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					  Modeling Computer Integrated
  Construction Site Management


 A thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements
            for the award of the degree of




              Master of Philosophy


                          By



                    Jae Ho Lee

                     B.Civil Eng




                        From




              School of Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology


             GRIFFITH UNIVERSITY
             GOLD COAST CAMPUS


                      June 2003
                           Declaration




This work has not previously been submitted for a degree or diploma in any
university. To the best of my knowledge and belief, the thesis contains no
material previously published or written by another person except where due
reference is made in the thesis itself.




                                                               Jae Ho Lee
                                                                June 2003
Modeling Computer Integrated Construction Site Management




                                                                         Abstract

Construction is one of the most information-dependent industries compared to other sectors.
Computers have been used to improve the efficiency of management in most businesses
including the construction industry. Treating information efficiently is the key to
maintaining an edge over competitors and for success in business. However, in order to
succeed, companies must choose a management system that is most suited to their
operations. The difficulty about computerization in civil engineering is that the construction
industry does not have trained IT experts with Civil engineering or Management
background. Although there are many computer applications for project management,
almost all the applications required some form of manual modification for updating
information.
In a construction project, time and accurate information is vitally important in order to
accomplish scheduled completion. A small change in plan costs money and time in both the
traditional methods as well as current IT applications. The main reason is that there is no
direct link between the head office and the regional site office and there is no “quick” link
between site office and site engineers who are out in the field for most of the time. This
study proposes the design of an information transfer system to improve construction site
management. A Web-based Construction Site Management system called “WCSM” will be
developed. WCSM incorporates some major features including: Integration of Web
technology and mobile computing into construction site management and automatic project
schedule updates.
The performance of WCSM is evaluated through virtual simulations, and comparisons with
other relevant applications are reported. These evaluations showed that WCSM required
significantly less time, for initial project set up and modifications during project
implementation, when compared to MS Project and Micro Planner.




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Modeling Computer Integrated Construction Site Management




                                                                 Acknowledgement 


This research study was carried out in the School of Engineering at Griffith University
under the supervision of Dr. S. Kamal. I deeply and from the bottom of my heart appreciate
and thank Dr. Kamal and Mr. Chul Park (DIGINICS Inc.) for helping me and getting me
through difficulties and challenges in my thesis study. I would also like to appreciate all
those people, who assisted me throughout the research.
I specially would like to thank Professor Yew-Chaye Loo (head of school at Griffith
University) and his students, Dr. Kang-Kun Lee of Samsung Heavy Industry in South Korea
and Dr. Jeung-Hwan Doh in Griffith University, for their encouragement and guidance
during my MPhil study.
I would also to thank the School of Engineering secretaries; Ms. Sandra Paine, Ms. Mary
ping and Ms. Heather Elliott for their assistance through out my study.
To my best colleagues, I thank Miss. Julie Bang, Mr. Jun-Gi Lee, Seack-Won Yoon, Mr.
Chul Park, Mr. Gary Martin, Mr. Faisal Muhammad, Mr. Bok-Tae Kim, Mr. Yong-Jun
Choi, Mr. Dae-Ho Cha, Miss. Liza Teo, Mr. Au-Young Kong for the encouragement during
my MPhil study at Gold Coast.
I am very much grateful and thankful to my parents who have given me a lot of supports
(moral and financial) for the completion of this course and their much more encouragement
through difficult challenges in my carrier. I am very thankful to them for having guided me
in the right path, and for their endless support in my life. I would not have successfully
completed MPhil degree without their support and encouragements.




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Modeling Computer Integrated Construction Site Management




                                                                              Table of Contents 


Abstract ......................................................................................................................................i

Acknowledgement.....................................................................................................................ii

Table of Contents.....................................................................................................................iii
List of Figures ........................................................................................................................... v

List of Tables..........................................................................................................................viii
Terminology .............................................................................................................................ix



Chapter 1
Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 1

1.1.   Background..................................................................................................................... 1

1.2.   Modeling Construction Site Management System ......................................................... 2

1.3.   Aims ............................................................................................................................... 5

1.4.   Outline of Report ............................................................................................................ 5



Chapter 2
Information Management in the Construction Industry Using Information Technology
- Literature Review..................................................................................................................... 7

2.1.    Early Development of IT Solutions for Construction Industry ...................................... 9

2.2     Web-based Construction Project Management System................................................13

2.3     Mobile Computing........................................................................................................ 15

2.4     Mobile Computing in Construction Industry ............................................................... 17

2.5     Benefits of IT Implementation ..................................................................................... 17

2.6     Summary....................................................................................................................... 20



Chapter 3
Design of WCSM ..................................................................................................................... 22

3.1.   The layout of WCSM ................................................................................................... 22

3.2    Development of WCSM ............................................................................................... 24

3.2.1. Web Server ................................................................................................................... 25

3.2.2. Interface of PCs for project manager............................................................................ 26

3.2.3. User interfaces. ............................................................................................................. 26

3.3    Design of WCSM Web-Contents ................................................................................. 27

3.3.1 Design Contents for PC Users. ..................................................................................... 28

3.3.2 Design Contents for WCSM Mobile Device users....................................................... 34

3.4    Summary....................................................................................................................... 35



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Modeling Computer Integrated Construction Site Management


Chapter 4
Testing and Analysis ................................................................................................................ 36

4.1    Virtual Simulation ........................................................................................................ 36

4.1.1 Establishment of Construction Project Data................................................................. 37

4.1.2 Assumptions and Variables .......................................................................................... 40

4.2    Test for Establishment of Initial Information ............................................................... 42

4.2.1 Input General Information ............................................................................................ 42

4.2.2 Input Resources and Tasks Information ....................................................................... 43

4.3    Test for Updating Schedule .......................................................................................... 45

4.3.1 Download Task Information......................................................................................... 45

4.3.2 Upload Daily Task Information.................................................................................... 46

4.4    Results and Discussion ................................................................................................. 49

4.4.1 Input Time Analysis ..................................................................................................... 50

4.4.2 Time Analysis for Schedule Modification ................................................................... 52

4.4.3 Time Prediction for Large Amount of Data ................................................................. 55

4.5    Summary....................................................................................................................... 59



Chapter 5
Conclusion ................................................................................................................................ 61

5.1   Conclusions of Research .............................................................................................. 62

5.2   Recommendations for Future Research........................................................................ 63



References ............................................................................................................................... 64

Appendix I ............................................................................................................................... 68

Appendix II ............................................................................................................................. 71





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Modeling Computer Integrated Construction Site Management




                                                                 List of Figures

 Figure 1.1             Conceptual design and life cycle of WCSM……………………...….              3
                        (a) WCSM design
                        (b) Cycle of WCSM for construction site management
 Figure 1.2             WCSM mobile solutions for site management……………………....              3
 Figure 1.3             Network Stream of WCSM…………………………………………..                           4
 Figure 1.4             Development of WCSM …………………………………………….. 4
 Figure 2.1             Information and Material Processes……………………………….....                11
 Figure 2.2             The System under development …………………………………......                   13
 Figure 2.3             Overview of WISPER……………………………………………......                          15
 Figure 2.4             Extent to which processes are computerised………………………… 19
 Figure 2.5             Future plans regarding investments in information technologies……   20
 Figure 3.1             WCSM network system………………………………………...……                            23
                        (a) For single construction site operation
                        (b) For multiple construction site operations
 Figure 3.2             Application Architecture Layers…………………….…………..…...                 25
 Figure 3.3             Interface of WCSM Users……………………………………………                           27
 Figure 3.4             WCSM Web-contents stream from project manager’s point of
                        view…………………………………………………………………..                                    28
 Figure 3.5             WCSM log-in screen ………………………………………………...                           29
 Figure 3.6             Construction Site Information………………………………………..                     30
 Figure 3.7             Site Selection………………………………………………………… 30
 Figure 3.8             Site Engineers’ Information………………………………………….                       31
 Figure 3.9             Resources Information……………………………………………….                           32
 Figure 3.10            Tasks Information……………………………………………………                              33
 Figure 3.11            System log out……………………………………………………….. 33
 Figure 3.12            WCSM Web-contents stream from mobile device user’s point of
                        view…………………………………………………………………..                                    35
 Figure 4.1             Defined site engineers sections of working area: Drawing for 2nd
                        basement of Korean Industrial Bank headquarter Project in Seoul,
                        Korea…………………………………………………………………                                     38


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 Figure 4.2             General Information Input stage by Project manager……………......   43 

                        (a) Log-in
                        (b) Contents Site Map
                        (c) Construction Site Information
                        (d) Site Engineers Information 

 Figure 4.3             Input Resources Information…………………………………………                     44 

 Figure 4.4             Input Tasks Information……………………………………………...                     45 

 Figure 4.5             WCSM Screen Shot for PDA Log-in………………………………...                  46 

 Figure 4.6             Daily Tasks Download by Wireless Device…………………………. 46 

                        (a) Test 1
                        (b) Test 2
 Figure 4.7             Daily Tasks Upload by Wireless Device User……………………….            48 

                        (a) Test 1
                        (b) Test 2
                        (c) Bottom of Upload Page Screen for Test 1 and 2
 Figure 4.8             Viewer Mode of WCSM: The Comparison of Gantt Charts………… 48 

 Figure 4.9             Viewer Mode of WCSM: The Comparison of Gantt Charts………… 49 

 Figure 4.10            Input Time Measurements…………………………………………… 50 

 Figure 4.11            Ratio Comparisons for Input Time…………………………………... 51 

                        (a) WCSM (Single User)
                        (b) WCSM (Multi user)

 Figure 4.12            Modification Time Measurements…………………………………...                  52 

                        (a) Test 1
                        (b) Test 2
 Figure 4.13            Ratio Comparisons for Input Time (Test1)…………………………..            53 

                        (a) Ratio Comparisons
                        (b) Mean Ratio Comparison 

 Figure 4.14            Modification Time Measurements (Test2)…………………………... 54 

                        (a) Ratio Comparisons
                        (b) Mean Ratio Comparison 

 Figure 4.15            Trendline of Input Data………………………………………………                       56 

                        (a) Microsoft Project
                        (b) Micro Planner
                        (c) WCSM



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                        (d) WCSM by 5 Input Users 

 Figure 4.16            Predicted Time for Large Data Input………………………………...                  57 

 Figure 4.17            Trendline for Data Modification……………………………………..                     58 

                        (a) Microsoft Project
                        (b) Micro Planner
                        (c) WCSM 

 Figure 4.18            Predictions for Large Data Modifications……………………………                 59 

 Figure AI-1            WCSM Server Flowchart for PC’s Users……………………………                     68 

 Figure AI-2            WCSM Server Flowchart for Mobile Device’s Users……………….              69 

 Figure AII-1           Sketch of Korean Industrial Bank headquarter Project in Seoul, 

                        Korea…………………………………………………………………                                      71 

 Figure AII-2           WCSM Screen Shot for Project manager Log-in……………………. 74 

 Figure AII-3           WCSM Screen Shot for Site Map……………………………………                         74 

 Figure AII-4           WCSM Screen Shot for Input mode of Construction Site 

                        Information (Test1)…………………………………………………..                            75 

 Figure AII-5           Screen Shot for Input mode of Construction Site Information (Test2) 75 

 Figure AII-6           WCSM Screen Shot for Input mode of Site Engineers Information… 76 

 Figure AII-7           WCSM Screen Shot for Input mode of Resources Information……... 76 

 Figure AII-8           WCSM Screen Shot for Input mode of Tasks Information………….. 77 

 Figure AII-9           WCSM Screen Shot for PDA Log-in………………………………... 77 

 Figure AII-10          WCSM Screen Shot for PDA Daily Task Download (Test1)………..           78 

 Figure AII-11          WCSM Screen Shot for PDA Daily Task Download (Test2)………..           78 

 Figure AII-12          WCSM Screen Shot for PDA Daily Task Upload (Test1)…………... 79 

 Figure AII-13          WCSM Screen Shot for PDA Daily Task Upload (Test2)…………... 79 

 Figure AII-14          WCSM Screen Shot (Lower Part) for PDA Daily Task Upload

                        (Test1&2)…………………………………………………………….                                   80 

 Figure AII-15          WCSM Gantt Chart for Original Plan (Test1)……………………….                81 

 Figure AII-16          WCSM Gantt Chart for Original Plan (Test2)……………………….                84 

 Figure AII-17          WCSM Gantt Chart for modified Plan (Test1)………………………                 85 

 Figure AII-18          WCSM Gantt Chart for modified Plan (Test2)………………………                 88 





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Modeling Computer Integrated Construction Site Management




                                                                    List of Tables

 Table 2.1              Traditional and IT supported technologies (Turk, 1997)…………….   11
 Table 4.1              Initial Test data for Section1…………………………………………                 38
                        (a) Test data 1, (b) Test data 2
 Table 4.2              Resource Information for Test1 and 2……………………………….              40
 Table 4.3              Modified Test data for Section1……………………………………..                41
                        (a) Modified test data 1, (b) Modified test data 2
 Table 4.4              Number of Users of WCSM…………………………………………. 42
 Table AI-1             Outline of Tests Conducting..……………………….……………….                 70
 Table AII-1            Test1 data ……………………………………………………………                             71
 Table AII-2            Test2 data…………………………………………………………….                             72




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                                                                 Terminology

AP                 Access Point
CAD                Computer Aided Drafting
CIC                Computer Integrated Construction
CIM                Computer Integrated Manufacturing
DWF                Drawing Web Format
ERP                Enterprise Resource Planning
FEA                Finite Element Analysis
GUI                Graphic User Interface
HTML               Hyper Text Markup Language
IFC                Industry Foundation Classes
IS                 Information System
IT                 Information Technology
MUI                Multimedia User Interface
PAN                Wireless Personal area Network
TCP                Transmission Control Protocol
UMTS               Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
VR                 Virtual Reality
WAP                Wireless Application Protocol
WCSM               Web-based Construction Site Management
WML                Wireless Markup Language
XML                Extensible Markup Language




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