User Centred Design

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					              User Centred Design
• In recognition of some of the limitations of customer/specialist design
    some workers in the field advocate an approach that is more user
          E.g. Mumford Participative Design
In this approach users:-
• Plan the organisational structures within which they will work
• Plan the jobs they will do
• Specify the technical system they will require to support these
    activities and structures
• With this approach users are given the support of organisational
    specialists and technical specialists to provide the technical system that
    is required
               User Centred Design

• Another user- led strategy is the 'end-user development'
• Individuals or a group develop their own applications to
  suit their requirements
• These participative approaches do ensure that there is a
  strong commitment on the part of the users
• They are highly motivated to ensure that the system will
• Will strive to overcome weakness' in the design
       Issues with UCD approaches

• However there are some problems with this
• How do you involve all users when the system is
• How do you ensure that the users will have the
  required knowledge and skills to participate
• How do different user groups resolve conflict
  of interest with regards to the design of the
         Problem 1 Large Systems?

• Establish different opportunities for participation
• People are only involved when they have
  knowledge to contribute or have a direct stake in
  the outcome
• Broad strategic technical or organisational design
  issues are left to the appropriate user reps who are
  working with the technical specialists
     Problem 2 Skills & Knowledge?

• Is partly overcome if only involving users
  when they have the knowledge
• Provide user reps with time to acquire the
• Provide training to help them develop the
  skills to participate effectively
  Problem 3 Resolving Conflict?
• Project teams must be given clear terms of
  reference and to realise that there will often need
  to be a compromise between the technical user and
  organisational requirements

• A proper project structure is required to manage
  these conflicts and so ensure that decisions can be
  A typical Project Structure (Eason)

 Board of Directors   Project Steering Group
                      Senior Management
 Management           Senior Tech specialists
 Meetings             User Reps

                      Design Team
                      Tech Specialists
Local Design Team     User Reps
All relevant users
Technical support
General Principles User Centred Design

Some principles for involving users in the design

Focus on the users their needs and capabilities early in
the development process

Make users and user issues central to the design

Identify users and their characteristics

Gather information about the users tasks and the task
               UCD Principles (Cont)
• Conduct a Task Analysis to obtain task knowledge at both the micro
  and macro levels

• Micro level decomposes specific tasks into hierarchical structures and
  finally into small cognitive units

• Macro level is where the whole system is analysed in terms of
  organisational social and environmental aspects

   Ensure testing and evaluation with users is completed early to ensure
   that the system is being designed to meet their needs

    Design iteratively - design - test - redesign - System evolves and is
   tailored and refined to meet user needs with each iteration