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Abolitionists Frederick Douglass • 1818 (Maryland) to 1895 • At 17, a slave breaker named Covey had beaten him on a daily • An escaped slave, a famous basis. After 6 months, Frederick orator, journalist and antislavery resisted Covey. After that Covey leader, who was self-educated. never attempted to beat him again. Before this event, Frederick believed that he was • His mother was Harriet Bailey and nothing and after it, he wrote that his father was an unknown white he was a man now. He described man this as the turning point of his life as a slave. • He was sent to Baltimore to work as an apprentice in a ship yard. In 1838, he obtained papers from a free black seaman and, dressed as a sailor, took a train to New York. Frederick Douglass • He married Anna Murray and had 5 children • He changed his surname, Johnson to Douglass, the name of a character in the poem “The Lady of the Lake” • His autobiographies were: • Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass (1845) • My Bondage and My Freedom (1855) • Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (1881/1882) • His newspapers were: • The North Star (1847-1863) • Frederick Douglass’ Weekly • Douglass’ Monthly Frederick Douglass • His house in Rochester was a station on the UGR • He was a friend of John Brown, but refused to join the rebellion • 1884, he married his white secretary, Helen Pitts, which outraged many blacks and whites. For him, the marriage symbolized one more victory in his lifelong crusade against racial discrimination. • Douglass also encouraged Lincoln to have an all black regiment in the American Civil War, which was the 54th Massachusetts Regiment Thomas Clarkson • 1760-1846 • Leading figure in the Abolition Society of Britain in 1787. • Spoke out against the slave trade and persuaded people not to buy slave- grown sugar. William Lloyd Garrison • 1805-1879 • From Massachusetts • He used his newspaper, The Liberator, to fight slavery • Helped organize the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1833, of which he was president. • Later he campaigned on behalf on the Native Americans and also for votes for women. Elijah Lovejoy • 1802-1837 • Born in Maine; Died in Alton, Illinois • A white abolitionist journalist and Presbyterian minister • He published a religious newspaper, The St. Louis Observer, and began to advocate the abolition of slavery. • After seeing a slave burned at the stake, his editorials became so strident against slavery that he became an object of hatred by both Southerners and slave-holders. His printing presses were frequently destroyed. Elijah Lovejoy • On Nov. 7th, 1837, Lovejoy and 20 supporters gathered at Godfrey & Gilman warehouse to guard a new press. • They were confronted by an angry mob and while trying to stop a fire, Lovejoy was shot. • The mob action at Godfrey & Gilman warehouse was the first, but unrecorded battle of the American Civil War. Sojourner Truth • Born about 1797 in New York and died in 1883. • She transformed herself from a domestic servant named Isabella Van Wagenen into a runaway slave, who became a favourite speaker at abolitionist rallies • In 1843, she changed her name to Sojourner Truth (Sojourner = a temporary resident) • She was a deeply religious woman who spent more than 40 years preaching and arguing against slavery. • She gave her famous “Ain’t I a Woman?” speech at the 1851 Women’s Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio. Harriet Beecher Stowe • 1811 (Connecticut) – 1896 • a white, American writer • She is most famous as the author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, a novel that made Northerners angry over slavery. • Published in 1852 • It condemned slavery and was an important factor precipitating the American Civil War Charles Sumner • 1811-1874 • From Massachusetts • A white US senator, who became the Senate’s leading opponent of slavery. • After one speech Sumner made against pro-slavery groups in Kansas in 1856, he was beaten unconscious by Preston Brooks, a congressman from South Carolina Harriet Tubman (Araminta Ross) • She was born in Dorchester County, Maryland. Her birth was not recorded, but it was app. 1820 • Both of her parents were from Africa and were taken into slavery • At age 12 she would not help her master tie up a fellow slave, who was being punished. Her master struck her in the head with a weight/rock, which caused her to have blackouts throughout her life. • At the 25 she married John Tubman, who was a free black Harriet Tubman (Araminta Ross) • She escaped slavery by using the Underground Railroad (UGR) • Stationmaster William Still, from Philadelphia taught everything she knew about the UGR • She became the most famous conductor of the UGR. • She rescued app. 300 slaves and did not lose anyone. She threatened death to anyone who tried to go back, as she carried 2 pistols • There was a $40,000 reward for her capture Harriet Tubman (Araminta Ross) • Her nickname was Moses, as she led her people to freedom • She was friends with Frederick Douglass & John Brown • During the American Civil War, she served as a nurse and spy for the Union. • After the American Civil War, she went to Auburn, New York, where she died in 1913
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