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									                        Mobile Backhaul Evolution
                        Competitive Dynamics and Market Evolution

                        Peter Jarich
                        Research Director, Mobile Networks and Carrier Core

                        Glen Hunt
                        Principal Analyst, Carrier Infrastructure

                        October 22, 2008

Washington DC / Paris

   State of Mobile Networks      Fixed-Line Solutions and
      today’s network           Vendor Positioning
      today’s services             access layer solutions
                                    aggregation layer solutions
   Future of Mobile Networks
                                    key players
      tomorrow’s networks
      tomorrow’s services       Wireless Solutions and
      tomorrow’s technologies   Vendor Positioning
                                    microwave trends
   Mobile Backhaul
                                    clocking and synch needs
                                    key players
      legacy models
      all-IP models             Conclusions and
      challenges                Recommendations
         – evolving to IP
         – supporting legacy

State of Mobility: Today‟s Services

   Transformation of the
   Mobile Operator
       commodity voice - commodity data
       stickiness by applications
       driven by
          –   users
          –   devices
          –   technology
          –   search for profits

  70x from 2004 to 2007

         iPhone Effect


State of Mobility: Today‟s Subscribers

   Despite the Promise of 3G…
       faster data
       spectral efficiency
       growing scale

   …2G Networks Still Dominate (Q2 2008)

        3GPP2 Subs: Global                              3GPP Subs: Global

                                         1X                                    GSM/EDGE
                                         EV-DO                                 UMTS

                       Source: CDMA Development Group                 Source: GSA, GSMA, 3G Americas
State of Mobility: Today‟s Networks / Tomorrow‟s Subscribers

   But 3G is Clearly on the Rise
       subscribers
       network commitments
       device commitments

   …Making Near-term Trajectories Clear

   3GPP2 Networks: Global                            3GPP Networks: Global

                                      1X                                    GSM / EDGE
                                      EV-DO                                 HSPA

                    Source: CDMA Development Group                 Source: GSA, GSMA, 3G Americas
Future of Mobility: Tomorrow‟s Technologies

   March of Progress                             Momentum Cannot Be
   Momentum May Trail                            Stopped
   Expectations                                          Same Rationale as 3G
          3G Investments / 3G Scale                     New Apps
          3G Evolutions                                 Spectral Efficiency
          FMC Offload                                   Etc.

  EV-DO rev.0                    EV-DO r.A       EV-DO r.B                     LTE

           UMTS                    HSDPA             HSUPA                     LTE

  Pre-WiMAX                  802.16d                     802.16e                 802.16m

2004           2005       2006         2007   2008           2009       2010         2011
Future of Mobility: Tomorrow‟s Services

   Everything We Do Today
       voice
       video
       data

   Plus Everything We‟ll Do                               TDM

                                             2G BTS                 Voice Core

   Requiring Multi-Faceted
       multiple (new) traffic types
       multiple (new) standards
       multiple (new) applications                      App Core
       multiple (competing and
        collaborating) networks

                                                         TDM / ATM / IP

                                          2G / 3G / 4G                    Voice Core
Future of Mobility: Tomorrow‟s Users

   All of Today‟s 2G/3G Users,
   Along With…
   …Continued Development /
   Evolution of the Developing World
       already responsible for mobile growth
           – push to first billion users
           – push to today’s three billion
       still plenty of room for growth
           –   3G in China and India
           –   WiMAX for basic data
           –   data and telecom penetration
           –   skipping from 2G to 4G (???)
       still need for fixed-line network
        construction and upgrades
           – data backbones
           – out of the way places                           > 1,000%
                                                („00 to „08)

Future of Mobility: Tomorrow‟s Infrastructure

     Technology Evolution
         2G / 3G silos
         multi-Standard
     Capacity Evolution
         follows multi-standard
         follows spectrum availability
         Huawei @ 24SC WCDMA
     Interface Evolution
         T1/E1 → SONET/SDH
         IP / Ethernet standard
     Location Evolution
     Convergence Evolution
         standalone fixed and mobile
         standalone gateway, DPI,
          transport, etc.
         integrated offers

Mobile Backhaul Architectures: Models, Solutions, Issues

     Setting the stage
         numerous backhaul models discussed

         from an operators perspective – what do they prefer?
            – 2007 MEF survey conducted by Synergy Research
            – refreshed recently – no major change in direction noted
            – 42 global service providers provided input

         one-size does not fit all operators

         vendor solutions for various segments of the network
            – solution completeness
            – market traction – where we see adoption
            – vendor commitment – stated direction

    The Backhaul Challenge: Key Attributes of a Complete Solution

    Multiple Traffic Types: 2G, 3G, 4G

                                               Radically different scale issues – subscriber density, topology, services

Real time traffic vs. non real time traffic

                                               Mobile Backhaul Network
                                                                                 Networks are in different states of
                                                                                 transition…many different starting points

                                                            Operators need end-to-end visibility – OAM

  Multiple Access Methods:
                      fiber,                  Timing and synchronization – issue for packet-
                   wireless                   based traffic

Mobile Backhaul Architectures: Backhaul Models

                                             Deployment Model A
                                                native Ethernet at all RAN CE
                                                all traffic transported over
                                                 Carrier Ethernet
                Real-Time and sync traffic
                                                most efficient with move to all-
                Non Real-Time traffic
                                                 IP network (device to core)

                Legacy                       Deployment Model B
                                                split-access scenario: RAN
                                                 devices with legacy and
                                                 Ethernet interfaces
                                                voice on legacy
                                                data on Ethernet
                                                most efficient for migrations
                Real-Time and sync traffic
                                                 with cheap T1/E1 access
                Non Real-Time traffic

Mobile Backhaul Architectures: More Backhaul Models

               Legacy                              Deployment Model C
                                                      split-access scenario: RAN
                                                       devices with legacy interfaces
      IWF/                                  IWF/      traffic split into legacy and
                MEM                         CES
                                                       Ethernet networks with
                                                       interworking function or circuit
               Real-Time and sync traffic              emulation service
               Non Real-Time traffic                  most efficient for migrations
                                                       with cheap T1/E1 access

                                                   Deployment Model D
                                                      all traffic carried on Carrier
      CES       MEM
                                                       Ethernet network
                                                      legacy interfaces supported
                                                       with interworking function or
               Real-Time and sync traffic              circuit emulation service
               Non Real-Time traffic                  requires stringent timing and
                                                       synch, high availability, scalable
                                                       bandwidth and hard QoS
Mobile Backhaul Architectures: Operator Interest?


                                              IW                                   IW
                                              F/C          MEM                     F/C
                 Real-Time and sync traffic   ES                                   ES

                Non Real-Time traffic                       Real-Time and sync traffic
                                                           Non Real-Time traffic

          Model A = 80%                                Model C = 70%


                                                IWF/                          IWF/
                                                CES        MEM                CES

               MEM                                            Real-Time and sync traffic

                Real-Time and sync traffic                   Non Real-Time traffic

               Non Real-Time traffic

          Model B = 25%                                Model D = 100%
Cell Site Aggregation: 1st Stage Aggregation

                            Provides traffic optimization

                            GSM Abis Optimization over IP
                            Iub Optimization over IP

                                                   Mobile Backhaul Network
                           Cell Site

                                                                 1st stage aggregation – multiple sites

                                          Cell Site 1

                             Provides aggregation and convergence at cell site

                             Interfaces - T1/E3, Ethernet ,
                             Pseudowire support – to handle TDM, ATM and IP traffic types
                             Timing support – BITS, GPS, Line, adaptive, SyncE, 1588v2, NTR
                             OAM support – EFM
                             Resiliency – power supply
                             Hardened - to operate in extreme environmental conditions
                             Architecture – MPLS, Layer 2, PBB-TE

 Cell Site 1

Cell Site Aggregation: Access Over Multiple Network Technologies

                                                                                                  Mobile Backhaul Network


                                                                Broadband xDSL                     Nodes

                                                                  Metro Ethernet

                                   Cell Site Routers            Optical Transport

 Cell Site

 Multiple Access Technologies can be leveraged         Microwave remains a strategic backhaul technology in most
 Traditional copper T1/E1
 Optical transport network                             Next generation microwave - packet, circuit, hybrid modes
 Broadband network with or without QoS                 Network capability – hubs, aggregation, switching
                                                       Not just point-to-point any more
                                                       Integrated management – optical + microwave >> IP/Ethernet
                                                       Support for new features – Abis optimization, QoS, Adaptive modulation,
                                                       Depending upon geography and assets – between 60% - 95% of base
                                                       stations are connected via microwave

    Mobile Backhaul Solutions: Vendor Overview

                               Cell Site                  Access                                                 Metro
                                                                                  Aggregation                                Mobile    EMS   Professional
Company    Solution                                                                                                           Core     NMS     Services
                        Wireline Wireless Optical Wireline Wireless Optical Wireline Wireless   Optical   Ethernet Optical

  ALU       META           X        X       X       X       X        X        X         X         X          X           X     X        X         X

 Ciena    Flex Select      X                X       X       X        X        X         X         X          X           X              X         X

          Mobile IP
 Cisco                     X                        X                X        X                   X          X           X     X        X         X

  ECI       1Net           X     Partner    X       X       X        X        X         X         X          X           X     _        X         X

Ericsson                   X        X       X       X       X        X        X         X         X          X           X     X        X         X
         PRAN, M-

Huawei     IPTime          X        X       X       X       X        X        X         X         X          X           X     X        X         X

Juniper                    X                        X                         X                              X                 X        X         X

 NSN        MLO            X        X       X       X       X        X        X         X         X          X           X   Partner    X         X

Tellabs                    X                X       X                X        X                   X          X           X              X         X

  ZTE                      X        X       X       X       X        X        X         X         X          X           X     X        X         X

Mobile Backhaul Solutions: Cell Site, Access and Aggregation

          Name/Brand                           Cell Site                                 Access                                 Aggregation

 Company           Solution      Wireline     Wireless                     Wireline     Wireless       Optical      Wireline     Wireless       Optical

                                             9500 MPR        73XX ISA     7705 SAR-8                               7450ESS                     1850-TSS
    ALU                META     7705 SAR-F                                              9500 MPR      1850-TSS-5                 9500 MPR
                                             9400 AWY          ONT         7250 SAS                                 7710SR                        100

   Ciena          Flex Select    CN 3911       Partner        CN4200       CN 3920       Partner       CN 4200      CN 5060       Partner       CN 4200

   Cisco        Mobile IP NGN     MWR
                                                                            7603S                       15454        7604S                       15454

    ECI                1Net       9200         Partner       Hi-FOCuS       9200         Partner        XDM        9200, 9700     Partner        XDM

                PRAN + Mobile                               EDA 1200 -
                                 OMS 800     MINI-LINK                    EDA 1500     MINI-LINK                    SE, SM       MINI-LINK
  Ericsson       Backhaul +                                  VDSL2/                                   OMS 1400                                 OMS 1400
                                  TNX         TN, 2p                        SE          TN, 6p                     EDA Metro      TN, 20p
                   M-PBN                                      GPON

                                                                            CX200                                   CX380
  Huawei           IPTime        CX 200       RTN 605        SmartAX                    RTN 610       Optix 3500                 RTN 620       Optix 3500
                                                                            CX300                                   CX600

  Juniper         Backhaul       BX 7000                                  MX-series

                   Mobile                                     hiX56XX                                              hiD 3100                    hiT73XX,
    NSN                          hiD3100     Flexi Hybrid                  hiD3100     Flexi Hybrid    hiT73XX                  Flexi Hybrid
                  Backhaul                                    hiX57XX                                              hiD6630                     HiT70XX

                  Integrated                                                                            6300                                     6300
  Tellabs                         8605                         8607         8600                                   8600/8800
                    Mobile                                                                              7100                                     7100

                   Mobile                    ZXMW PR10                                 ZXMW PR10
    ZTE                             -                         ZXA10        ZXMSG                      ZXMP -3XX     ZXR10         PR10,   ZXMP 3XX
                  Backhaul                   ZXMW SR10                                 ZXMW SR10
                                                                                                                                ZXMW SR10

Mobile Backhaul Solutions: Metro, Core and Management

            Name/Brand                            Metro Core               Mobile                    Management

  Company                Solution     Ethernet                 Optical      Core        Wireline       Wireless        Optical

                                       7750 SR           1850 TSS-320                                  5620 SAM      1350 OMS
    ALU                    META                                           7750 SR      5620 SAM
                                      7450 ESS            1696 Metro                                   1350 OMS       1340 INC

                     Flex Select
   Ciena                              CN 5060              CN 4200,                    On-Center       On-Center     On-Center

   Cisco            Mobile IP NGN       7609                   15454       GGSN         Multiple                      Multiple

    ECI                    1Net         9700                    XDM                     LightSoft                     LightSoft

                    PRAN + Mobile
                                      SE, SM               OMS 2400                    ServiceOn      ServiceOn      ServiceOn
  Ericsson           Backhaul +                                              SE
                                      EMN120               OMS 3200                     Access        Microwave       Optical

                                       CX380                                            iManager       iManager      iManager
  Huawei                  IPTime                           Optix 6100     NE Series
                                       CX600                                              N2000          T2000         T2000

                          Mobile      MX-series                            CGSN
  Juniper                                                                              JunoScope
                         Backhaul     M-series                             GGSN

                          Mobile      hiD 6650                 hiT75XX                  NetAct,
    NSN                                                                    Partner                      NetAct         NetAct
                         Backhaul     hiD 6670                 hiT70XX                  Aspen

  Tellabs                               8800                    7100                  8890 Manager                  8000 Manager

    ZTE                  Backhaul      ZXR10          ZXMP M600/800/900    ZX R10     NETNUMEM        ZXMW EMS

Mobile Backhaul Solutions: A Closer Look At Microwave

                   Vendor              Product                                  Overview Features and Functionality

                                                                    Transport of multimedia traffic, while still supporting legacy TDM.
             Alcatel-Lucent            9500 MPR                                        packet aggregation, QoS
                                                                             Service-Driven Packet Adaptive Modulation .

                                                        Seamless migration and coexistence with legacy networks using native Ethernet and native
                                     FibreAir IP-10
                   Ceragon                                             TDM (Native2 TM) , adaptive Coding and Modulation (ACM).
                                    FibreAir IP-MAX
                                                                        Max – 900 mbps , on-the-fly upgrades, WiMAX backhaul

                                                                                       Horizon DUO 1.6 Gbps per link.
                 DragonWave                                       Horizon Compact native Ethernet microwave system with zero footprint
                                  Horizon Duo/Compact
                                                          AirPair scales from 10 to 500 Mbps in 10 Mbps increments via a software configuration.

                                                                          Simultaneously transmit both Ethernet and TDM traffic,
                   Ericsson          MINI-LINK TN                                      Integrated cross connect,
                                                                                      switching and aggregation .

                                         EX-i                                                     EX-i series
                     Exalt               EX-r            This all-indoor, all-outdoor, or split mount respectively, range of interface types such as
                                         EX-s                                              Ethernet, T1/E1, and DS-3

                 Harris Stratex                                    Supports TDM and Ethernet in native formats, supports networking
                                     Truepoint 5000

                                                                Scalable line of microwave devices for cell site, access and aggregation ,
                    Huawei          RTN 600 Series
                                                                                      Supports hub and networking

                                       NLite E
                                                                   NLite E:digital microwave solution incorporates a GigE interface
                     NEC              PASOLINK
                                                                PASOLINK Mx , expanded LAN connectivity and NEO with STM-1 capacity

                                                         Flexi Hybrid backhaul supports Super-PDH, hybrid, packet based network architectures.
       Nokia Siemens Networks                                                      Service differentiation with QoS,
                                                                                         Adaptive modulation

                                                        SDH: Provides SDH, SONET, IP, and ATM interfaces, with two 2 Mbps Wayside channels and
                                      ZXMW PR10
                     ZTE                                                                 a built-in Ethernet hub
                                      ZXMW SR10
                                                                  PDH: integrated Layer-2 Ethernet Switch , 10/100 Base-T + up to 16 E1s

Partial List *
Mobile Backhaul Solutions: Solution Completeness

Company        Solution                   Cell Site   Access   Aggregation   Metro   Mobile Core   Management Professional Services

  ALU           META             5.0         5          5          5          5          5              5               5

 Ciena        Flex Select        3.3         4          4          4          4          0              4               3

 Cisco      Mobile IP NGN        4.0         3          4          4          5          5              4               3

  ECI            1Net            3.7         4          4          4          5          0              5               4

            PRAN + Mobile
Ericsson     Backhaul +          5.0         5          5          5          5          5              5               5

Huawei          IPTime           4.9         5          5          5          5          5              5               4

           Mobile Backhaul
Juniper                          3.6         3          3          3          4          5              4               3

  NSN      Mobile Backhaul       4.8         5          5          5          5          3.5            5               5

Tellabs    Integrated Mobile     3.3         4          4          4          5          0              3               3

  ZTE      Mobile Backhaul       4.4         4          5          5          5          5              4               3


Mobile Backhaul Solutions: Other Issues and Drivers

     Other Backhaul pieces
        Timing and Synchronization – broad range of synchronization and
         timing methods, including line, external (BITS, GPS), ACR and
         Synchronous Ethernet, IEEE 1588v2.
            – Timing solutions include companies such as:
                 » Symmetricom
                 » Brilliant

     Other Market Drivers
        Standards – IETF, IEEE, ITU-T
        MEF – carrier Ethernet – Mobile Backhaul Initiative
        IP/MPLS Forum – MPLS Mobile Backhaul Specification
        EANTC – interoperability testing
        ISOCORE – performance testing
        IOMETRIX – official MEF certifications MEF 9,14, 18

Mobile Backhaul: Conclusions / Recommendations

  “Telecom‟s Global Warming”              RAN and backhaul intelligence
      talked about for years                not just about fat pipes
      not much done                         intelligent pipes with QoS
      time has finally come                 OAM support
  Solutions vs. Products                  The Importance of Microwave
      everyone has a ―solution‖             full connectivity does matter
      solutions require multiple            time to market matters
       components                            costs matter
      multi-vendor integration levels       difficult deployments matter
       the playing field
      smaller niche players can          End to end management
       participate if integrated with a      solution branding in progress
       larger solution                       integration between IP-Optical
                                              domains in progress
                                             need more than just a common
                                              name badge

Questions?            Recent CurrentCOMPETE™ Reports on Mobile Backhaul

    MPLS 2008: IP/MPLS Forum Takes a Giant Step Forward with MPLS in Mobile
    Backhaul Framework Specification
    Show Update - [Oct 15, 2008] The IP/MPLS Forum announced the approval of the first technical specification
    under its MPLS in Mobile Backhaul Initiative (MMBI), which defines how MPLS can be used to backhaul traffic in
    networks such as GSM, UMTS, HSPA, LTE and mobile WiMAX.

    Accepting Mobile Backhaul‟s Challenge - Microwave Innovations Continue to Flow
    Advisory Report - [Sept 26, 2008] Microwave backhaul continues to move into the mainstream as events such as
    EANTC’s multivendor showcase highlight devices with a broad range of capabilities. This year’s event showcased
    at least seven microwave platforms—up from previous years.

    Juniper‟s BX 7000 Multi-Access Gateway Transports Bandwidth-hungry Mobile
    Product Intelligence Report - [Sep 24, 2008] Juniper’s BX 7000 takes on the mobile backhaul challenge with an
    environmentally hardened solution that delivers legacy and next gen traffic support for mobile operators. The
    system makes its entry in Q4 2008, ready to tackle mass deployments.

    Alcatel-Lucent Enhances Its Mobile Backhaul Solution with Hardbodied 7705 SAR-F
    with Resilient Timing Features
    Competitive Intelligence Report - [Sept 23, 2008] Alcatel-Lucent announced the new environmentally hardened
    7705 SAR–F and significant software enhancements, such as timing support, to meet operator demand for more
    bandwidth and scalability at lower OpEx–from the mobile core to the cell site.

    Mobile Backhaul: What is the Ethernet Opportunity for Wholesale Carriers?
    Advisory Report - [July 14, 2008] Wholesale carriers have a short window of opportunity to become providers of
    next generation backhaul infrastructure before mobile operators turn to competitors or self-build to handle
    exponential growth in mobile data traffic cost-effectively.

  levels the playing field…
               enables you to
    Current Analysis is the only competitive research firm that provides
    solutions to improve your company’s Competitive Response

                                       For More Information Please Contact:
                                       Peter Jarich

                                       Glen Hunt


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