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									                IIEP Strategic Seminar, 19 February 2009

                           Planning for change:
         the role of Medium-Term planning in the policy-planning-
                             budgeting chain

                            The preparation of the
        National Strategic Plan for Pre-University Education Reform in
                          Egypt 2007/08 – 2011/12

                          Presented by Dr. Klaus Bahr,
      President of the Association for the Promotion of Eduaction, ProEd

This theme of the Strategic Seminar was chosen because the recent Egypt
planning experience (i) provides a good insight into modern applied education
planning and (ii) is a good example for IIEP’s hands-on planning support at
country level.

                   Contents of presentation:
                     I - Origin of IIEP – Gvt.of Egypt cooperation
                    II - Country context
                   III - Planning approach
                    IV - Planning process
                     V - Planning methodology
                    VI - Results

   In his personal capacity Klaus Bahr served as leader of the IIEP team which assisted
the Ministry of Education of Egypt in the preparation of the Strategic Education Plan.
              IIEP Strategic Seminar 19 Febr.2009 / Preparation of EGYPT Education Plan / K.Bahr presentation (handout final text)

 I - Origin of IIEP – Gvt.of Egypt cooperation

In 2006/2007 the Government of Egypt prepared the National Strategic Plan For
Pre-University Education Reform in Egypt 2007/08 – 2011/12 to reinforce the
ongoing education sector reform process and to serve as a pilot for
modernization of public sector management. [1]

The Ministry of Education (MOE) chose the IIEP (UNESCO) as its only
international parnter for plan preapation because it wanted a neutral, non-
funding, competent (experienced), international partner
         to provide technical planning advice, and
         to play a catalytic role in the planning process.

II - Country context

Egypt, like many other countries, is:
    modernizing public sector management
          - Gvt. finance, public budget (medium term finance planning (MTEF),
            program based budgeting (PBBS),
          - decentralization
          - sector planning (program and result based planning, implementation

       reforming the education sector (access (social outreach), quality, (cultural,
       social, economic) relevance )

       participating in international programs (EFA/FTI , PRGS, MDG) and
       cooperation approaches (Swap).

III – The planning approach

MOE applied a planning approach which places the Sector Plan in the
center of the policy – planning – budgeting chain:

        the long-term policy goals are translated into
           a medium-term (5-year) plan with medium-term targets and
           action programs, which
               inform the annual budget
                 (within a medium-term-expenditure framework)

   Egypt’s education sector is divided into a pre-university sector and a university level sector. Each
is under a separate Ministry. Each has its own, specific planning approach and plan.

                IIEP Strategic Seminar 19 Febr.2009 / Preparation of EGYPT Education Plan / K.Bahr presentation (handout final text)

The planning approach (i.e. the planning process, methodology and
tools) had to be capable of:
    reconciling the range of (often different) policy goals
          and (often different) targets
                and (often different) implementation priorities
                    of the principal stakeholders;
        assessing the feasibility of the Plan goals, targets and priorities,
        (in terms of human, material and financial resources)
       and identification of resource gaps and ways to close them;

                in order to build consensus,
                which is an essential condition for ensuring feasibility of plan
                implementation (particularly of those reform measures which require
                change of habits and attitudes, cooperation of partners with diverging
                interests, and new resource allocation patterns).

Principal stakeholders include all those entities who decide on essential
components of the functioning of the sector:
   Prime Minister’s Office,
     Ministry of Education, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning,
       General Authority for Educational Buildings,
          decentralized government authorities (Governors and
                                 Governorate level administrations),
            teacher and parent representatives,
             authorities in charge of the Azhar-school system
             (non- government, religious schools with a curriculum more or less
             similar to that in public schools),
                major external education sector partners (USAID, World Bank,
                 UNICEF, etc.).

IV – Planning process

The principal features of the planning process were:
  technical competence,
    dialogue and negotiation between major stake holders, guided and
      coordinated by MoE,
       modern planning methodology: (i) use of analytical evidence rather than
       hierarchical or political influence, and (ii) use of a country-specific
       education simulation model (ESM) as principal support tool for dialogue
       and decision taking.

Technical competence
A special plan preparation unit (Policy and Strategic Planning Unit, PSPU) in
MoE was set up, reporting directly to the Minister, headed by a former deputy
education minister, operating with its own budget [2], composed of staff recruited
from inside and outside MOE [3], and supported by an international team from

      Budget support from MoE, UNICEF and an AED (USAID-funded) public sector reform project.
      Six of the 10 core staff of the PSPU were former IIEP – ATP participants.
                 IIEP Strategic Seminar 19 Febr.2009 / Preparation of EGYPT Education Plan / K.Bahr presentation (handout final text)

At the request of MOE and funded by UNICEF, IIEP fielded an International
Planning Support Team. The IIEP Team was de facto integrated into the
national team, the PSPU. It was associated to all phases of plan preparation
throughout the entire planning cycle [4].

Through intensive learning-by-doing capacity building the IIEP team provided
the planning concept, the planning methodology, and the principal planning tool.
All three are based on the UNESCO Handbook for Decentralized Education
Planning (English 2005, French 2006, Arabic 2007).

12 working groups for the major programs included in the Plan, each
composed of 20-30 national experts and representatives of stakeholders, carried
out situation analyses and formulated draft programs.

Dialogue and negotiation to build consensus
Several workshops and seminars, involving several hundred persons from
central government and governorate levels and a range of national experts,
discussed and validated (i) the working group analyses and proposals and (ii)
draft Plan chapters.

The PM’s Office and Cabinet of Ministers was kept informed on planning
progress. This served to gradually familiarize senior decision makers with draft
goals, targets, programs, priorities and to gauge their political feasibility.
Backing by the Minister was obtained gradually as the planning process unfolded
and the plan document took shape, both becoming increasingly convincing.

V - Planning methodology

To support the dialogue-planning process and to respect the Government goals
for modernization of public sector management, the PSPU needed
     a technical tool capable of:
      (i) being suitable for the national decision process (for resource
           allocation, reform measures, etc.),
      (ii) serving dialogue and negotiations between stakeholders,
     (iii) providing analysis,
      (iv) ensuring coherence of data used,
       (v) making projections,
      (vi) assessing resource implications of targets and programs in terms of
           human, material and financial resources and identification of resource
     (vii) reconciling the different goals/targets/programs implied by
           international programs (EFA, PRGS, MDG) with national priorities,
    (viii) facilitating program-based and result oriented planning and budgeting,
      (ix) facilitating the introduction of medium-term finance planning, within a
            medium-term expenditure framework (MTEF),
       (x) rendering the Plan (targets, programs, financial projections) suitable
            for implementation monitoring and ad-hoc adjustments in future (thus
            laying the basis for a rolling plan).

      About 30 person-months of 4 IIEP experts during the 14 months of Plan preparation in 2006-2007.
           IIEP Strategic Seminar 19 Febr.2009 / Preparation of EGYPT Education Plan / K.Bahr presentation (handout final text)

The PSPU developed and applied such tool:
       the Egypt-ANalysis and PROjection-Model
               (the Egypt-ANPRO-Model)

It is a country-specific adaptation of the ANPRO-Model contained in the
UNESCO Handbook for Decentralized Education Planning. The template model of
the Handbook was adapted to the structure and functioning of Egypt’s education
system, its decision process, its sector policy objectives and the Government’s
policy of modernization of public sector management

The principal features of the Egypt-ANPRO-Model are presented in the
Annex to this Strategic Seminar note. -- The Egypt-ANPRO-Model can be
downloaded from the INESM (Inter-agency Network on Eduaction
Simulation Models) Web Site “”
  on Home page go to Egypt AnPro 2007        go to ESM-File Egypt-AnPro

VI – Results

The planning approach (process, methodology, tools, in particular the Egypt-An-
Pro-Model) applied by the Ministry of Education, and supported by the Ministry of
Finance (in charge of recurrent budget matters) and the Ministry of Planning (in
charge of capital budget matters), puts Egypt among the group of countries
worldwide that have developed and apply modern, state-of-the-art education
planning. It is now at the top of the countries of the North Africa- Middle East

In particular:
(i) The planning process resulted in consensus among the principal
stakeholders on goals, targets, major programs, implementation priorities,
financial framework.

(ii) The Plan document “National Strategic Plan for Pre-University Education
Reform in Egypt 2007/08 – 2011/12”, approved by the Government (Cabinet of
Ministers and the Governors’ Council), constitutes Egypt’s comprehensive and
exclusive pre-university education sector policy.

 (iii) The Government and donors consider the planning process, methodology
and tools, and the Plan document to be pilots for other sectors.

(iv) The planning approach (process, methodology & tools) has become the
basis for decentralized planning. All Governorates apply it.

(v) The Plan has become the basis for the development of an education
sector MTEF; which also serves as pilot for other sectors.

(vi) The Plan is the exclusive reference document for all external
development assistance for the education sector. Donors place their
cooperation within the framework of the Plan. This ensures high impact of their
programs on reform of the sector.

           IIEP Strategic Seminar 19 Febr.2009 / Preparation of EGYPT Education Plan / K.Bahr presentation (handout final text)

(vii) MoE has acquired modern planning competence, which improves its
sector management capacity and strengthens its negotiating capacity,
particularly with MinFin, MinPlan and donors. – The special planning unit in MOE
has been given a wider mandate that includes (i) technical support to
Governorates for developing and applying decentralized planning, and (ii) central
monitoring of Plan implementation; in particular technical support to central
(MOE) and top Governorate level education authorities for the design of Plan
implementation programs.

(viii) The use of the Egypt-ANPRO-Model has increased coherence of
education statistics and created common education planning terminology
(a glossary) which is now introduced country wide (in all Governorates) and
sector wide, thus improving coherence and comparability of planning analysis,
projections and implementation monitoring.

(ix) The planning capacity built, in particular the modern planning
approach (with the Egypt-ANPRO-Model as central component), are fully
nationally owned. MOE has signaled that it does no longer need external
assistance for the development of concepts, methodology, tools. It continues to
use external funds and experts to strengthen the application of modern sector
planning at central and Governorate level.

(x) The IIEP has gained “grass roots” planning experience which it can
feed into its ongoing process of reviewing and updating relevant parts of its
training programs.

                                      *                                      *


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