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					        THE IMPACT OF DESKTOP VIRTUALIZATION ON IT INFRASTRUCTURE:
                 RISKS AND COSTS IN DEVELOPING ECONOMIES




                                   BY




                        ADEMUYIWA SANYA-ISIJOLA
                                36641




A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
               DEGREE OF MASTERS IN INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY




                                    1
Table of Contents

Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………………………………5

Acknowledgment………………………………………………………………………………………………....6

Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………….........7



Chapter 1

1.1   What is virtualization……………………………………………………………………………………...8

1.2   Why the need for virtualization…………………………………………………………………………..8

1.3   Diverse types of virtualization…………………………………………………………………………....9

1.3.1 Server virtualization………………………………………………………………………………………10

1.3.1a OS virtualization………………………………………………………………………………………….10

1.3.1b Hardware emulation……………………………………………………………………………………..11

1.3.1c Para-virtualization ……………………………………………………………………………………….13



Chapter 2

2.0 Desktop virtualization……………………………………………………………………………………..14
2.1 Types of desktop…………………………………………………………………………………………..15
2.1.1. VDI…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..16



Chapter 3

3.0   Establishing a business case for desktop virtualization…………………………………………………18
3.1   Analysis of operating cost savings for VDI…………………………………………………………….....18
3.2   Benefits of VDI……………………………………………………………………………………………….19


Chapter 4

4.1   Choice of end points…………………………………………………………………………………….......20
4.2   Thin client OS choice………………………………………………………………………………………..20



                                         2
Chapter 5

5.0 Total cost of ownership……………………………………………………………………………………..21
5.1 Thin client VS Traditional PC power consumption……………………………………………………….21
5.1.1 Power savings calculator……………………………………………………………………………………22
5.2 Energy/power consumption savings in Nigeria…………………………………………………………...24
5.3 Licensing costs in virtualization…………………………………………………………………………….25


Chapter 6

6.0     Proof of concept…………………………………………………………………………………………….26
6.1     VDM setup and prerequisites……………………………………………………………………………..26
6.2     Personal experience…………………………………………………………………………………........26
6.3     Security issues in virtualization…………………………………………………………………………...27
6.3.1   Attacks emanating from guest to host…………………………………………………………………...27
6.3.2   Remote management issues ………………………………………………………………………........27
6.3.3   Denial of service …………………………………………………………………………………………..28


Chapter 7

7.0     Recommendation and Conclusion………………………………………………………………….........29

7.1     References…………………………………………………………………………………………….........30




FIGURES

Figure 1: OS virtualization…………………………………………………………………………………….10
Figure 2: Hardware emulation ……………………………………………………………………………….12
Figure 3a: Traditional desktop ………………………………………………………………………………...14
Figure 3b: Virtual desktop in a data center …………………………………………………………………..15
Figure 4: Thin client Vs PC power consumption chart …………………………………………………….22




                                      3
TABLES

Table 1:    Citrix/Forrester analysis …………………………………………………………………………...17
Table 2:    Operating costs savings for desktop virtualization ……………………………………………..18
Table 3:    Queen Margaret university PC Vs Thin client comparison …………………………………….19
Table 4:    Average power consumption of thin client ……………………………………………………….21




ABBREVIATIONS


IT:        INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
VDI:       VIRTUAL DESKTOP INFRASTRUCTURE
OS:        OPERATING SYSTEM
PMS:        PREMIUM MOTOR SPIRIT
SME:        SMALL-MEDIUM ENTERPRISE
VM:         VIRTUAL MACHINE
VMM:        VIRTUAL MACHINE MONITOR
PC:         PERSONAL COMPUTER
CRT:        CATHODE RAY TUBE
LCD:        LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY
KWH:        KILOWATT/HOUR
VECD:       WINDOWS VISTA ENTERPRISE CENTRALIZED DESKTOP.




                                            4
ABSTRACT


Without a doubt, most business processes today regardless of the location or size of organization are
designed around IT infrastructure and for these organizations to remain relevant in their respective
industry, huge investment in these infrastructures is often a way to have a competitive advantage.

These IT infrastructures herald high cost in energy bills and also introduce technical and network issues
on a daily basis, overwhelming IT administrators with maintenance headaches.

With IT infrastructure as the main driver of business processes, availability of consistent form of energy to
power them is absolutely a necessity. This is the Achilles heel of the average business in developing
countries because of lack of consistent electricity and the cost of providing alternative form of generating
power.

This study will provide a guideline that can be used to explore the financial benefits of VDI when deployed
in organizations located in developing economies. It also will explore cheaper alternative means of
applying this technology as a means of reducing IT infrastructure overhead costs.

Hence, it will provides evidence that can be used to initiate a business case for deploying VDI in any
organizations especially those in developing economies as a way of minimizing the cost of IT
infrastructure overhead.




                                                     5
ACKNOWLEDGMENT


First and foremost, I will like to give thanks and praises to God Almighty for making it possible for me to
complete my dissertation.


My heart-felt gratitude goes to my project Supervisor, Professor Gilles Richard, for his support,
supervision and encouragement.


I am also extremely grateful to my entire family, wife and son for their constant support and prayers. Not
to forget all my friends who have kept in touch and also supported me morally and technically from the
start to finish of this dissertation.




                                                      6
INTRODUCTION


Many countries across the globe are categorized as developing economies based on several factors such
as: Gross national income per capital, citizen’s standard of living, per capital income level, poverty,
inflation, lower level of investment and degree of integration into the global financial system. For example,
IMF world economic outlook report October 2009 considers the following countries as developing
economies: Argentina, Chile, Egypt, Nigeria, India, Pakistan, UAE, Turkey, Quatar etc. [1]

One key selling point of virtualization is that it creates a level playing field for SME’s to compete with
larger organizations with regards to IT infrastructure. SME’s in developing have various infrastructure and
investment challenges such as high cost of hardware and software and poor power infrastructure. These
infrastructural obstacles have made it difficult for businesses in developing countries to compete in the
era of globalization. The high cost of hardware and OS forces many SME’s in developing economies to
rely on weak, cheap IT infrastructure. [3]

A typical desktop running application such as web browser, word processing and email makes use of less
than 5% of its processing capability i.e 95% of the resource is wasted. Virtualization involves utilizing the
wasted resources. This technology is of benefit to developing economies because it provides low cost
computing. [4]




                                                     7
                                                CHAPTER 1


1.1 WHAT IS VIRTUALIZATION?

Virtualization is not a new technology; it has been in use since during the mainframe era. Then, its
primary function was to re-create end user environment on mainframe hardware and this technology
gradually disappeared with the mainframe era.

Recently, virtualization re-emerged into the IT scene; the re-birth of this technology is credited to VMware,
in the early 90s, they developed virtualization for x86 architecture and it was called the HYPERVISOR.
Since then, its applications has risen, many vendors have entered the virtualization market. The driving
force of virtualization is Server Consolidation which has now made virtualization a cost saving initiative for
every organization.

Virtualization is an off spring of Partitioning. Partitioning involves dividing a single physical server into
several logical servers. After the physical server division, each logical server can then run its own OS and
applications independently.

“Virtualization refers to technologies designed to provide a layer of abstraction between computer
hardware and software running on them”. [5]

Virtualization allows two or more computers with different or similar operating systems to exist on one
piece of hardware by abstracting its resources. E.g. Linux machine and Windows machine on the same
computer system. A single guest OS appears to have the host’s memory, processor and other resources
all to itself. [2]

With this technology, the OS is tricked to believe that a group of servers is a single pool of computing
resources i.e. instead of a physical view, it provides a logical view of the computing resources. Hence,
several similar or dissimilar OS can run simultaneously on a single computer. [5]

To further explain virtualization, let us use a CAR (Computer) and BUS (Virtualization) as an analogy.
Let us assume a computer is a car is equipped with its own resources such as Radio, heater, Fuel etc. In
most situations, the car is never fully occupied; having one person sit alone in a car is wasteful.

Now assume that virtualization is a Bus, instead of having several people driving around in many cars,
many of these people can be moved about by a few buses instead. In the event of a bus accident, the
people can be transferred without stress or complication unto another functional bus that has empty
seats. This easy of transfer in the real life application of virtualization is called HIGH AVAILABILITY. [6]




1.2 WHY THE NEED FOR VIRTUALIZATION?


     Under-utilized hardware (waste of computing resources):

        Many machines found in organizations only utilize about 10-15% of their total processing
        capacity. This means that over 80% of the machine’s power remains unused. These under-
        utilized machines consume the same electricity as a machine that is more utilized or loaded. With
        virtualization, the computer resources are more efficiently used by balancing load with computing
        capacity.


                                                      8
      Lack of space:

        The rapid rise in the use of the internet has led to more organization s deploying IT driven
        business applications and processes. Organizations need a large number of servers to run their
        business processes but these servers occupy real estate spaces where ever they are kept.


      Energy efficiency:

        The cost of energy when running several computers is normally high. Virtualization minimizes the
        cost by running several machines on a single hardware.


      System administration costs:

        System administration tasks such as Operating system patches, replacing faulty hardware
        components etc need to be done on a large group of computers in an organization from time to
        time, these sort of tasks are labour intensive.
        Virtualization generally reduces the total number of machines to be maintained by the
        administrator and reducing the cost of system administration. [2]


      Live migration:

        In a virtualized environment, guest systems (VMs) can be moved from one physical machine to
        another without interruption. E.g. A guest system configuration can be done on one machine and
        then moved to another machine.


      Software/program testing:

        Virtualization makes it easier for developers or an organization to test a new OS (or maybe
        program) by running it as a guest OS on a stable host.




      Security research:

        The effects of Trojans, worms, viruses etc can be tested by security experts by infecting a guest
        OS running on a host system. This has no effect on the host system because the guest is seen
        as an independent system. [7]




1.3 DIVERSE TYPES OF VIRTUALIZATION

       SERVER VIRTUALIZATION
       DESKTOP VIRTUALIZATION
       STORAGE VIRTUALIZATION



                                                   9
   1.3.1 SERVER VIRTUALIZATION

          OS VIRTUALIZATION
          HARDWARE EMULATION
          PARAVIRTUALIZATION



   1.3.1a OS VIRTUALIZATION

   This is also called CONTAINERS. This virtualization runs on top of an existing host OS. It makes the
   application believe (illusion) that it is running on a machine dedicated to its use. The application on the
   virtual OS cannot interact with those application/resources on another virtual OS, therefore giving the
   application of the virtual OSS a sense of sole control.

   This approach is useful in a scenario where a number of users need similar set of OS functionalities while
   using a single host machine. E.g. A web hosting company that hosts multiple websites in different
   containers on a machine.

   OS virtualization vendor include Parallels (Parallel Virtuozzo) and OpenVZ which is the open source OS
   virtualization based on the Linux kernel.




   OS VIRTUALIZATION LIMITATIONS

          It is only suitable for a homogenous configuration i.e. Multiple OS cannot be used because
           virtualization OS and host OS must be the same (same version number and patch level)


                                                                             R
                                                                                       THIN
                                                  VM 1                                 CLIENT


OS Virtualization layer

HOST OS                                                                                THIN
                                                  VM 2                                 CLIENT
Hardware                                                                     D

                                                  VM 3
                                                                                        THIN
                                                                                        CLIENT


                                                                             P

   FIG 1: OS VIRTUALIZATION (VM1=VM2=VM3=HOST OS)
                                                      10
1.3.1b HARDWARE EMULATION

A virtualization software called the HYPERVISOR emulates a hardware environment (also called a Virtual
machine monitor, VMM) for the guest OS to run on. The guest OS resides on the VMM and interacts with
it to form a package, this package can be migrated from one machine to another. The Hypervisor acts as
the middle man between the VMM and the physical hardware by translating calls between them. [2]

Hypervisors allow multiple guest OS to run simultaneously on a single underlying hardware which it
controls. They give the guest OS the illusion that it is running on its own personal hardware and also
ensure that the guest OS are isolated from one to another.

The Hypervisor acts as a Magician and a Traffic controller /cop. It acts like a Magician by it providing the
seamless illusion to guest OS that it has a personal hardware. It acts like a Traffic cop by managing the
interaction of all the guest OS with the physical resources of the hardware. [7]

Hence, we can have one guest OS per VMM and many VMM’s (with similar or different OS) can reside on
the Hypervisor i.e. multiple OS support. E.g. a VMM with Linux as guest OS and another with Windows
Xp as guest OS running simultaneously on the same host OS. [2]




Advantages of Hardware emulation

       It can be used to for quality and assurance of software or OS
       Server consolidation: several physical servers can be moved to a single physical server running
        virtualization software.




Drawbacks of Hardware emulation

       Virtualization software in hardware emulation affects performance because applications run
        slower than an unvirtualized system.
       Device drivers: Since the Hypervisor is the interface between the VMM running the guest OS and
        the physical machine’s resources e.g. When a new printer is added, device drivers cannot be
        installed by users like they do with a typical PC. Hence, the virtualization software must have the
        new driver otherwise the printer will not work on the VMM.


Hardware emulation virtualization software vendors include: VMware (VMware server & ESX server)




                                                    11
                                   VIRTUAL          VIRTUAL
                                   GUEST 2          GUEST 2
HYPERVISOR (VMM)
 HYPERVISOR MGT               Virtual hardware API
    Create guest
    Start/Stop/Pause
     guest                     Virtual        Virtual   Virtual   Virtual
    Delete guest              Memory1        Disk1     NIC 1     CPU 1
    Remove devices




             MEMORY                 DISK          NETWORK         CPU
PHYSICAL HARDWARE                                 K

    FIG 2: HARDWARE EMULATION (HYPERVISOR)




                                         12
1.3.1c PARA-VIRTUALIZATION

In Para-virtualization, virtualization software is made of a thin layer and does not emulate the full
hardware environment. It has less impact on performance when compared to hardware emulation.

Hardware emulation inserts an entire emulation layer between guest Os and the physical hardware while
Para-virtualization uses a thin software layer that acts like a traffic controller by managing/controlling the
interaction of all guest OS’s with the physical resources of the hardware. i.e when one guest OS
assesses the physical resource of the hardware, all other guest OS are restricted from assessing the
resource at that time.

Para-virtualization does not limit users to the device drivers available on the virtualization software
because it does not include device drivers at all. One of the guest OS (called the Privileged guest)
consists of the device drivers that the Para-virtualization software will use.



Drawback of Para-virtualization

Because of its small size, the Para-virtualization interfaces requires the modification of the guest OS for it
to function. Only open source OS e.g. Linux, Solaris can be modified they have available source codes.
Para-virtualization vendors include: Xensource’s XEN (Open source software) [2]




                                                     13
                                                CHAPTER 2

2.0 DESKTOP VIRTUALIZATION

   Most organizations today seek of ways to control IT infrastructure cost and data security in their
   environment. One of such areas that allow IT cost to rise is HARDWARE REFRESH. This is the
   frequency at which an organization changes its desktop hardware. E.g. some organizations discard
   and replace desktops every 2 years.

   Deploying traditional desktop management involves some of the following phases: Procurement, OS
   configuration, deployment, monitoring, maintenance, backup, retirement (end life) and then Hardware
   refresh.

   A desktop is made up of the OS, applications, profile, client device and user. A virtual desktop can
   either run on the client or server side.

   So how is a desktop virtualized? In the traditional desktop environment, we have the User sitting on
   top of the profile, applications, OS and client as seen in Fig 3a. In desktop virtualization, the non static
   bits of the desktop are abstracted (Profile, application and OS). The abstracted components are then
   migrated to the data centre where they are stored. The abstracted bits are then assessed by user(s)
   with the aid of a client device (Thin client or fat clients), see Fig 3b.




             USER

             PROFILE

             APPLICATION

             OPERATING
             SYSTEM
             CLIENT


FIG 3A: TRADITIONAL DESKTOP




                                                    14
USER

PROFILE                                                       PROFILE
                                                                                    ABSTRACTION
APPS                                                          APPS

OS                                                            OS

CLIENT                                                    DATA CENTER


 FIG 3B: Virtual Desktop in a data centre.




     Before an organization chooses a certain type of desktop virtualization solution, it must consider its
     users experience. This is one of the areas in which desktop virtualization differs from Server
     virtualization. When server virtualization is deployed, it remains invisible to the end users because it
     has no impact on their regular daily activities.

     On the other hand, users experience can differ in comparison to using traditional PC when desktop
     virtualization is deployed especially when it involves rich graphical contents. This could affect user
     productivity; therefore desktop virtualization must be as good as what users have used previously. [9]




 2.1 TYPES OF DESKTOP VIRTUALIZATIONS

 There are different flavours of desktop virtualization; the flavour to be implemented solely depends on the
 type of solution desired by the organization. A few of them include:

        Single image management
        Application streaming
        Desktop Hypervisors
        Virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI)




                                                     15
2.1.1 Virtual Desktop Infrastructures (VDI)


All users virtualized desktop is hosted individually on a server in the data centre. This model allows users
desktop to be independent of the client device (PC or thin client). This virtualized desktops increase
server over head and consumes disk space. [10]

“VDI is an end to end solution for server-based virtual desktop computing that leverages thin client
architecture and centralizes client desktop images as Virtual machines (VM)”.

Using VDI lowers costs by minimizing desktop administration and management tasks. Besides cost,
management of desktop computing assets can be time consuming and challenging, a few examples of
these issues are:

           Installation of unlicensed and personal software on organization’s computers by staffs.
           Patches and upgrades administration
           Data privacy and security issues
           Backup


All these IT administration issues consume IT resources. VDI helps to reduce these management
headaches by using virtualization technology. Security and general IT administration is centralized.

VDI replaces traditional PCs or fat clients with thin client hardware that assesses virtual machines
(desktop) that run on a server. Old or existing traditional PCs can also be converted into Thin clients.

 IT administrators can provide new users with a ready desktop in minutes without purchasing a new PC
and personalise the desktop environment to suite the user i.e Business needs are responded to more
swiftly. [8]




Initially deploying VDI could be expensive because of the following reasons:

Capital expenses are HIGH e.g.
    Infrastructure (Servers, storage, networks)
    Data centre (Power, space, cooling)
    Licensing from several vendors




Operating expenses is LOW
Over time, there is considerably high savings made on Operating expenses such as
    Management
    Security
    Updates
    Support.




                                                    16
Due to the increase in VDI adoption and the entrance of several vendors into the virtualization market, the
capital cost of VDI is continuously coming down. The table below shows the huge changes in VDI cost
between 2008 and 2010.




Forrester report (Mid 2008)                     Citrix report (2010)
VDI cost per user ( Thin client, storage,       VDI cost per user= $850 or 561 pounds
Licensing)= $1760 or 1162 pounds
Server: A server that can accommodate 10        A Server of the same price ($10000) with latest Intel Xeon
users=$10000 ($1000/User) or 6603 pounds        technology can run 125 users i.e cost drops to $71/user=
                                                47 pounds


Table 1: Citrix/ Forrester analysis [9]




                                                   17
                                                 CHAPTER 3


3.0 ESTABLISHING A BUSINESS CASE FOR DESKTOP VIRTUALIZATION

Due to the high initial capital expenses needed to commence VDI, an organization must justify investing
in it. The reasons for investing in VDI could include one or more of the following:

       Hardware refresh
       Application roll out
       Green initiative
       OS refresh
       Business continuity/disaster recovery.

For example, most organizations have a hardware refresh policy that stipulates that PCs are changed
every 2 years because of failure or obsolescence. The changing of all PCs in an organization is
expensive; this huge expenditure can be minimized if thin clients are deployed along with desktop
virtualization. This makes this solution cost effective in developing economies because hardware refresh
can be avoided or minimized.

Green initiative is another reason why desktop virtualization is a promising solution. The green initiative
focuses on PC carbon foot print and power consumption. Power consumption especially can be
drastically reduced with desktop virtualization, this is another cost saving option for SMEs in developing
countries where the power is unstable and alternatives measures are taken to run their business
processes at extra cost.




3.1 ANALYIS OF OPERATING COST SAVINGS

Though the initial capital expenses for VDI are high, its operating cost is low. See the table below:



DESKTOP              MANAGEMENT        TRADITIONAL PC                    DESKTOP VIRTUALIZATION
SAVINGS
Move, adds, changes ,deletion          Hours or days                     Few seconds (Only virtual entities
(25% or current cost)                                                    in data centre are moved)
Patching OS, reimaging OS              Per user, per incident            Once for all users
Configure,        upgrade,   repair    Long turn around and site         Easily replaces appliances with
hardware ( 35% of current cost)        visit.                            Mean Time Before failure
e.g IT staff at remote site.
Data recovery, archiving, backup       Difficult and inconsistent        Centralized and regular
(20% of current cost)


Table 2: Operating cost savings for desktop virtualization


SMEs in developing countries encounter various challenges on a daily basis; these obstacles tend to
affect their business processes and their ability to compete with counterparts in developed countries.

Power is the prime infrastructure needed by any nation in order to sustain its economic growth. In a
country like Nigeria, majority of businesses are run with generators instead of electricity on a daily basis

                                                     18
which in turn affects the cost of production. Hence, most businesses depend on Diesel generators. The
cost of running the business is further affected by the scarcity of the necessary commodity (Diesel) which
then leads to inflation. IT infrastructure rely on power and just like any other device, the IT infrastructures
put in place consumes electricity, the more the number of traditional desktops, the more the power
consumption.

With the aid of thin client computing in addition desktop virtualization, considerable savings can be made
with regards to Diesel consumption in generators or power consumption.

Power consumption savings can be viewed in the table below in which the power consumption of a thin
client is measured against that of a traditional PC.



DESCRIPTION            TRADITIONAL PC           THIN CLIENT
Power                  100w                     15 w
Server component          0                      7w
TOTAL                  100W                     22 w
Yearly cost            52.56 pounds             11.52pounds
CO2 for years          235.206 kg               51.552 kg



Table 3: consists of real data value derived from a university’s green initiative program. Queen Margaret
University, Edinburgh deployed thin clients to replace regular PCs at their university’s campus. [9]



3.2 BENEFITS OF VDI


       VDI improves IT team response to fault and makes it easier to solve problems
       Management is centralized making it easier to backup data and enforce IT policies
       Green IT: In comparison with a traditional 100w PC, a Thin client uses 80% lesser electricity. It
        also minimizes carbon footprint at par with saving costs.
        New desktops can be rapidly deployed by using a standardized desktop template.
       It offers consolidation and dynamic resource management at the desktop level.
       Data security is improved because data is not stored locally as done with traditional PCs. [8]




                                                     19
                                                 CHAPTER 4




4.1 CHOICE OF END POINTS (CHOOSING THE CLIENT DEVICE)

A few organizations in developing countries already are aware that there is a new wind of change in the
IT industry; Virtualization. Some of these organizations adore the concept of desktop virtualization and
already know the cost benefits and relief it brings to IT teams in terms of desktop administration and
support.

There are various challenges that organizations (in developing countries) interested in this technology
face, some cannot afford to abandon their existing desktops, they hardly ever carry out hardware refresh
unless the desktop has refused to respond to all forms of resuscitation employed to bring it back to a
functional condition, only then is it replaced. [11]

Ideally, any computer or device can be used as a thin client as long as it runs the client software to
access the terminal server. [12] Regardless of the case, be it a newly purchased desktop or an old aging
desktop destined for the recycle bin, these desktops can be resurrected or converted to accommodate
modern virtualization applications like VMware, Citrix and any other terminal server desktop applications.
[11]

Thin clients are simple computers that make use of the Server-client computing model by running
applications from a central server. They have smaller memory and microprocessor requirements when
compared with traditional PCs but provide a similar end user experience. [14]


There are different options for choosing a thin client:

    1.   Convert existing PCs ( also known as traditional or fat clients) into thin client
    2.   Purchase cheap PCs and convert into thin client
    3.   Purchase a brand name thin client device e.g. WYSE, HP
    4.   Purchase cheaper thin client devices e.g. Expert, DevonIT, ChipPC
    5.   Alternative means of converting traditional PC to thin client such as using USB stick with
         embedded Linux [12]



4.2 THIN CLIENT OS CHOICE (WINDOWS VS LINUX)

Choice of thin client OS is completely independent of the type of desktop OS configured for the end user.
The desktop OS for user could be Windows or Linux while the thin client OS could be Windows CE, Win
Xp embedded or Linux. Most recent thin clients are Linux based because Linux supports all terminal
servers (RDP for windows, ICA for Citrix and X/NX for Linux). Linux can be easily customized by thin
client manufacturers.




                                                     20
                                             CHAPTER 5

5.0 TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP (TCO) AND POWER CONSUMPTION

Businesses in developing economies continuously think about ways to maximize profits i.e increase sales
and minimize cost. Cost is incurred on IT infrastructure because it supports the modern day business
processes and these costs depend on the size of the organization. With the use of several
computers/servers, the power consumption cost will be on the high with traditional PC.


The TCO is a model used to explain the cost of purchasing and maintaining a computing environment.
The price of buying the computer and its maintenance (repairing, updates and installation of software,
downtime etc) all make up the TCO.

Hence, the TCO is the initial cost of the computer in addition to the on-going cost of maintaining the
computer. Time spent on maintenance which could b used to accomplish other tasks (not in monetary
terms) and power consumption costs. [14]




5.1 THIN CLIENT VS TRADITIONAL PC POWER CONSUMPTION ANALYSIS

In order to reaffirm the deductions from previously conducted thin client Vs traditional PC power
consumption analysis, i carried out a similar test to determine the average energy consumption
difference. I used the following devices:

      Thin client by ChipPC: this thin client is embedded with a Windows CE OS that supports RDP
       and ICA.
      Traditional PC: HP PC with 1.5Ghz processor speed and 512MB RAM running Windows Xp.
      Digital power meter: A Brand Electronics digital power meter (Model 4-1850) was used.

   The power meter was connected to the mains/outlet while the device was connected to the
   mains/wall socket while the device to be tested was connected via its power cord to the power meter
   directly. The power meter displays the watt/kwh, cost per month, total cost etc. The meter has a user
   friendly computer interface and the cost information can be entered to deduce the monthly or yearly
   power cost. [15] The devices were connected to the meter while running applications such as
   email.web browsing, word processing and spread sheet while connected to a server via RDP.

   The test showed the amount of power used by a device depending on what it was doing at that time.
   The table below shows the average power usage of the thin client tested.




                                                Thin client
   Plugged in                                   5 watts
   Powered on                                   6.7 watts
   Running Application from RDP session         7.07 watts
   Logged out                                   7 watts
   Powered down device                          5.8 watts

TABLE 4: Average power consumption of a thin client



                                                 21
In order to do a proper comparison with a PC and deduce a realistic result, i connected a monitor to the
thin client. On the average, a typical 17inch monitor uses 85 watts while a typical LCD 17 inch monitor
uses 35 watts.




                        200

                        150

                        100

                         50

                         0

                                  Thin Client           PC



FIG 4: The chart above shows the power consumption of the thin client with monitor and a PC.




5.1.1 POWER SAVING CALCULATIONS

To understand the impact of using thin clients as a way of saving costs with regards to power
consumption, the savings is more visible when calculation is done on many thin clients and monitor in a
network.[14]




EXAMPLE

I will use the following assumptions to illustrate and estimate the cost savings on power consumption by
calculating the power cost for a thin client Vs PC, assuming the organization has a total of 100
computers.

    I.     Assume a traditional PC uses 170 watts with CRT included
    II.    Assume the computer use per day = 6 hours and 185 days per year
    III.   Assume that computers left on overnight and during the summer use approximately 35 watts
    IV.    Assume thin client uses 6 watts plus 85 watts for CRT monitor : 91 watts
    V.     Assume the utility rte costs 0.09 pounds per Kwh


Power consumption for 100 traditional PCs (CRT included)

          Per day: 6 hrs * 170 = 1020 W
          In power save mode: 35 * 18 (24hrs – 6hrs)= 630 W
          The yearly use: 185 days * ( 1020+630) = 305,250 W

                                                   22
       Computers are on power save mode during weekends/holidays for 100 days:

        (24 hrs * 35 watt= 840) * 100 days= 84000W

       Computer uses no energy 65 days

Hence, the total yearly energy for a single (one) traditional PC is:

305,250W + 84,000W= 389,250W or 389.25 Kwh

       Estimated yearly cost per traditional PC: 389.25 Kwh * 0.09 pounds= 35 pounds
       Power Cost for one traditional PC over the next 3 years = 3 * 35 = 105 pounds



Therefore, annual power cost for 100 traditional PC:

389.25* 100 * 0.09= 3503.25 pounds

Hence, total energy cost for 100 traditional PCs over 3 years = 10509.75 pounds [16]


Power consumption for 100 thin clients (CRT included)

An alternative for the energy hungry traditional PC would be to deploy thin clients.

       Per day: 6 hrs * 91 = 546 W (compared to 1020W with traditional PC). There is approximately
        46.5% savings on power consumptions when a thin client is used instead of traditional PC. So
        based on 46.5% savings, the following can be deduced:

       Estimated yearly cost per thin client: 18.7 pounds (Savings= 16.3 pounds)
       Power Cost for one thin client over the next 3 years = 3 * 18.7 = 56.1pounds
                                                             (Savings= 48.9 pounds)



Therefore, annual power cost for 100 thin devices: 1874.23 pounds (Savings= 1629.02 pounds). Hence,
total energy cost for 100 thin devices over 3 years = 5622.69 pounds (Savings= 4887.06 pounds).


Note that the calculation here was based on an approximate saving value of 46.5 %, the cost savings on
power can be as high as 50% and it depends on some of the following factors:

       The type of monitor used (LCD or CRT) and its power rating,
       Power rating of thin client device
       The type of thin client used (some thin clients are designed as monitor with the thin client
        embedded in it, thus saving more energy since they are together)




                                                     23
5.2 ENERGY/POWER CONSUMPTION SAVINGS IN NIGERIA

Power is a major force in measuring profitability of businesses in Nigeria and almost fast becoming the
surviving index to most small scale businesses and offices.

In many such businesses with computer usages, such as business centers and retail outlet, offices,
private schools etc, featuring systems with low power consumption could boost profitability tremendously.



CASE STUDY

ROMSON business centre in Ojodu, Lagos offers secretarial services to many budding enterprises,
schools etc within the community. ROMSON currently features 45 computer systems to the public, and 6
others for managerial usage and monitoring activities of users on internet; with the projected plans of
creating other branches in other business districts in Lagos. This expansion bid is currently on hold until
power distribution improves
.
On critical interview through an agent, Mr. Zacheus, the CEO of this centre, affirms that power
unavailability is their albatross.




 50 computers@100W                                50 Thin clients@15 W

=50,000W                                            =750W

7.5 KVA gen consumes 1.5 litre PMS/Hr                 960 W gen @ 1 litre PMS/2 Hr

=15-20 litres/10 Hr day                              =5 litre /10 Hr day



From the analysis above, it can be deduced that the cost of PMS (premium motor spirit) or fuel consumed
by a generator that powers 50 computers is way much higher than the cost associated with powering 50
thin clients.

 The cost of a generator depends on the amount of power it can produce (KVA). Assuming that the
generator will only power desktop devices, it means that a higher capacity generator, which is more
expensive will be needed to power 50 desktop computers while that needed to power 50 thin clients will
be cheaper.

Desktop computer dissipate so much heat when in use, this is made worse in a tropical climate region like
Nigeria where the average temperature is between 23 degree Celsius and 32 degree Celsius round the
year. Hence, there would be need for air conditioning for cooling. Since traditional desktops dissipate
more heat, the cost of cooling will also be on the high side when compared to cooling expenses for the
thin clients.

This simple analysis translates to savings amounting to 2/3 of the average spent daily in the provision of
energy.




                                                    24
5.3 LICENSING COSTS IN VIRTUALIZATION

The adoption of virtualization may introduce complexity in management, compliance with software
licenses and agreement which may lead to non compliance or increased cost because of the legal
implications of licensing issues. Traditionally, one license is tied to a physical device, this case is not
appropriate in a virtualized environment. [17]

The huge cost saved by virtualization makes it easy to justify its adoption. A lot of money is saved on
hardware (no frequent hardware refresh). Since each user desktop must have an appropriate license
(either physical or virtual), Software vendors such as Microsoft have altered their software licensing
models to accommodate virtualization.

Microsoft has released the Windows Vista Enterprise Centralized desktop (VECD) license. The VECD
provides licenses to run a virtualized (local or central) desktop and it has the following features:

       Purchasing one licensed Windows server 2003 R2 or Windows server 2008 enterprise edition
        allows you to run four free virtual instances of the Windows server 2003 or 2008 i.e. 4 virtual
        servers without paying any additional licensing fees.
       Every added license allows an extra 4 guest OS.
       Purchasing a windows server 2003 R2 or Windows server 2008 data centre edition allows you to
        deploy unlimited virtualized instances of any windows server OS. With Linux, the savings are
        even much better.




The windows VECD license also grants you the following:

       Unlimited installation for windows vista enterprise.
       A single user can run up to 4 virtual instances on a machine simultaneously
       Organizations can run hosted desktop architecture either dynamically or statically.
       Allows you to deploy up to 4 virtual desktops per user at once with a single windows license e.g
        With one Windows license, you could run two copies of Windows XP, one copy of Windows 2000
        and one copy of Windows Vista per user. [18]




                                                   25
                                                    CHAPTER 6


6.0 PROOF OF CONCEPT

For my proof of concept (POC), i decided to use VMware VDI solution because of the popularity and
acceptability in the virtualization industry. The other reason behind my choice is that VMware is the
pioneer of the VDI solution in the virtualization industry, the organization’s solution has been tried, tested
and has stood the test of time. Others include CITRIX, Microsoft, Parallel Virtuozzo. The VMware VDI is
used by over 20.000 customers worldwide and it includes companies such as AVIVA, Forbes Marshall,
                     st
NEC Corporation, 1 American corporation. It is also used in several educational institutions such as
Newcastle College, University of Toleda.

Currently, this solution is used by Standard Bank, Standard Bank is a leading African banking group that
operates in 33 countries across the globe. [20]




6.1 VDM SETUP AND PREREQUISITES

The dedicated or virtual server must have the following specification:

       Microsoft remote desktop connection 6.0 recommended
       Vmware infrastructure: ESX server or ESXi
       Server running VDM joined to AD domain
       A minimum of Pentium 4 2.0 Ghz processor (dual processor recommended)
       Minimum 2Gb RAM (for 50 desktops, VMware recommends 3Gb RAM)
       NIC must have a minimum of 10/100Mbps, 1 Gbps is recommended [21]




6.2 PERSONAL EXPERIENCES

The initially planned proof of concept (POC) involved deploying a full VMware VDI solution which included
the installation of all the above mentioned components. I used the following devices to implement a virtual
test lab for the POC:

       ChipPC thin client
       Hp Pavilion laptop
       Server: HP DV 24oo micro-tower with 4Gb RAM, 500 GB HDD, 2.4 GHZ
       Converted PC to thin client

The first step was to setup my Vsphere by installing the ESXi/ESX server on the dedicated server (HP DV
2400). Several error messages occurred during the installation, i tried to circumvent the problem by trying
3 different versions of ESX (ESX 3.5, ESX 4.0 and ESXi) but none of them could be installed. Upon
investigation, i discovered that this was impossible because my dedicated server was not on the ESX
hardware compatibility list (HCL).

I decided to try an alternative solution for my POC. This solution involved discarding the ESX server and
using VMware workstation 7 instead. I installed various OS on VMs and ran them on the workstation 7e.g


                                                     26
Windows Xp, 7, Linux Ubuntu, Windows server 2003. All the OS were setup on the same domain called
Vditest.domain and were all given a unique static IP address.

The windows server 2003 was configured with active directory and also made the DNS server. I created
user names/passwords and computer names for each VM on the server. The profile created for each
intended user was similar to atypical roaming profile used in organizations, where any user can use any
desktop to log on. The only difference is any desktop to be used is located on a server in the data centre.
This means that different users can connect simultaneously to one VM. This setup is not any different
from the normal setup with physical desktops linked with active directory.

I also configured the thin client on the same domain and allocated a static IP address to it. I then logged
on to a particular VM (via RDP) from the thin client with a user name already created in AD. I did no use a
connection broker because the number of VMs on the server is very small, hence there cannot be any
administrative or management issues for the few VMs.




6.3 SECURITY ISSUES/VULNERABILITIES IN VIRTUALIZATION

    1. Attack emanating from guest to host
    2. Remote management issues
    3. Denial of service (DoS)




6.3.1 ATTACKS EMANATING FROM GUEST TO HOST

Isolation between guest VMs and host can be compromised if the virtualization software is wrongly
configured/implemented or through a bug. “VMescape is an attack that occurs when isolation between
VMs and host is compromised. This occurs when a program bypasses the Vm layer (from inside the VM)
and gains access to the host machine. Since the host controls all the VM running on it, if hijacked, then
the program will gain control of all the VM and traffic that occurs across them.

Solution: Modern CPUs have memory protection capabilities that are used by Hypervisor for memory
isolation. Proper configuration/implementation of memory protection will guard against VMs seeing each
others memory usage.




6.3.2 REMOTE MANAGEMENT ISSUES

Most current VDI solutions have a management console used by the Administrator to manage VMs e.g.
VMware Vsphere is used to manage the Hypervisor. A compromised management console means that
the attacker gains full control over all the VM. The management console uses HTTP or HTTPS to
communicate with the virtual machines which must be accepting HTTP connection.




                                                   27
6.3.3 DENIAL OF SERVICE (DOS)

The aim of DoS is to deny intending users the ability to use a computer resource e.g. memory, disk, CPU
or network which are all shared between the guest/host. A particular guest VM can impose DoS to the
hosts or other guest by utilizing all available system resources.

Solution: This can be prevented by limiting the resources that each guest VM can access. Most new
virtualization technologies have this capability configured to avoid DoS.




Another issue occurs when users are allowed to install their own virtualization software and create VMs
(unmanaged desktop virtualization), they could open the organization’s network to hackers/spammers.
E,g user installing an un-patched linux version on a VM that is connected to the internet. This could be
hijacked by spammers who will use it as an email relay.

To curb these security threats, Vmware, the leader in virtualization technologies have released VMsafe
APIs. The VMsafe API is similar to an IDS, it alerts if there is an ongoing attack or terminates any
suspicious malicious session. [19]




                                                   28
                                                 CHAPTER 7

7.0. RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

The choice of VDI solution depends on the size of the organization and also the amount the organization
is willing to invest in their IT infrastructure. To rip the full benefits associated with these technologies, the
chosen VDI solution must be implemented in full, bearing in mind that the capital expense are high initially
while the operating cost is very low i.e. The cost of deploying VDI when compared to traditional desktop
computing might seem high but on the long term, it is worthwhile especially when you look at the hidden
costs your organizations incur on IT support and administration.

For small SMEs in developing economies, discarding the existing traditional desktop for thin client might
not be seen as cost effective; hence existing traditional desktops can be converted to thin clients.
Following this conversion route is best for those who want to investigate the viability of the VDI solution
before fully implementing it. Using converted PC to thin client for the VDI solution cannot give the same
benefits derived from the use of thin clients because of the following reasons:

       Energy consumption of traditional PC converted to thin client remains almost the same, hence no
        savings on energy consumption.
       The carbon footprint is also still very high since a traditional Pc is still in use
       The administrative headaches remain the same because the converted PC to thin client is still
        liable to hard drive failure, hardware/software related support issues and the same regular
        hardware refresh.


The major issue contributing to high capital expenses associated with VDI implementation is LICENSING.
In order to reduce this cost, i recommend the use of Linux as the OS for VMs or a mix with other windows
OS. This will drastically reduce the cost of licensing associated with Microsoft VECD,

For small SMEs with about 50 desktops, there would be no need to purchase a connection broker. Based
on my deductions from mu POC, the cheaper option will be to implement VMware workstation 7 instead
of ESX server.

The capital expenses associated with deploying a VDI solution may be high, its operating expenses are
low and savings are feasible on the long term. A cheaper VDI solution can also be customized to suite the
organizations financially capabilities.

Deploying a VDI solution can assist organizations in developing economies financially by saving them
costs associated with energy consumption and cooling of IT infrastructure. Additionally savings are made
from reduced IT administration issues, lower downtimes, hardware refresh.




                                                      29
7.2 REFERENCES


     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Developing_country [1]
     Virtualization for dummies by Bernard Golden & Clark Scheffy.(Sun& AMD special edition 2008)
      [2]
     http://www.cloudave.com/link/cloud-computing-and-developing-countries-part-2 [3]
     http://www.triplepundit.com/2009/07/pc-disruption-virtual-desktop-provide-low-cost-computing/
      [4]
     http://www.cio.com/article/40701/virtualization_definition_and_solutions [5]
     http://itknowledgeexchange.techtarget.com/virtualization-pro/what-is-virtualization/ [6]
     Running Xen: A hands on guide to the art of virtualization by Jeanna N. Matthews, Eli M.Dow and
      Todd Deshane 2008. [7]
     Vmware enterprise desktop virtualization by Robin Crewe [8]
     The business case for desktop virtualization, Citrix Webminar [9]
     Taking desktop virtualization mainstream By Margaret Lewis 2009
      www.ctoedge.com/content/taking-desktop-virtualization-mainstream [10]
     www.igel.com/igel/live.php [11]
     www.thin-world.com/2x_whitepaper.html [12]
     http://thinlaunch.com/flash.com.asp [13]
     Desktop energy consumption: A comparison of thin clients and PCs by WYSE technology [14]
     www.brandelectronics.com/meters.html [15]
     http://preilly.wordpress.com/2009/09/28/going-green-saves-money/ [16]
     Understanding the software licensing implications around virtualization: Dimension data.[17]
     Virtualization: A beginners guide by Danielle Ruest and Nelson Ruest [18]
     Security challenges with virtualization: Joao Carlos Carvalho Dos Santos Ramos, Universidade
      De Lisboa. Dec 2009 [19]
     Vmware: 09Q4_1SV_Vmw_Standardbank_English [20]
     Installation and administration guide for Vmware virtual desktop manager 2.1 [21]




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Description: Virtual desktop infrastructure