life. It always is a sign of hope. Communities that have been living with HIV for a long time can lose energy and lose hope. Communities that are just becoming aware of a new challenge in their midst, in addition to all the other challenges they face, may try to avoid their own awareness. Yet the awareness is there, and it will drain their hope unless it can be acknowledged. HIV is clearly a problem which is denied. Often the community counselor must help the community to realize the problem they are facing. This is a challenging task which sometimes takes a long time. A counseling approach is used because fear and denial are an ongoing struggle, and because people must decide for themselves what to do. When relationship with a community is developed enough to allow discussion of HIV and related issues, exploration of problems from the community‟s point of view can take a long or a short time. The facilitator/counselor needs sensitivity to help the group move to decision making. Sometimes the discussion can be too big, but in the beginning it may be important to explore a range of concerns. If the facilitator becomes too anxious to reach a conclusion, some deeper issues may not come out and be acknowledged. So, although each meeting should conclude with the question, “What next?” at times the answer may simply be to meet again. A community may feel there is only one solution needed and only later realizing other aspects of the situation. Through questioning about the results of action they have taken, and how they know what these results are, the group will be able to explore further and consider other concerns. Community Counseling Cycle Relationship building (entry point) Measurement Concerns identified /documentation Strength Implementation Exploration of concern Decision making SALT VISIT We stimulate and we support and we transfer the responses to HIV/AIDS through the identification and the development of STRENGTHS in communities and individuals around the world. Strength is any characteristic or trait that helps people and communities to respond to the challenges. The consequences of this simple statement are huge. When we meet with communities we look for their strengths. We do not start from their weaknesses. Communities take action from strengths, not from problems. Looking for strengths is a very large challenge to many of us who consider ourselves to be experts. Our challenge as facilitators is to help build communities that are AIDS Competent. In an AIDS Competent Society, we as people, in communities, in organizations and in policy making act from strength: to acknowledge the reality of HIV/AIDS to build our capacity to respond to reduce our vulnerability and risk to allow everyone to live to their full potential and to share our experience with others What is a SALT Visit? A „SALT Visit‟ is a visit to a community by a SALT Team in which the SALT Team has a conversation with a community. The „SALT Team‟ conducts the conversation with the Why do we have a SALT Visit? A SALT Team visits a community: 1. To help the community to identify its strengths, concerns, hopes and its own resources. 2. To help the community to identify existing service providers within their community. 3. To share information with the community about network partners outside their community and to help to create links with them. 4. To give the community support necessary to continue to do the things they have been doing to improve their lives. How do you do a SALT Visit? Before the visit 1. Plan the visit (re the timing, venue, the purpose of the visits, etc.) with the community leaders e.g. Chiefs, women leaders, Church leaders etc. 2. A member of the SALT Team notifies partners/stakeholders to plan a visit to the community that has invited them to make a visit. 3. Prepare the visit among the SALT team with regard to the purpose of the visit, the process of the visit and the roles of each team member during the visit. 4. A visit, the SALT team introduces itself as people who are there to learn, and each member introduces themselves as a person, not by title. 5. The SALT Team applies the elements of SALT during the visit and after the visit. 6. The SALT Team does an After Action Review (AAR), reflects the results of the visit, what we learned, what might be next steps, and how the team could improve its practice of SALT. Our approach is to “listen and learn” from the community and appreciates their strengths and what is already being done. Key questions can be What are your concerns and hopes? What is already being done in the community? How do they do it? What have they learned? And what they want to do next. COMMUNITY DEPICTION Core Activities – SALT S- Support, stimulate A- Appreciate, analyze INTEGRATED STRATEGY L- Learn T- Transfer Corps SALT A Family Neighboring communities Larger community Market QUESTIONS FOR REFLECTION AND ANALYSIS What happened in the community? What have been important ways of working for the facilitation team? How did the team function and support each other? What did we learn from the community? How did we relate in situation such as language barrier, cultural differences? How did the facilitation team help connect people? What areas do we need to improve in our facilitation-both as a team, and as individual facilitators? FACILITATION TEAM BEHAVIOR „A working culture of facilitation depends for its integrity on a belief that people can respond whatever their situation, and a behavior that expresses accompaniment, learning and stimulation. It does not depend on provision of goods and services, although local communities often learn to access what they need through increased assertion and confidence.‟ Ian Campbell, 2002 BELIEF Behavior/Mission Culture All people have strength Participations with people in unveiling (capacity) to act and strength and discovering them respond together Care Presence (community-home environment) Accompaniment Shared suffering and hope Relationship Community Team Shared vision and accountability Shared strengths Change Facilitation Support for change Change in ourselves Learning from experience Leadership Advocacy Inspiration Encouragement vision Nurture leadership in others Hope Belief Strategies for/stories of hope REFLECTION 1. What was helpful about the Facilitation Approach? 2. What was not helpful? Please specify exactly what it was. 3. What would have been more helpful? 4. How did you work through the process? How else do you use it?