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					                            The Endocrine System




http://www.ama -
assn.org/ama1/pub/upload/images/446/endocrinesystematlas.gif
             Chapter 43 Vocab
•   1.Hormone             •   7. Negative feedback
•   2. Endocrine gland    •   8. Thyroid gland
•   3. Target cell        •   9. Hypothalamus
•   4. Pituitary gland    •   10. Pancreas
•   5. Adrenal gland
•   6. Receptor Protein
   Hormones help to regulate the
             body.
• Hormones- secreted         • Coordinates the
  by cells to regulate the     production, use and
  activity of other cells.     storage of energy.
• Regulates many             • Homeostasis
  process                       –   Nutrition
   –   Growth                   –   Metabolism
   –   Development              –   Excretion
   –   Behavior                 –   Water and salt balance
   –   reproduction
      Different types of glands
• Endocrine Glands            • Exocrine glands
  – Ductless glands             – Deliver substances
  – Secrete hormones              through ducts
    directly into the blood     – Pancreas-both
    stream                        endocrine and exocrine
  – Liver, brain, stomach,        gland
    small intestine, kidney     – Sweat glands, mucus
    and heart                     glands, salivary and
                                  digestive glands
Neurotransmitters vs. Hormones
• Neurotransmitters are fast-acting and short-
  lived.
• Hormones are slower-acting and long-
  lived.
• Together they help the body to
  communicate and maintain homeostasis
             How Hormones Work
• Target cells-a specific
  cell a hormone acts on
• Receptors-located on
  the surface of the
  target cell or inside the
  cell.
• Lock and key model-
  hormone matches the
  shape of receptor
  protein


                              http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/basics/targets.gif
http://www.emcom.ca/images/hormone.gif
 The Release of Hormones Must
         Be Regulated
• Feedback mechanisms
   – Positive feedback
      • High level of hormone
        stimulates the release of
        more hormone
   – Negative feedback
      • High levels of hormone
        inhibits(stops) the
        production of more
        hormones.
      • Low levels of hormones
        stimulates the production
        of more hormones
                                    http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/course/3443/study/Notes/endocrin/HORMFEM.jpg
              Example of Negative Feedback




http://hk.geocities.com/littleuniverse1/bio3.47.jpg
            Review Questions
• 1. What is a hormone?
• 2. What is the difference between an endocrine
  and exocrine gland?
• 3. How DO neurotransmitters and hormones work
  together to maintain homeostasis?
• 4. What do you call the specfic cell that a hormone
  acts on?
• 5. Give an example of a negative feedback loop.
The Major Glands




              http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/end
              ocrorgs.gif
                          The Glands
• Hypothalamus
   – Coordinates the activities of
     the endocrine and nervous
     system
   – Receives info about internal
     and external conditions
   – Sends hormones to pituitary
• Pituitary gland
   – Master gland
   – Secretes hormones that
     control other glands


                                     http://www.miqel.com/clusterheadaches/hypothalamus-CH.jpg
           The Thyroid Gland
1Controls metabolism
– A. Hypothyroid- too little
   hormone is produced.
– B. Hyperthyroid-too much
   hormone is produced.
– Goiters- result of iodine
   deficiencies
2. Regulates calcium
   a. calcitonin- deposits
   calcium in bones.
   b. PTH- stimulates bone
   cells to break down done to
   release calcium.

                                 http://www.merck.com/media/mmhe2/figures/fg163_1.gif
Hyperthyroid




               http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/mech/cases/c
               ase15/image49.jpg
http://www.thyroidmanager.org/figures21/21-2.gif




                                                   Goiters




                                                         http://www.thyroidmanager.org/figures20/fig20-5.JPG
             The Adrenal Gland
1.Epinephrine or adrenalin
     a. increases metabolism
     b. heart rate, blood
   pressure, etc.
2. Norephinephrine-constricts
   blood vessels
3. Fight or flight response
4. Long-term response to
   stress
   a. cortisol-makes energy
   available to the body.
   long term can suppress
   immune system
   b. aldosterone-helps sodium
     increases blood volume
   and blood pressure
                                 http://www.bartleby.com/images/A4images/A4adregl.jpg
     Pancreas-an endocrine and
          exocrine gland
• 1. Islets of
  Langerhans-makes
  insulin and glucagon
• 2. Insulin- controls the
  amount of glucose in
  the blood.
• 3. Glucagon- raises
  blood glucose level.

                      http://stemcells.nih.gov/StaticResources/info/scireport/images/figure71.jpg
• A. type I- 10% of cases
     – Hereditary                                          Diabetes
     – Autoimmune disease
     – Insulin dependent
• B. Type II –90% of cases
     – Can treat with diet and
       exercise




 http://www.irishhealth.com/content/image/238/Image1.gif       http://www.fda.gov/fdac/graphics/2002graphics/insulin.jpg
          Regulating Reproduction
• 1. Ovaries- produce
  estrogen
• 2. Testes-produce
  testosterone




                        http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/TESTES&OVARIES.gif
       Regulating Daily Rhythms
• 1. Makes melatonin
• 2. Exact function not
  sure
• 3. Melatonin- is
  released in response to
  light.
• 4. Seasonal affective
  disorder(SAD)




                       http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/local/projects/s_thipayang/melatoninchart.jpg
          Review Questions
• 6. What regulates the activities of both the
  endocrine and nervous system?
• 7. Which gland is called the master gland and
  why?
• 8.What does the thyroid gland control?
• 9. How do you prevent a goiter?
• 10. What two hormones does the pancreas make
  that regulate blood glucose levels?
• 11. Name the main male and female reproductive
  hormones.
• 12. What gland makes melatonin?
• 13. What is the difference between type I and II
  diabetes?
Got Steroids?




 http://www.ianabolicsteroids.com/images/img.jpg
         What are steroids?

•   The term steroid refers to any synthetic
    (man made) or naturally occurring fat
    soluble compound that has a physiological
    response.
•   There are many different types of steroids.
•   Some of the more common types are
    anabolic-androgenic, and corticosteroids.
                 Steroids

• Anabolic-androgenic
  steroids are derived
  from male
  testosterone.
• Corticosteroids are
  produced in the
  adrenal cortex.
Human Growth Hormone (HGH)
Who is it meant for?
   • Currently approved for adults with growth
     hormone deficiency
      – Ex. Adults who have undergone radiation
        therapy, or have had pituitary gland tumors.
   • Available by prescription only
   • Available for children with the following
     conditions:
      – Stunted growth
      – Kidney failure
      – Prader-Willi syndrome
      – Turner’s Syndrome
                                              Growth Hormone
 Older sister




http://www.schoolscience.co.uk/content/4/biology/abpi/hormones/images/girls.jpg
                                                                                  Too much growth hormone.
                                                                                           http://www.rtp.pt/images/articles/138429/chi.jpg
Guinness World Record
holder for the tallest man
alive.
Leonid Stadnyk
Ukraine
2.57 m (8 ft 5.5 in)
Stadnyk suffers from
acromegalic gigantism caused
by a tumour on his pituitary
gland that stimulated the
over-production of the growth
hormone.
        Side Effects of HGH
Common side effects:
   •   Swelling in your arms and legs
   •   Arthritis-like symptoms
   •   Carpal tunnel symptoms
   •   Headaches
   •   Bloating
   •   Muscle pain
   •   Diabetes
   •   Abnormal growth of bones and internal organs
   •   Hardening of the arteries
   •   High blood pressure
   •   Some cases it has been known to cause cancer
               Effects of steroids
• Anabolic-androgenic steroids:
      •   Increase muscle mass
      •   Increase strength
      •   Increase endurance
      •   Increase in “male characteristics”
      •   Increased regenerative ability


• Corticosteroids
      • Mimics the action of cortisone
      • Cortisone is produced naturally in the body to reduce
        inflammation and help the body heal.
                  Side Effects
Anabolic-androgenic
steroids
 1.   Decreased liver
      function
 2.   Suppression of natural
      testosterone production
 3.   Increase in cholesterol
      levels and blood
      pressure
 4.   Altered thyroid function
 5.   Headaches
 6.   Increased body and
      facial acne
           Side Effects
7. Nose bleeds
8. Stunted growth in
    teenagers
9. Accelerated growth in
    tumors (Lyle Alzado)
10. Testicular atrophy from
    decreased natural
    testosterone production
11. Long cycles of steroids
    can cause depression and
    “roid rage”
              Side Effects
Corticosteroids
 1.   Mask pain
 2.   Can cause a bigger appetite
 3.   Weight gain
 4.   Mood swings
 5.   Headaches
 6.   Trouble sleeping
Steroid use by athletes.
Jose Canseco’s Book
Steroid use by athletes.
          Steroid use by athletes.
Barry Bonds started his career in 1986 at the age of 22.
International Olympic Committee

• First time offense – stripped of medals,
  banned for minimum of two years.
• Second offense – banned from competing
  for life.
What Olympic athlete was in the news recently for
          admitting to steroid use?

               Marion Jones

				
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posted:4/19/2011
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