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TVET REFORMS in Ghana and Botswana

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TVET REFORMS in Ghana and Botswana Powered By Docstoc
					         BY
ERIC ODOTEI
Background
• West Africa – 17 nations:
   – 12 Francophone
   – 4 Anglophone – Gambia, Ghana, Sierra Leone & Nigeria
   – 1 Portuguese
• French speaking countries follow French TVET system
• English speaking countries follow English TVET
 system
Background
 FOCUS OF THE PAPER
    IN WEST AFRICA: TVET system of the English Speaking
     West Africa
    Specifically, the TVET system being developed in Ghana
    IN SOUTHERN AFRICA
    There are many countries – 15 SADC countries all at
     various levels of development
    Specifically, the TVET system in Botswana
 ANALYSIS OF THE TVET REFORMS IN BOTSWANA
 AND GHANA
Ghana TVET Reforms
 Part of Education Reforms launched in 2007.
 Two policy documents:
    TVET Policy Framework for Ghana,
    Council for Technical and Vocational Education and
     Training (COTVET) Act
1. TVET POLICY FRAMEWORK
 Priority TVET Sectors:
    Fisheries and Aqua Culture
    Agriculture and Agro-Related Industry
    Business and Commercial
    Arts and Crafts
    Electrical/Electronic Engineering
    Mechanical Engineering
    Automotive Engineering
    Building Construction
    Draughtsmanship
    Tourism and Hospitality
    Information and Communication Technology
Goals of the Framework
 Flexible human resource supply, responsive to changes
 in labour market

 Quality skilled workforce to produce goods that are
 competitive in the local and global market
Strategies of the Policy Framework
 Improvement of efficiency and management of
      TVET system
       Establishment of the Council for Technical and
        Vocational Education and Training (COTVET)
       Coordination of all aspects of TVET
Strategies of the Policy Framework
 Improvement of trainability of the workforce
   Introduction of compulsory subjects
        Computer Studies,
        Mathematics,
        General Science,
        Social Studies and
        English
        French (when teachers are available)
Strategies of the Policy Framework
 Improvement of training quality and relevance
   Demand driven and competency-based system
   Skill standards to be determined by industry
   Recognition of Enterprise-based training
   Implementation of open-access system, incorporating
    flexible delivery modes
 Sustainable funding of TVET
   Establishment of Skills Development Fund
2. THE COTVET ACT, 2006
 The functions of COTVET include:
    Formulate policies on skills development
    Coordinate, harmonise and supervise activities of both public
     and private providers
    Rationalise assessment and certification system
    Quality assure delivery within TVET
    Maintain a national database on TVET
    Facilitate research and development in TVET
    Source funding to support TVET activities
    Facilitate cooperation between training providers and
     industry
    Advise Govt on matters related to TVET management
The COTVET Act
 COTVET is governed by a Board which consists of 15
 persons, including
   A Chairperson from industry
   The Executive Director of the Council
   Representatives from government, employers
    associations, labuor organisations, institution of
    Engineers, association of private TVET institutions
   Two persons nominated by the State President
The COTVET Act
 For its activities, the COTVET has three standing
 committees, namely:
   The National TVET Qualifications Committee
   The Industrial Training Advisory Committee
   The Training Quality Assurance Committee
 The reforms in Ghana at its early stages of
 development
Botswana TVET Reforms – Policy
Documents
 The policy documents giving birth to the reforms are:
    National Policy on Vocational Education and Training
     (1997)
    The Vocational Training Act No 22 of 1998
The Vocational Training Act
 Legally established the Botswana Training Authority as
 a body corporate with the following objectives:
   Coordinate vocational training activities to achieve
    better integration
   Monitor and evaluate the VT system being developed
   Advise on policy related issues of VT
The Botswana Training Authority
 The Functions of the Authority include the following:
    Promote access to Vocational Training
    Accredit, register and monitor both public and private
     training institutions
    Accredit and register trainers of vocational training
    Develop and review national training standards
    Regulate assessment and testing in VT
    Initiate, support and conduct research in VT
Botswana Training Authority
 The Botswana Training Authority has been in
  existence for the last 10 years
 Has tried and tested its systems of quality assurance,
  monitoring and audits, standards development and
  moderation of assessment.
Governance of TVET
BOTSWANA                           GHANA
 BOTA is responsible for TVET      COTVET is responsible for
  awards up to Certificate Level     all levels of TVET provision
 TEC has oversight of all           (pre-tertiary and tertiary level
  awards from Diploma and            education and training).
  above, including all TVET
  awards
 Efforts now being made to
  bring all under one body -
  HRDC
NATURE AND DELIVERY OF TVET
BOTSWANA                       GHANA
 Outcomes based training       Outcomes based training
 Various institutions –        Various institutions –
  government, private, NGOs,     government, private, NGOs,
  community based                community based
QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORKS
                                   GHANA
BOTSWANA
                                    Nine Level TVET QF

                                    Level   Name of Award
 Three Level TVET
                                    9       Doctor of Technology
 Framework - BNVQF
                                    8       Master of Technology
                                    7       Bachelor of Technology
                                    6       Higher National Diploma
                                    5       National Diploma
  Level   Name of Award             4       National Certificate 2
  3       National Certificate      3       National Certificate 1
  2       Intermediate              2       National Proficiency 2
          Certificate
                                    1       National Proficiency 1
  1       Foundation Certificate
FRAMEWORKS
 It is important to note that Botswana has developed a
  Ten-Level National Credit and Qualifications
  Framework.
 Steps are underway to operationalise this through the
  establishment of NCQF Unit in the Ministry of
  Education and Skills Development
Other TVET Delivery Modes in
Botswana
 BTEP
    Foundation Certificate
    Certificate
    Advanced Certificate
    Diploma
 Trade Tests
    Trade Test C
    Trade Test B
    National Craft Certificate (NCC)
 Effort are being made to place these within the BNVQF and
  ultimately into the NCQF once operational
Certification
BOTSWANA                     GHANA
 BNVQF awards - BOTA         Three awarding bodies
 BTEP awards – Department
                               accredited by COTVET
  of Technical Vocational     Proficiency Levels (Levels 1
  Education and Training       and 2) – National Vocational
                               Training Institute (NVTI)
  (DTVET
                              Certificate Levels (Levels 3
 Trade test awards – MTTC     and 4) – NVTI and Dept of
                               Technical Education, MoE
                              Diploma upwards – National
                               Council for Tertiary
                               Education
Conclusion
 Ghana TVET reforms are just beginning
    Has a lot to learn from Southern Africa
    Study tours have been undertaken to Southern Africa
     including Botswana
 Ghana has a unique TVET QF which provides parallel
 alternative route to academic education for those who
 go through the TVET route

				
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posted:4/19/2011
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