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									Dis-integration and re-integration -Library
          management systems

           National Acquisitions Group
          Annual Conference 2007
                  Robert Bley
            Sales Account Manager
                   Ex Libris
Back to the future…
 Predictions from the past…
 The Future of Library Systems, Seen from the Past, by
 Karen Coyle, in Journal of Academic Librarianship 33(1),
 p138.




                 Library Systems of the Future
Back to the future…
What most futurologists got right:
 Remote access to the library
 Reduced need for physical storage
 Regional catalogues facilitating ILL




                Library Systems of the Future
Back to the future…
Predications that came close(ish) to the mark:
  Computers take-over all ordering, cataloguing,
  check-in, and circulation
  Glowing future for librarians as “information
  consultants”
  Speech interfaces
  Libraries of the future would be less expensive
  Automation of concept-linking
  “Thinking machines” answering reference questions


               Library Systems of the Future
Back to the future…
What most futurologists got wrong:
 OPAC would be the focus of library development
 No IPR issues anticipated
 Disintermediation - not anticipated
 User independence – not anticipated
 Home access would be via the TV
 Search engines outside library control
 The competitive information landscape



              Library Systems of the Future
Back to the future…
Lessons:




            Library Systems of the Future
Library Systems of the Future
Agenda
 “Internal” functionality
 User-facing functionality
 Integration
 Conclusions and “predictions” 




              Library Systems of the Future
      An E-Resources Management System:
               the       vision

“ A system that supports management of the
 information and workflows necessary to efficiently
 select, evaluate, acquire, maintain, renew/cancel and
 provide informed access to e-resources in
 accordance with their business and license terms”
      - Ivy Anderson, Robin Wendler (Harvard
 University Library) and Ellen Duranceau (MIT
 Libraries)



                Library Systems of the Future
ERM: A staff tool that deals with…
 Relationships
   Interfaces, Packages, and their constituent parts
   Knowing which resources share the same interface, license
   terms, business terms …

 Information
   License permissions and constraints
   User IDs, passwords, administrative info
   Contacts for support and troubleshooting
   Cancellation restrictions, price caps, etc.

 Workflows
   Trials
   Renewals/cancellations
   Implementing access
   Notifying relevant staff

 …according to the DLF ERMI “standard”

                    Library Systems of the Future
Basic ERM Data Elements

Element                          Includes data points
                                 such as….
Descriptive                      Title fields, holdings,
                                 publisher, ISSN, interface,
                                 package…
Licensing                        Authorized users, ILL rights,
                                 archiving rights…
Financial                        Price, price cap, relationship
                                 to print…
Administrative and Support       Administrative password,
                                 vendor contact information…
Access                           Authorization method

                  Library Systems of the Future
The bottom line:
 ERM is about more than statistics and licenses

 ERMs are (or will become) the library‟s corporate
 memory for all factors related to electronic resources at
 all levels

 In filling that role, ERMs become central to all process
 and all services within the library

 Interoperability with ERMs is vital for all players
 in the information chain – including publishers


                 Library Systems of the Future
Why ERM? (Management View)
 Manage lifecycle events for e-products
 Financial management and audit-ability
 Tool to centrally store and maintain contracts,
 licenses, other raw documents
 Rationalize ER processing and related procedures
 Search, retrieve, report across management
 attributes
 Harvest, calculate, apply user and financial statistics
 Support consistent workflows to support data quality
 Ensure compliance with license terms!


                Library Systems of the Future
The bigger picture
 Legacy systems                              ERM‟s role
   ILS Serials                                    Process management
   ILS Acq                                        Link Server interaction
   Homegrown ERM                                  ILL / resource sharing
   Licensing                                      Business transaction
   ILL                                            Financial system
   ILS OPAC                                       interoperability
   Spreadsheets &                                 Permission authority
   paper records                                  Central and integrated




                  Library Systems of the Future
ERMs today touch many different areas

                             VLEs


         Authentication
                                                            Serials

      Library Web                                                     Link resolvers
      Applications
                                                                          OPACs

                                                            Content providers
                                                            (& agents?):
Campus Finance                                              •Statistics
   Systems
                                                            •Holdings
                                                            •Licenses
     Metasearch
                                                            •Orders, Renewals
                     Acquisitions          ILL Management
                                                            •Help Desk

                           Library Systems of the Future
And the current ILS model is …




            Library Systems of the Future
Dis-integrating, or perhaps




             Library Systems of the Future
Re-forming around a new model




           Library Systems of the Future
The DLF ERMI data model: A useful starting point?



     Print               Interface




             Standalone                  Package




             Constituents (e-journals, e-books)
                 Library Systems of the Future
                                                    19
DLF ERMI entity relationship model

                                      e-Product

  Licensee
                                      e-Interface
               License

  Licensor
                                      e-Package                  Admin
              Prevailing
                terms
                                     e-Constituent               Access



                                                                Bib. record
             Acquisitions



  Vendor                    Cost    Usage    Workflow   Trial

                   Library Systems of the Future
Beyond ERM: “Unified Resource Management”

 Unified solutions that go beyond
 traditional silos and boundaries
    Print – Digital – Electronic
    Multiple formats (MARC, RDA, dc, RDF,…)
    Owned – Subscribed – Pay Per Use
 Support business processes and task-based
 workflows
 Support standardization and interoperability to
 reduce cost of ownership



                 Library Systems of the Future
What we can expect in the immediate future?
  Discovery and delivery tools will become more
  distinct from ILS/LMS in presentation and
  function

  ERMs will feed just-in-time data to any public
  service applications (including discovery, link
  resolvers, metasearch, library web apps, VLEs
  and institutional portals)

  ERMs will eventually subsume (and then, expand
  on) large portions of current library systems‟
  “Acq and Serials” functionality and responsibility

  EDI is not enough…
                Library Systems of the Future
The immediate future (2)

 As the notion of an ILS morphs, interoperability
 among the ERM and other vendors‟ systems
 becomes essential – not just for management,
 but also because …

 Library efficiency measures and statistics will
 assume a streamlined management process and
 interoperability with other institutional and
 external systems



               Library Systems of the Future
The immediate future (3)

  Increased demand on content providers from
  ERMs and libraries for rapid implementation of
  SUSHI, License Expression transmission, etc.

  Increased transparency from content providers
  on pricing (esp. titles within packages) for
  meaningful cost-per-use numbers




               Library Systems of the Future
Top 7 Standards Wish List
  7. Standard for communicating IP address changes to
      content providers

  6. Standard for vendors to communicate real-time
      availability (that is, advise when you‟re down and
      when you‟re back up)

  5. A sub-library level unique library identifier –
      something like the SAN but international in scope.
      ISO 15511 (ISIL) doesn‟t do it …

  4. A unique collection identifier for aggregations and
      databases: like an ISBN per e-package

                 Library Systems of the Future
Wish List…
3. ACQUISITIONS – a set of standard structures
  that would encapsulate elements relevant to an
  acquisitions transaction:
    Order record
    Invoice record
    Vendor information (selected)

    X.12 and current EDI doesn‟t do the job




                Library Systems of the Future
Wish List
2. SUSHI
  http://www.niso.org/committees/SUSHI/SUSHI_
  comm.html
- Will enable evidence-based librarianship




              Library Systems of the Future
Wish List
1. License exchange format
   http://www.editeur.org/onix_licensing.html
-Will make it easier to tell users what they can(„t) do
-Will ensure compliance – linked to link resolvers,
   proxy servers and so on…
-Will make for easier comparisons
-Will reduce ambiguity
-… and paperwork!
- There may be a role for intermediaries here?


                Library Systems of the Future
Other vendor <--> library transmissions?
Publisher to Library
  Suspected license breach communications to
  library
  Interaction with library financial systems on pay-
  per-use titles
  Non-e-journal and non-e-book identification and
  electronic delivery (for instance, patents,
  technical reports, digital objects)

Library to Publisher
  Customer incident reporting to publisher when
  resource misbehaves
  License expression delivery/receipt with library-
  based changes (versioning)
                Library Systems of the Future
…but the most important standard is simple,
available and being used now!
 Web services
 Well used in enterprise-level business computing
 Fundamental architecture for large-scale complex business
 applications
 Trend in business: Creating service-oriented business
 applications using Web services for all aspects of
 communication among the many applications involved in an
 organisation's business & information infrastructure
 Application in libraries: Allows back-end MARC-based systems
 to feed presentation systems based on more mainstream
 formats (e.g. XML).
 Allows innovative presentation / interpretation and social
 computing


                   Library Systems of the Future
User-facing systems
 The OPAC
 Institutional repositories
 Other local repositories
 Remote resources
 VLE/MLE
 Institutional portal and portlets
 Amazon, Google, Ask…
 Flickr, FaceBook, Connotea, YouTube, del.icio.us,
 and many many others….



                 Library Systems of the Future
User-facing systems
 The most “2.0” of current library systems is the
 OpenURL

 Connects open sites with library-controlled resources

 Effectively a new type of catalogue the user never sees

 But there‟s much more to 2.0…




                 Library Systems of the Future
Library services increasingly touch many other areas




                 Library Systems of the Future
User-facing systems: expectations

 “Community”

 Interactivity, not passive consumption of information

 Question “does my library have this book?” is now “is
 this book available anywhere in any format?”

 “What does my library have on this topic?” is now
 “what exists on this topic, anywhere?”



                 Library Systems of the Future
Delivering on those expectations

Web services: Enables back-end (MARC-based)
systems to feed presentation systems using
mainstream formats (e.g. XML)

Allows innovative presentation / interpretation and
“social computing”

“Just in case” web-crawling gives faster response
times, plus access to a wider range of resources in a
single search


                Library Systems of the Future
        New Architecture: Decoupling
    user services from library management
Front                                                                          Metasearch
-end                 Discovery & Delivery


                              Primo repository
                                                                                 Databases
                      H A R V E S T I N G                                        ProQuest

                                                                               EBSCOHost

Back                Digital       Knowledge                   Institutional       Journals
         ILS                                     CMS/LMS
-end              Repositories      Bases                       Websites
                                                                                Repositories
        Voyager    DigiTool          ERM            Sakai
         Aleph     DSpace        Link resolver   BlackBoard
                                                                              Internet Services
        Unicorn    TV News             …           Moodle
           …         …                …              …                        Google Scholar

                                 Institutional                                  External

                          Library Systems of the Future
Library Systems of the Future
One-click access to what the user wants




Library Systems of the Future
Library Systems of the Future
   Faceted browsing




Library Systems of the Future
Library Systems of the Future
Library Systems of the Future
Library Systems of the Future
Library Systems of the Future
Library Systems of the Future
Library Systems of the Future
In conclusion – the “back end”
E-products have changed the priorities for standards in data
interchange, but we still need some library-specific standards

Previous models for automated library management are changing,
largely because of e-products

The ERM will be the nexus/crossroad/bridge between libraries and
content providers and other suppliers

The ERM will ultimately supplant the ILS for many (perhaps even most)
back-room functions (my opinion :-) )

Content providers will need to exchange data with such systems

The most important developing standards for streamlining the “back
end” are (1) the electronic expression of license terms and (2) the
automation of COUNTER stats collection
                     Library Systems of the Future
 In conclusion – the “front end”
Web Services enable:
 The most important “standard” for streamlining the
 “front end” is already there: Web Services.
 Enables re-integration within the library
 Taking the service to the user
 Choice
 Innovation
 Marketing
 Lower costs
 Better integration with systems outside the library, the
 institution and the industry
                 Library Systems of the Future
In conclusion
Main problem with Web 2.0 technologies lies in the creation of
even more “information silos”: blogs, wikis, the library
catalogue, digital library collections and so on.

Technology standards now enable provision of all these
features on the front end, while facilitating better internal
resource management.

The new generation of the Web involves not just a more
interactive (Service Orientated Architecture) approach (e.g.
social computing), but it also facilitates dynamic communication
of between systems behind the scenes.




                   Library Systems of the Future
  Predictions
  No library futurologists predicted the rise of a vibrant
  information environment outside the library

  So my predictions might not take account of some similarly
  crucial future development 

  Need to look at examples and technology, and social, political
  and economic developments outside the library world

That said…
  A mix and match approach will be used increasingly to build
  user-orientated systems
  E-Indentity / authentication issues will be addressed
  Google crawlability of OPACs
  Inventing the future is a never-ending process


                     Library Systems of the Future
The evolution of library systems                        Decoupled
                                                        architecture
                 Repository                             enables
                  software                              libraries to
                                                        revolutionize
                   ERMs                                 the front-end
                                                        while continuing
                                                        the back-end
                  OpenURL
                                                        evolution
                   etc…




Physical Physical + Electronic/  User     Unified
 Assets +e add-ons    Digital Experience Resource
(1980’s) (1990’s)     Assets    (2006) Management
                     (2000’s)            (future)

  ILS
           +         ERM                          URM


                  Library Systems of the Future
   Thank You!




Robert Bley
robert.bley@exlibris.co.uk




                       Library Systems of the Future

								
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