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base_line_report_2nd_phase

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base_line_report_2nd_phase

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									                       BASE LINE Report of 2nd Phase

                                      Of

               Society for Voluntary Activities (SOVA)




Contact Address    :

                   Md. Zahidul Islam
                   Executive Director
                   58, Sohartoli Sarak, Adarshapara,
                   Jhenidah-7300. Bangladesh.
                   Phone: 0451-63843 Mob: 01715-671535,
                   E-mail: sovajh@yahoo.com




                          Particulars of the project:

     Surveillance and Reduction of Women Suicidal Trends in Jhenidah :
              A Hot Spot with High Suicide Rate in Bangladesh.




                             Submitted to:
                                Arpita Das
                            Program Manager
                        Manusher Jonno Foundation
                       House #122, Road #1, Block # F
                            Banani Model Town
                                  Dhaka.
                                                Message




It’s great pleasure to me to learn that SOVA has recently carried on an intensive and extensive survey
programme on reduction of suicide trends in a new region of Jhenidah District under the purview of
SRWSTJ-project having got profound fund and co-operation from the Manusher Jonno Foundation. The
research paper that SOVA has prepared and duly developed will certainly strengthen the project activities
through implementation the newly taken strategies with a view to achieving the project output. I think that
the information collected through the works is fully realistic and the outcome of the project will be upto the
entire satisfaction of the donor foundation. I also profoundly believe that the co-operation in this regard be
enhanced in the time to come.




                                                                      Nabo Kumar Biswas
                                                                     Chairman-
                                                                   SOVA-Jhenidah




                                                                                                         i
                                                  Message




I’m really delighted to bring this intensive and extensive research work into a final shape. I firstly appreciate
to Manusher Jonno Foundation (Donor Organization) for giving me the scope and secondly to the survey
team for completing the job with success. I’m highly optimistic that the duly prepared base line report will
encourage us to work effectively through devising new strategies under the purview of SRWSTJ-project. I’m
also wistful to see a VAW free & suicide free society at our working area in Jhenidah as per the prompt
support and sound co-operation from the donor organization.




                                                                     Md. Zahidul Islam
                                                                       Founder Executive Directior
                                                                       SOVA- Jhenidah




                                                                                                                    ii
                                              Acknowledgements




I would like to express my gratitude to the survey team under the SRWSTJ – project who helped me in
bringing this report to its present form through collection of raw data on suicide. I extend my regards to the
honorable Executive Director of SOVA who shared his knowledge and experience during design and
implementation of the survey, and the honorable chairman who carefully read the draft version of the
baseline report and made a number of valuable comments. I am also particularly grateful to the consultants
for their support and advice during data analysis and preparation of the report. Many thanks for the
cooperation of the field staff of the SRWSTJ-project, Data Entry Operators in collecting data, checking the
filled-in questionnaires, data entry, data cleaning, and editing the entered data in the computer database.
Without their help it would have not been possible to complete the Baseline Report. I also convey my thanks
to all of my colleagues at all stages of conducting the survey and to all who contributed in producing and
improving the report. Whatever is found useful in this report is all due to the inputs from my colleagues of
different categories. However, the production of this report itself has been a valuable experience for me. This
report is authentic and reliable and also in line with the objectives of study. Finally, I’m thankful to the
honorable chairman for giving approval of the report. All possible measures have been taken in reporting
numbers. In fine, I take up the responsibility myself for errors if any detected.




                                                                              Mator Kumar Mondol (Mohen)
                                                                              Project Coordinator
                                                                              SOVA- Jhenidah




                                                                                                             iii




                                                                                                           iii
Acronyms
BRAC-               Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee.
GO-NGO-             Government & Non Government Organization
SPSS-      Statistical Package for Social Sciences.
SOVA-               Society for Voluntary Activities.
SRWSTJ-             Surveillance and Reduction of Women Suicidal Trends in Jhenidah.
VAW-         Violence Against Women.
VDRC-               Village Dispute Regulation Committee.
WSPC-      Women Suicide Prevention Committee.




                                                                                       iv
Glossary

Sucide:               The death that confirmed by the victim him/herself.
Sucide attempt-              Basically it’s termed as Para-suicide i.e. the people wanted to end his/her
                             life through hanging, taking poison or like these.
Suicide attempters-   The people who wanted to commit suicide.
Egoistic Suicide-            No longer able to experience the pleasure of life and see no reason to
                             prolong it.
Anomic suicide-              Though equally passionate, expresses a mood of anger and disappointment
                             at aspirations unfulfilled.
Altruistic suicide-          Is characterized by the serene conviction that one is performing one’s duty,
                             or a passionate outburst of faith and enthuisiam.




                                                                                                            v
                                                                   Table of Contents
                                                                                                                            Page
Table of Contents Page
Message of the Chairman..........................................................................................I
Message of Executive Director.................................................................................II
Acknowledgements .................................................................................................III
Acronyms ................................................................................................................IV
Glossary ...................................................................................................................V
Table of Contents ....................................................................................................VI
Summary...................................................................................................................1
Chapter 1 – Introduction
1.1 Background.........................................................................................................2
1.2 Objectives of the Baseline Survey .....................................................................4
1.3 Methodology.......................................................................................................4
1.4 Limitations of the Baseline Survey.....................................................................4
Result of the study.....................................................................................................4
Discussion & Comments.........................................................................................20
Use of the Study Findings.......................................................................................21
Recommendation..........................................................................................22
Future Activities......................................................................................................22
Conclution...............................................................................................................23




                                                                                                                                   vi
                                                 Summary
The base line survey is conducted with an aim to identify the determinants and triggering factors beyond
suicide or suicide attempts and so on to have some base line data for implementation the undertaken project
with success at our new working area. The study soundly indicates that suicidal tendency is frequently seen
within the single family structure (75.7%). It is a subsequent result of globalization that highly generates
individualism and decrease the social integration. Suicide as a social phenomenon is greatly affected by the
existing social atmosphere. Among the people of a family in our survey area used to face the difficulties
either financially or socially and has a tendency to commit suicide. The adult and the young adult are to face
the challenges of modernization and if they fail to cope with the mainstream are in constant threat to end
their lives through committing suicide. Globally suicide is one of the leading causes of death among 19-35-
year old people particularly women in our working area. A population-based surveillance in a rural
community in southwest Bangladesh was conducted in 2007 among 13,455 populations in 14 villages to
collect baseline demographic and socioeconomic data on suicide attempters that occurred during the past
three years (May/2004- April/2007). A total of 144 suicide attempters was identified by home visits, 109
(75.7%) were female compared to 35 (24.3%) male. Of them 19 (13.2%) died and 15 (79%) of them were the
female. It was more frequent in age group 19-35 years (65.3%) following to the age level 11-18 (17.4%), and
it was generally followed by the people who were the housewives, farmers and the students in frequent cases.
Insecticides and hanging was the predominant methods of suicide attempts. Most of the suicide cases are
count as anomic suicide that is closely followed by the egoistic suicide. The contributing determinants to
commit suicide were multifactor such as underestimation/negligence by family members, misunderstanding
& family dispute between spouse, poverty, illness, dowry, failure in love and torture (physically and
mentally). The triggering factor for suicide attempts were the depression and acute anger in major cases. The
excruciated depression is mostly seen among the women in our newly working area where the women
suicide attempters are to face the experiences like feeling worthless, feeling hopeless, feeling helpless,
feeling negative or pessimistic, and feeling neglecting and so on like these. The existing social values
(patriarcy) and financial scarcity used to trap the people in the circle of suicide. When people are trapped in
various circle of acute poverty or experience a prolonged period of sadness, they are subjected to remember
the tragic event done through suicide by the neighbors or the family members. Once upon a time, the
depressed people began to think about suicide and began to behave inconsistently that was mostly
overlooked by the family members because of ignorance about the respective issue. The social and financial
impact of suicide is huge and create multidiscipline problems. The still alive suicide attempter who bears the
stigma may be incessantly ridiculed by the neighbors. Because of the stigma that still exists concerning
mental illness, many people who need help do not seek it. In some cases it creates a ground of physical
illness as well. The bad effect of suicide may also affect the next generation in course of time. To reduce the
suicidal tendency the organization will take some initiatives including preventive approaches through Local
Governement, District Committee, Village dispute regulation committee, Women Suicide Prevention
Committee, providing income-generating trainings etc in breast of awareness raising campaign, prevention
of childhood marriage, empowerment of women and reduction of violence against women by useful and
relevant means in primary target group (women, family members, students) and secondary target group
(resource persons, community leaders) in the study population in order to reduce the burden of suicide.



                                            1
1. Introduction:
1.1 Background:
    Suicide as a social phenomenon is recently considered a major public health problem
    irrespective of age & sex across the world. The result of suicide is deep and long lasting and its
    effects may transfer to the next generation. One who is contemplating suicide often feel
    worthless, alone, unloved, unlovable and they perhaps believe that they are a burden either to
    their parents or family. In frequent cases suicide attempters generally go ahead to commit
    suicide when no hope lies behind the life of the rest. The morality and social integration of
    specific community/group decreases, the risk for committing suicide generally increases.
    Globalization generates individualism and so on nuclear family. At our working area it is
    obviously seen that suicidal tendency is very frequent within nuclear family comparing to joint
    family. After a long period of time the observation of Emile Durkheim is still true. The ruin of
    devastating flood and the price situation of necessary commodities played an inner role to make
    an unloved situation at our working area. The sympathy to each other decreases and loneliness
    grasps one. The very lacking of daily necessities makes a man injustice and intolerance. Almost
    all villagers at our survey area are engrossed in debt due to the increase of the cost of
    livelihood. That’s why the mutual understanding or compromising has been broken down
    within family atmosphere. Since women are the poorest of the poor, they are likely being
    victimized on the eve of the degradation of the morality of human beings. The survey report
    points to that suicidal tendency is frequently seen among the female who are in the age group of
    19-35. The Population-based surveillance in a rural community in southwest Bangladesh reveals that
    suicide is a major cause of mortality, especially in young females. Mortality from suicide occurred at a
    rate of 33- per 100,000 population per year. The rate of suicide is not only increasing in developing
    countries but also in developed. In context of Bangladesh within Jessore, Magura and Jhenidah, the rate
    of suicide increased from 29 to 33 per 100,000 populations (WHO report). Among young people, 19-35
    years old, suicide attempts accounted 65.3% and 67.9% of suicide attempts in this age group were the
    females. Suicide-associated death rates from this surveillance area are substantially higher than rates
    reported elsewhere in Asia, warranting further studies aimed at identifying risk factors for suicide and
    strategies for prevention. It’s true to speak that at Jhenidah, some limited attempts were taken to study
    and analyze this important matter that has significant social, psychological and economic impact. And in
    almost no appropriate attempts were taken to reduce suicidal trends among the target population. A
    conservative estimation reported that a total of 4054 people, mostly women, attempted suicide during
    January 2001 to July 2004 as recorded in local hospitals (source: SOVA- A preliminary survey Jan 2001
    –Jul 2004 in Jhenidah). According to studies carried by various research organizations, it’s clear that
    women are likely to attempt to committing suicide and the number of suicidal cases among the women is
    gradually increasing in the recent years. It is evident that only a fraction of suicide attempters attended
    hospitals if they were alive. Not all such cases of suicide attempts are published in the newspapers;
    however reports indicate that the suicide occurs frequently in this district. Now the question arises: why
    so many people in the region take attempts to terminate their lives in this way. To the best of our
    knowledge, this has never been addressed thoroughly and precisely in any study. Such study and analysis
    are important to know about the main causes of the occurrences in order to save lives of many innocent
    people, especially young women, in the region. Only SOVA keeps still continuing the trying to address
    the focused issue not only in working area but also entire Jhenidah through networking and arranging
    campaign at District level. The base line output will strengthen the ongoing project and SOVA will go
    ahead for developing a sustainable strategy.

   Suicide from a Historical perspective:
   Suicide is an outcome of a “problem” which may be related to social, familial, psychological,
   physical/biological and other factors. According to Durkheim 1897, in his classic work: Le suicide,
   “Suicide is applied to all cases of death resulting directly or indirectly from a positive or negative act of
   the victim him/herself, which s/he knows will produce this result.” He insisted that it is a dis-equilibrium

                                              2
state of human needs and aspirations coupled with various form of individualism, excessive to
insufficient and the individuals’ conflict with social controls and structure. According to Emile
Durkheim, there are three state of suicide that can be explained especially by social causes such as: the
Egoistic Suicide, Anomic suicide and the Altruistic Suicide.
Suicide is commonly referred to as Atmahatya in (Bangla, Bangladesh and Hindi, India), Kha tua Tai in
(Thai, Thailand), Bunuh Diri in (Bahasa, Indonesia), Siya Diivinasa Ganima in (Sinhalese, Sri Lanka)
and by others local terms in different countries. The practice of singing Maromi is prevalent in South
West Bangladesh, where suicide rates are high. Information from Sri Lanka reveals that a large number
of suicides are among Buddhists even though their religion doesn’t favour it. The belief in rebirth and the
lack of definite statements on suicide by both Hindu and Buddha makes suicide much less “sinful” than
killing another person. In ancient European cultures, suicide was common, with women using hanging
and men using various tools for deliberate self-harm. Ancient Hindu texts allowed individuals to kill
themselves although in later Upanishad periods suicide was generally condemned. In general, suicide
considered as a sin in Islam, Christian, Buddha, Hindu and so on cultural and legal attitudes towards
suicide. The Roman Catholic Church has never altered its unequivocal position on the subject; however,
in practice, the rigid provisions of Canon Law are often mitigated by individual members of the clergy.
In the Chinese cultural tradition, Confucianism stresses the virtue of family affiliation, teaching that one
should not injure one’s own body because it is given to a person by her/his parents. Implicitly, attempting
suicide is prohibited except in cases where it promotes loyalty to the family. In Indian Hindu culture,
various religious and philosophic writings have enunciated views on suicide. Some permitted suicide on
religious grounds (the best sacrifice was man’s life itself); others censured suicide. Sati—the self-
immolation of a widow – received the sanction of religion by her self-destruction on the funeral pyre of
her husband, the widow would atone for the sins of her husband, free him from punishment. In general,
Hindu philosophy held rather tolerant attitudes towards suicide based on the view that life does not end
with death; death after all, only leads to rebirth in another body or form. With regard to Islam, there is
interdiction of suicide in the Holy Quran and according to historical tradition suicide is a violation of a
divine command contained in the holy books of Islam. An acceptance of life’s events is the cardinal
factor in obedience to God; suicide, consequently, is an act of revolt against God and the perpetrator of
such an act risks his wrath.

Suicide in research works in context of Bangladesh:
Rahman MH (1998) in his research study “Atmohottyar Artho samajik O monostattik karon (in
Bangla)” identified causes of suicide in a sample survey carried out in Jhenidah district. The
common determinants of suicide were the poor economic condition (50%), family problem and
feud (26%), problems between spouse (23%), lack of socialization (11.1%), dowry and lack of
educations (10%), deterioration of social value (8%), polygamy and easy availability of
poisonous chemical substance. In another study on suicide by Islam AMMF (1999) it was
observed that the average age of suicide was 27 years with a range between 10 to 85 years.
Common age group includes people of age ten to thirty years. Suicide cases were
comparatively higher (55%) among people who were married, illiterate and poor. Poisonous
substances were the popular means for suicide. Karim J (1995) in his study pointed that suicide
cases are on the rise and most of cases are mainly socio-economic and ideological. Bangladesh
Mahila Parisad pointed out in their “Study on Gender Analysis of Suicide in the Contemporary
Bangladesh” that in recent years suicide cases among women and young girl’s increased
markedly. Suicide though appears to be a personal decision can be caused by various factors
that might be influenced by personal, family and social factors. Among three known kinds of
suicide most cases are either egoistic or anomic in Bangladesh, anomic being the common one.


                                               3
1.2: Objectives of the research:
    The objectives of this research are:
       Retrospective and reliable base line data collection on suicide of past three years (June 2004 to May
       2007)
       Analysis the base line data in order to get an inner picture or triggering factor for committing suicide.
       To develop a specific strategy to reduce the women suicidal trends among the targeted population.

1.3: Methology:
a. Design: Retrospective data collection on suicide cases or cases of survival of suicide attempts
    during the last three years (2004 -2007).

b. Study area: Kalicharanpur union of Jhenidah Sadar Upazilla under Jhenidah district was
included in the study area.

c. Study population area: Total population of study area is 13,455.

d. Data collection: Structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant data. In our survey we
interviewed people who were directly the victims, relatives of victims and family members of those
victims. To point out real information our survey team interviewed two persons including victims
in case of survivors and for suicidal death-cases information was collected from two persons who
are relatives or family members. Mainly primary level sources have been used in the study.
e. Data Analysis: Data were analyzed by SPSS 12.

f. Expected outcome: Using the findings we could be able to develop specific strategies such as
preventive measures including awareness and knowledge increasing for anti-suicide campaigning,
strengthening local government, reducing violence against women and empowering women by
which suicide rate might be reduced. So our expected outcomes are the followings:
        Retrospective base line data on suicide of past three years (May/2004 to April/2007) has collected
        and reviewed.
        The determinants and the triggering factor for committing suicide has found.
        A specific strategy to reduce the women suicidal trends among the targeted population has
        developed.
        The base line data has been reliable and stands a picture of the targeted population.

1.4. Limitation of the study:
The survey was time bound and fund and manpower were limited. As it is a sensitive issue, the
suicide attempters do not want to public their personal information. Besides this, the target people
were not keen to deliver right information because of fear for legal action by law-enforcing
authorities. Local people ideology seemed to us as like as give and take system i.e. they sought
their boot against the information.

2. Results:
Suicide attempters: A total of 144 (Table 1) attempters was identified in the union by our data
collectors during the past three years (July 2004 and June 2007). Of them 109 (75.7%) were female
compared to 35(24.3%) male. Globally suicidal trends are high among the women but suicide rate
is lower than the male. But in Bangladesh both suicidal trends and rate are higher among the
women rather than the men. (Source- www.suicide.com)




                                                         4
Table No-01: Sex distribution of the suicidal attempters

                                                Valid           Cumulative
     Sex          Frequency        Percent
                                                Percent         Percent
     Male       35                 24.3         24.3            24.3
     Female     109                75.7         75.7            100.0
          Total 144                100.0        100.0

Table No-2:
Suicide rate as per sex
                                 Result             %       of
     Sex                                            suicide    Total
                    Death            Alive
       Male         4                31             21.05      35
       Female       15               94             78.95      109
              Total 19               125            100        144

A total of 19 people committed suicide where 15 (79%) are the women. The figure shows that the women
are to face the excruciated depression that intends them to end their lives through committing suicide.

Table No-03:
Family Structure

      Family                                 Valid           Cumulative
      structure    Frequency     Percent     Percent         Percent
      Single
                   109           75.7        75.7            75.7
      Family
      Joint
                   35            24.3        24.3            100.0
      Family
      Total        144           100.0       100.0

In most cases (75.7%) the suicidal tendency is frequently seen among the people who are a member of single
family. The figure indicates that the globalization generates individualism and the social integration is being
decreased. As people are being self-centered, the scope of sharing the difficulties of a single one to another is
being reduced day by day.


Table No.-04
Education status of the family members:

      Category label                 Code     Count         %        of   %     of
                                     #                      Responses     Cases
      Illiterate                     1        192           38.5          133.3
      Primary                        2        143           28.7          99.3
      Lower Secondary                3        135           27.1          93.8
      Secondary                      4        23            4.6           16.0
      Higher Secondary               5        5             1.0           3.5
      Degree                         6        1             .2            .7
                                              499           100.0         346.5

                                                        5
The education status among the family members is more or less unsatisfactory. About 39% among the family
members are not literate and 29% has received primary level education. Only one person is found who
completed the bachelor degree.

Table No.-05
   A) Education status of the suicide attempters:

                                                          Valid       Cumulative
       Category level            Frequency    Percent
                                                          Percent     Percent
       Illiterate                47           32.64       32.64       32.64
       Primary                   33           22.92       22.92       55.56
       Lower Secondary           58           40.28       40.28       95.83
       Secondary                 6            4.17        4.17        100.00
       Total                     144          100.00      100.00

B) Education status as per sex

     Educational qualification of                       Sex
     the victim                                                              Total
                                                        Male        Female
     Illiterate                        Count            11          36       47
                                       % within Sex     31.4%       33.0%    32.6%
     Primary                           Count            10          23       33
                                       % within Sex     28.6%       21.1%    22.9%
     Lower Secondary                   Count            13          45       58
                                       % within Sex     37.1%       41.3%    40.3%
     Secondary                         Count            1           5        6
                                       % within Sex     2.9%        4.6%     4.2%
     Total                             Count            35          109      144
                                       % within Sex     100.0%      100.0%   100.0%

More than 32% of suicide attempters had no formal education and nearly 23% had received only primary
level education. There is none among the suicide attempters who completed the bachelor degree. Only 6
(six) persons have completed the H.S.C. among the suicide attempters. The level of illiteracy and primary
level education is almost equally distributed in both sexes. Secondary and lower secondary rate is
proportionately higher in female suicide attempters than the male. So, undoubtedly lack of the light of
education, they are overwhelmed with superstition and misbelieves.

Table No.-05
A) Age of the victim

                                                         Valid         Cumulative
         Age level           Frequency       Percent
                                                         Percent       Percent
         Under 10            4               2.8         2.8           2.8
         11-18               25              17.4        17.4          20.1
         19-35               94              65.3        65.3          85.4
         36-50               18              12.5        12.5          97.9
         51 +                3               2.1         2.1           100.0
         Total               144             100.0       100.0                                         6
B) Age of the victim as per Sex

          Age of the                          Sex                    Total
          victim                              Male        Female
          Under 10   Count                    2           2          4
                     % within Sex             5.7%        1.8%       2.8%
          11-18      Count                    9           16         25
                     % within Sex             25.7%       14.7%      17.4%
          19-35      Count                    20          74         94
                     % within Sex             57.1%       67.9%      65.3%
          36-50      Count                    4           14         18
                     % within Sex 6           11.4%       12.8%      12.5%
          51 +       Count                    0           3          3
                     % within Sex             .0%         2.8%       2.1%
          Total      Count                    35          109        144
                     % within Sex             100.0%      100.0%     100.0%

C) Age of the victim among the female

         Age of      the                       Sex          Total
        victim                                 Female
        Under 10           Count               2            2
                           % within Sex        1.8%         1.8%
        11-18              Count               16           16
                           % within Sex        14.7%        14.7%
        19-35              Count               74           74
                           % within Sex        67.9%        67.9%
        36-50              Count               14           14
                           % within Sex        12.8%        12.8%
        51 +               Count               3            3
                           % within Sex        2.8%         2.8%
        Total              Count               109          109
                           % within Sex        100.0%       100.0%

Suicidal tendency is more frequent in the age group 19-35 years (65.3%) following to the age level 11-18
(17.4%). Among the women more than 67.9% was reported in 19-35 age group followed by the age group
11-18 (15%) of suicide attempters. The age level is more or less equally distributed in both sexes. The people
who are 19-35 years olds are highly vulnerable to committing suicide. The ache of daily life grabbed and
affected the aforesaid age level people and at a stage the people felt deep depression after going all things out
of control. They wanted to commit suicide to get remove from their acute pain.




                                          7
Table No.-06
Marital Status of the suicide attempters

     Marital                    Sex                          Total
     Status                     Male           Female
     Married       Count        26             95            121
                   % within
                                74.3%          87.2%         84.0%
                   Sex
     Unmarried     Count        9              14            23
                   % within
                                25.7%          12.8%         16.0%
                   Sex
     Total         Count        35             109           144
                   % within
                                100.0%         100.0%        100.0%
                   Sex

A majority (84%) among the suicide attempters got married. A significant variation in marital status by sex
was observed where the marital status is reported to male nearly 74% and to female nearly 87%. The report
indicates that the conjugal life is not passing through a happy one. So the family disputes or family centered
problems played an inner role to create some triggering factors to commit suicide.

Table No.-07
Information of children in case of married

     Category of the                                 Valid            Cumulative
                     Frequency         Percent
     response                                        Percent          Percent
     Yes             98                68.06         68.06            68.06
     No              23                15.97         15.97            84.03
     N/A             23                15.97         15.97            100.0
     Total           144               100.0         100.0

The figure indicates that more than 68% married suicide attempters wanted to end their lives leaving their
beloved child/ren. At the moment of committing suicide their thoughts were confined to kill themselves by
any means and completely forgot their children.

Table No.-08
Is it first marriage?

                                                     Valid            Cumulative
                          Frequency    Percent       Percent          Percent
     Valid     Yes        90           62.5          62.5             62.5
               No         31           21.5          21.5             84.0
               N/A        23           16.0          16.0             100.0
               Total      144          100.0         100.0

Nearly 63% suicide attempters got married first. But there were a great number of suicide attempters who got
married one more times nearly 22%. An observation also comes to light in our survey area, the marital lives
of suicide attempters was not like a bed of roses but full of thorns.

                                           8
Table No.-09
A) Status of interrelationship among the family members

                                                             Valid        Cumulative
     Category                    Frequency      Percent
                                                             Percent      Percent
     Valid       very good       2              1.4          1.4          1.4
                 good            60             41.7         41.7         43.1
                 moderate        48             33.3         33.3         76.4
                 bad             32             22.2         22.2         98.6
                 very bad        2              1.4          1.4          100.0
                 Total           144            100.0        100.0

B) Status of spousal relationship

     Category          Frequency Percent
     very good         3               2.61
     good              39              33.91
     moderate          39              33.91
     bad               32              27.83
     very bad          2               1.74
     Total             115             100.00
Note: Six women are not living with their husbands or their husbands have died.

Above figures indicate that the relationship between husband and wife was not good enough where nearly
30% suicide attempters led a wistful spousal life. More than 33% suicide attempters were survived through
leading an average spousal life. A little bit variation in interrelationship between the suicide attempters and
family was observed but was not significant.

Table No.-10
Under aged during marriage as per Sex

                                                              Sex
         Category                                                                    Total
                                                              Male       Female
         under    aged wife                   Count           9          32          41
         during                               % within Sex    28.1%      29.6%       29.3%
         marriage      both                   Count           10         18          28
                                              % within Sex    31.3%      16.7%       20.0%
                             not applicable   Count           16         59          75
                                              % within Sex    45.71%     54.13%      52.08%
         Total                                Count           35         109         144
                                              % within Sex    100.0%     100.0%      100.0%

More than 57% suicide attempters have been victimized of childhood marriage. In their conjugal life they
had to face difficulties originated mostly from being victimized of early marriage. A majority among the
suicide attempters were not conscious enough regarding bad effect of early marriage. They just wanted to get
relief through giving their children marriage and didn’t think about the immediate result of the childhood
marriage.
                                                        9
Table No.-11
A) Family member's behavior with the victim

                                                    Sex               Total
    Family member's
    behavior with the                        Male         Female
          victim
    very good         Count                0           1            1
                      % within Sex         .0%         .9%          .7%
    good              Count                21          39           60
                      % within Sex         60.0%       35.8%        41.7%
    moderate          Count                12          49           61
                      % within Sex         34.3%       45.0%        42.4%
    bad               Count                2           16           18
                      % within Sex         5.7%        14.7%        12.5%
    very bad          Count                0           4            4
                      % within Sex         .0%         3.7%         2.8%
    Total             Count                35          109          144
                      % within Sex         100.0%      100.0%       100.0%

B) Victim's behavior with family members

         Victim's                                   Sex              Total
      behaviors with
                                             Male         Female
     family members
    very good            Count            0            1           1
                         % within Sex     .0%          .9%         .7%
    good                 Count            18           52          70
                         % within Sex     51.4%        48.1%       49.0%
    moderate             Count            14           48          62
                         % within Sex     40.0%        44.4%       43.4%
    bad                  Count            3            6           9
                         % within Sex     8.6%         5.6%        6.3%
    very bad             Count            0            1           1
                         % within Sex     .0%          .9%         .7%
    Total                Count            35           108         143
                         % within Sex     100.0%       100.0%      100.0%

The figures of above table reported that there was a favorable attitude from both sides and they behaved very
positively to each other. The reality lay behind the situation that they behaved well to each other at the
moment of happiness but at the moment of craziness they behaved very roughly. The suicide attempters
avoided it during interview.




                                            10
Table No.-12
                                         Pct of Pct of
Category label                 Code          Count Responses Cases

engrossed in superstition                1 89 61.8 61.8
Very conservative                    2    2 1.4 1.4
conservative                     3      2 1.4 1.4
progressive                      4     4 2.8 2.8
average                        5      47 32.6 32.6
                              ------- ----- -----
                    Total responses 144 100.0 100.0

More than 61% family of suicide attempters was engrossed in superstition. Backwardness and various types
of superstition wrapped up them very strictly. They could not think about anything from a positive point of
view. The arena of movement of the suicide attempters is very limited and can’t cope with mainstream. As a
result they feel deep depression and to get remove from their pain through committing suicide.

Table No.-13
Treatment generally used to receive:
                                         Pct of Pct of
Category label                 Code         Count Responses Cases

Quack/Village Doctor                     1 108 75.0 75.0
Fakir/ Kabiraj                   2      4 2.8 2.8
Specialist                     3      32 22.2 22.2
                              ------- ----- -----
                    Total responses 144 100.0 100.0


75% people suicide attempters generally went under the Village doctor or Quack for receiving treatment.
Here both financial scarcity and unconsciousness played a vital role to go under the same. But a stimulated
result has into view that more than 22% suicide attempters used to go to the specialist for seeking treatment.
Table No.-14
a) Engaged with NGO's Micro credit program.

 Category of the Frequency               Percent    Valid            Cumulative
 responses                                          Percent          Percent
 Yes             90                      62.5       62.5             62.5
 No              54                      37.5       37.5             100.0
 Total           144                     100.0      100.0

b) Lonee to Bank

 Category of the Frequency Percent              Valid          Cumulative
 responses                                      Percent        Percent
 Yes                 28            19.4         19.4           19.4
 No                  116           80.6         80.6           100.0
 Total               144           100.0        100.0
A major part among the suicide attempters takes loan from either NGO or another GO-NGO Bank. That
indicates their insolvency in financial sector. So poverty has been a triggering factor to commit suicide. The
family of the suicide attempters received loan mostly from NGO (80.6%).
                                                                                             11
Table No.-15
a) Major occupation of the victim

                                                     Valid           Cumulative
 Occupational status        Frequency    Percent     Percent         Percent
 Agriculture                11           7.6         7.6             7.6
 Day labor                  5            3.5         3.5             11.1
 Small scale business       7            4.9         4.9             16.0
 Van/Rickshaw Puller        8            5.5         5.5             21.5
 Others                     13           9.0         9.0             30.5
 household chores           89           61.8        61.8            92.3
 Service                    4            2.8         2.8             95.1
 students                   6            4.2         4.2             99.3
 house maid                 1            .7          .7              100.0
 Total                      144          100.0       100.0

Among the male suicide attempters agriculture is the frequent occupation as a whole. Small scale business,
Van/rickshaw and day labor are the next common occupation. Among the female suicide attempters were
engaged with household chores. Not being economically empowered women had to face more problems
regarding financial and social issues rather than those of the men. So, there was a significant variation by sex
and employment.

b) Major occupation of the family

                                                       Valid          Cumulative
 Major occupation          Frequency      Percent      Percent        Percent
 Agriculture               57             39.6         39.6           39.6
 Day labor                 24             16.7         16.7           56.3
 Small scale business      26             18.0         18.0           74.3
 Van/Rickshaw Pullar       17             11.8         11.8           86.1
 Others                    14             9.7          9.7            95.8
 Service                   6              4.2          4.2            100.0
 Total                     144            100.0        100.0

The major occupation in the family of suicide attempters is agro-based. Nearly 39% among the family
member of suicide attempters are either directly or indirectly related to agriculture.
Table No.-16
Monthly per head income

 Income        Frequency      Percent      Valid           Cumulative
 level                                     Percent         Percent
 1-200 tk      9              6.3          6.3             6.3
 201-400tk     10             6.9          6.9             13.2
 401-600tk     19             13.2         13.2            26.4
 601-800tk     23             16.0         16.0            42.4
 801+          83             57.6         57.6            100.0
 Total         144            100.0        100.0
                                                                                                    12
The above figure points to that nearly in 50% families the monthly per head income is under 800tk. If we
follow the international standard ($1 per head income per day), there are no families found among the suicide
attempters. So, suicidal tendency is available mostly in poverty stricken family.

Table No.-16
Per head land property

 Range    of    the                                  Valid          Cumulative
                      Frequency         Percent
 owned property                                      Percent        Percent
 1-10 decimal         43                29.9         29.9           29.9
 11-20 decimal        23                16.0         16.0           45.6
 21-30 decimal        10                6.9          6.9            52.8
 31-40 decimal        4                 2.8          2.8            55.6
 41-50 decimal        10                6.9          6.9            62.5
 51 + decimal         12                8.3          8.3            70.8
 Nil                  42                29.2         29.2           100.0
 Total                144               99.3         100.0

Nearly 30% among suicide attempters had no own land and more than 29% belong to 1-10 decimal land as
per head basis. Only 8.3% families where the respective members are owned more than 51 decimal land
property. The above data indicates that suicidal is frequent to the people who does not belong to a sufficient
land property.

Table No.-18
Family can manage three times meal per day

 Category of the Frequency        Percent         Valid          Cumulative
 responses                                        Percent        Percent
 Yes             133              92.4            92.4           92.4
 No              11               7.6             7.6            100.0
 Total           144              100.0           100.0

The above data generally stimulate us that most of the family among the suicide attempters can manage their
daily meals. Perhaps to manage their meals they have to struggle much to do the like. The subsequent result
to collect the daily necessities, different sorts of VAW took place like physical, mental, economical,
biological and the like.

Table No.-19
Any members of the victim's family are addicted/terror?

  Category of Frequency         Percent        Valid           Cumulative
 the responses                                 Percent         Percent
 Valid         8                5.6            5.6             5.6
               136              94.4           94.4            100.0
 Total         144              100.0          100.0

Among the suicide attempters nearly 5.6% family where one or more people were addicted or terror. That
was a triggering to create a ground of suicidal attempts too.
                                                                                                    13
Table No.-20
Leading family earning person is regular in his/her work?

 Category of the Frequency          Percent      Valid          Cumulative
 responses                                       Percent        Percent
 Yes             131                90.9         90.9           90.9
 No              13                 9.1          9.1            100.0
 Total           144                100.0        100.0

In most cases the leading family earning members were regular (90.9%) in his daily works. But only in rare
the leading earning members were irregular 9.1% only.

Table No.-21
Behavior of the leading family earning member

 Category     of   Frequency     Percent      Valid          Cumulative
 the responses                                Percent        Percent
 normal        &
                   58            40.3         40.3           40.3
 general
 normal      but
                   67            46.5         46.5           86.8
 inhuman
 bad               18            12.5         12.5           99.3
 very bad          1             .7           .7             100.0
 Total             144           100.0        100.0

Nearly 60% of earning members are inhuman in character to the rest. The dependants used to face
experiences of negative attitudes of their superiors who generally used to play the proactive role to maintain
the family. So, the subordinates have to victimize either socially or economically.
Table No.-22
Influence of the victim on family

 Category of the Frequency        Percent      Valid          Cumulative
 response                                      Percent        Percent
 very good       3                2.1          2.1            2.1
 good            55               38.5         38.5           40.6
 moderate        62               42.7         42.7           83.2
 bad             24               16.8         16.8           100.0
 Total           144              100.0        100.0

More than 42% among suicide attempters have an average influence to his/her family. This is not satisfactory
in context of leading a sound and fresh life. Every body should exercise the right to live on with dignity but
here, the figure does not promote the reality in favor of exercising human rights.




                                                                                                     14
Table No.-23
Special Characteristics of the victim

 Category      of     the     Frequency            Percent         Valid            Cumulative
 responses                                                         Percent          Percent
 rigid/crazy                  73                   50.7            50.7             50.7
 doggedness/ strict           19                   13.2            13.2             63.9
 Whimsical/ indifferent       26                   18.1            18.1             81.9
 cool minded                  23                   16.0            16.0             97.9
 humane                       2                    1.4             1.4              99.3
 talkative/ loquacious in
                              1                    .7              .7               100.0
 character
 Total                        144                  100.0           100.0

Over 50% among the suicide attempters belonged to a rigid or crazy mood. They used to become angry with
one for an unmarkable reason. They would frequently cross the limit of tolerance and supposed to move
forward to committing suicide.

Table No.-24
A) Victim him/herself is a-

 Category of the        Frequency           Percent          Valid           Cumulative
 responses                                                   Percent         Percent
 competent person       134                 93.1             93.1            93.1
 patient with chronic
                        4                   2.8              2.8             95.8
 situation
 others                 2                   1.4              1.4             97.2
 Disabled               4                   2.8              2.8             100.0
 Total                  144                 100.0            100.0

Most of the suicide attempters are able to perform their deeds with quality. Only 2.8% people were the
disabled and were dependants to others. But the reality was laid behind the situation where the suicide
attempters had to exercise the acute problems and were depressed enough.

B) Victim’s relation with neighbor

 Category of     Frequency          Percent         Valid               Cumulative
 the responses                                      Percent             Percent
 very good       10                 6.9             6.9                 6.9
 good            96                 66.7            66.7                73.6
 moderate        33                 22.9            22.9                96.5
 bad             5                  3.5             3.5                 100.0
 Total           144                100.0           100.0




                                                                                                 15
Table No.-25
a) Root causes of suicide in case of alive suicide attempters:
                                      Pct of Pct of
Category label                  Code Count Responses Cases

because of ruin of poverty                 1      15 6.0 11.8
mental perturbation /neglgency               2      57 22.7 44.9
family dispute between spouse for unrema 3                40 15.9 31.5
inspired by the comment of the nearest o 5              16 6.4 12.6
torture regarding dowry                   6       4 1.6 3.1
torture regarding illicit love/ poligamy 7            9 3.6 7.1
because of being debt                    8      11 4.4 8.7
because of being extreme emotional              9      27 10.8 21.3
because of being ashamed                   10       1     .4     .8
because of having mental shocked              11       21 8.4 16.5
Beause of being angry with her sons'wive 12              10 4.0 7.9
Because of being biologically abused           13       2     .8 1.6
False bad name by the family member              14       2     .8     1.6
undully suspicion                     15        3 1.2 2.4
physical and mental torture               16       11 4.4 8.7
Wife/ husband doesn't like her/ his husb 17             8 3.2 6.3
Because of having biological problem of 18                7 2.8 5.5
idle/ don't work regularly               19       6 2.4 4.7
Problem created for child marriage            20       1     .4     .8
                                  ------- ----- -----
                      Total responses 251 100.0 197.6
b) Root causes of suicide in case of death suicide attempters:
                                         Pct of Pct of
Category label                    Code      Count Responses Cases

because of ruin of poverty               1      2 5.6 10.5
mental perturbation /neglgency             2      5 13.9 26.3
family dispute between spouse for unmara 3            4 11.1 21.1
inspired by the comment of the nearest o 5           5 13.9 26.3
torture regarding dowry                 6       1 2.8 5.3 16
because of being debt                  8       2 5.6 10.5
because of being extreme emotional            9     3 8.3 15.8
because of being ashamed                 10      1 2.8 5.3
because of having mental shocked             11     7 19.4 36.8
undully suspicion                   12        1 2.8 5.3
Because of suffering from fatal disease 13          2 5.6 10.5
Great loss/ Extreme frustration           15     3 8.3 15.8
                                ------- ----- -----               Total responses                 36 100.0 189.5
Table No.-26
a) Methods of suicide in case of death
                                                                                                           Histogram
 Category of the Frequenc        Percent       Valid         Cumulative
 responses       y                             Percent       Percent                     12

 rope            4               2.8           21.1          21.1                        10

 sari/orna       3               2.1           15.8          36.8
                                                                             Frequency




                                                                                         8
 poison          11              7.6           57.9          94.7
                                                                                         6
 others          1               .7            5.3           100.0
                                                                                         4
 Total           19              13.2          100.0
                                                                                         2
 System          125             86.8
                                                                                                                                      Mean = 3.11
 Total           144             100.0                                                   0
                                                                                                                                      Std. Dev. = 1
                                                                                              0   1    2    3      4     5        6   N = 19
                                                                                                      means of suicide


                                                                                                                             16
b) Methods of suicide in case of alive.

 Category of the   Freque    Percent         Valid        Cumulative                          Histogram
 responses         ncy                       Percent      Percent
 rope              33        22.9            26.4         26.4                           50

 sari/orna         36        25.0            28.8         55.2
                                                                                         40
 sleeping pill     3         2.1             2.4          57.6




                                                                             Frequency
 poison            42        29.2            33.6         91.2                           30
 others            11        7.6             8.8          100.0
 Total             125       86.8            100.0                                       20

 System            19        13.2
 Total             144       100.0                                                       10


                                                                                                           Mean = 2.7
Nearly 58% complete suicide attempters took poison as means of suicide closely followed by the hanging
                                                                      0                                    Std. Dev. = 1.398
                                                                                                           N = 125
                                                                        0   1     2     3      4   5  6
method. On the contrary hanging (47.9%) was the frequent method for committing suicide. of suicide
                                                                                  means

Table No.-27
A) Would the complete suicide attempters become victimized regularly?
                                     17

 Category of the Frequency           Percent       Valid               Cumulative
 responses                                         Percent             Percent
 Yes             5                   3.5           26.3                26.3
 No              13                  9.0           68.4                94.7
 N/A             1                   .7            5.3                 100.0
 Total           19                  13.2          100.0
 System          125                 86.8
 Total           144                 100.0

   14
   12
   10
                                                                 Yes
    8
                                                                 No
    6                                                            N/A
    4
    2
    0


B) Would the still alive suicide attempters become victimized regularly?

 Category of the Frequency             Percent         Valid            Cumulative
 responses                                             Percent          Percent
 Yes             55                    38.2            45.1             45.1
 No              67                    46.5            54.9             100.0
 Total           122                   84.7            100.0
 System          22                    15.3
 Total           144                   100.0

                                                                                                      17
       80

       60
                                                     Yes
       40
                                                     No
       20

        0

Nearly half of the suicide attempters had been victimized through physically, mentally, biologically and
economically. The chronic depression compelled them to commit suicide.

Table No.-28
A) Did the still alive victim inspire by somebody?

 Category     of     the Frequency        Percent         Valid     Cumulative
 responses                                                Percent   Percent
 Yes                       15             10.4            12.0      12.0
 No                        110            76.4            88.0      100.0
 Total                     125            86.8            100.0
 System                    19             13.2
 Total                     144            100.0


                                 Would the victim be inspired by somebody.

                                                                      Yes
                                                                      No
                                                                      Missing




Table No.-29
Any incidence occurred during the day of committing Suicide?

 Category     of Valid           Cumulative
 theresponses    Percent         Percent
 Yes             89.5            89.5
 No              10.5            100.0                                                              Yes
                                                                                                    No
 Total           100.0



The above data indicates that the suicide attempters went forward to committing suicide after experiencing
an excruciated issue.

                                                                                                   18
Table No.-30
Family dispute occurred within the victim’s family.

 Category of      Frequenc      Percent    Valid          Cumulative
 the responses    y                        Percent        Percent
 Yes              117           81.3       93.6           93.6
 No               8             5.6        6.4            100.0                                                 Yes
                                                                                                                No
 Total            125           86.8       100.0
 System           19            13.2
 Total            144           100.0


There was a chronic family disputes nearly 94% among the family of suicide attempters. It is obvious that the
family creates a ground of others determinants of committing suicide.

Table No.-31
A) Child marriage done in case for the any member of the spouse?

  Category of      Frequency       Percent          Valid             Percent as per
  the responses                                     Percent           the category
  Yes              9               6.3              47.4              56.3
  No               7               4.9              36.8              43.7
  N/A              3               2.1              15.8              100.0
  Total            19              13.2             100.0
  System           125             86.8
  Total            144             100.0

The people who died through suicide had been victimized of childhood marriage. It is clear that the child
marriage is a trigger of committing suicide.

Marriage completed through the consent of---

 Category     of    the   Frequency        Percent        Valid              Cumulative
 responses                                                Percent            Percent
 Parents/guardians        84                 58.3         67.2               67.2
 Self choice              19                 13.2         15.2               82.4
 On the basis of spouse
                          1                  .7               .8             83.2
 & guardians
 N/A                      21               14.6               16.8           100.0
 Total                    125              86.8               100.0
 System                   19               13.2
 Total                    144              100.0

More than 58% marriage among the still alive suicide attempters completed through the single initiative on
behalf of the guardians. Although 13.2% marriages have been completed through self choice, the couple had
to face the resistance from the respective community. We are disappointed because of having the very poor
data on marriage completion through the consent of both the sides.

                                                                                                19
Table No.-33
Suicidal history of victims’ family

 Category     of   Frequency    Percent     Valid           Cumulative
 the responses                              Percent         Percent
 Yes               37           25.7        29.6            29.6
 No                88           61.1        70.4            100.0
 Total             125          86.8        100.0
 System            19           13.2
 Total             144          100.0

 Nearly 26% family has an experience of suicide where one or more close relatives or family members
 who tried or died through attempting suicide.

 03. Discussion/comment
 After completion the base line survey on rural people who committed complete suicide & attempted to
 commit suicide in a period of three years in southwest part of Bangladesh we developed a base line report
 aiming at taking some innovative and fruitful strategies for reducing the suicidal tendency at our working
 area. Many interesting points were observed over there. During the last three years 144 persons attempted
 to commit suicide, 75.7% of them are women. In case of complete suicide 78.95% were women. The
 study area is a very densely populated area (588 people/per square kilometer). Most of the people are poor
 and a many of them are really unable to have three meals a day. The rate of complete illiteracy was very
 high among victims. Most of the primary stakeholders were engrossed in superstition and the rate of them
 was 61.8%. It is especially mentionable that about 73% people are directly related to cultivation of land,
 daily labour and household works, of them 4% are day labor. Of all the attempters, the majority was
 married showing the vulnerability of married women.

 Bangladesh like countries of the South-East Asia Region (SEAR) is witnessing rapid changes in
 population growth, socioeconomic development and health profiles. Suicide is now being recognized as a
 major public health problem in the complex scenario of development and lifestyle changes. In the socio-
 culturally diverse communities of this region, suicide is a very important issue cutting across diverse
 disciplines and sectors such as health, religion, spirituality, law and welfare. Suicide evokes mixed
 reactions: varying from anger, distress, ridicule, anxiety, tension, fear and sadness. Often, one wonders:
 "Why did it happen?"; "Could this have been prevented?"; "Can young lives be saved?"; "Was there an
 alternative solution to the problem?" Though suicides and para-suicides have been attempted since the
 beginning of mankind, a sea change has been observed recently in our understanding of the problem.
 Cumulative research, media reports and anecdotal evidence over the past three decades reveal that
 suicides are an emerging epidemic the world over. Research in different regions of the world has focused
 on understanding the problem in its various dimensions. Today, it is not impossible to predict and prevent
 suicide.The findings of this report suggest that suicide is an important cause of death within this rural
 surveillance area, indicating that self-inflicted death represents a public health concern, especially for
 young females. The rates of suicide-associated death were higher within the surveillance area than rates
 recently published from China and from Hong Kong (Special Administrative Region), Turkey and Sri
 Lanka. Rahman MH (1998) in his research study “Atmohottyar Artho samajik O monostattik karon (in
 Bangla)” identified causes of suicide in a sample survey carried out in Jhenidah district. The common
 determinants of suicide were the poor economic condition (50%), family problem and feud (26%),
 problems between spouse (23%), lack of socialization (11.1%), dowry and lack of educations (10%),
 deterioration of social value (8%), polygamy and easy availability of poisonous chemical substance. In
 another study on suicide by Islam AMMF (1999) it was observed that the average age of suicide was 27
 years with a range between 10 to 85 years. Common age group includes people of age ten to thirty years.
                                                                                                   20
Suicide cases were comparatively higher (55%) among people who were married, illiterate and poor.
Poisonous substances were the popular means for suicide. Karim J (1995) in his study pointed that suicide
cases are on the rise and most of cases are mainly socio-economic and ideological.
Population-based surveillance in a rural community in southwest Bangladesh reveals that suicide is a
major cause of mortality, especially in young females. Mortality from suicide occurred at a rate in female.
Suicide-associated death rates from this surveillance area are substantially higher than rates reported
elsewhere in Asia, warranting further studies aimed at identifying risk factors for suicide and strategies
for prevention. The reasons for the high rates are not clear and warrant further study.
While suicide represents a substantial and under-appreciated problem in South Asia insufficient data are
currently available to know whether high mortality rates described in this report are representative of
suicide rates elsewhere in Bangladesh, particularly within urban areas where factors linked to suicide may
be dissimilar from those in rural areas or occur with different frequency. In China, suicide rates appear to
be three-fold higher in rural areas than in urban areas (2). Population-based data from health and
demographic surveillance systems (like that in Abhoynagar and Keshobpur) elsewhere in Bangladesh will
be helpful to ascertain impact of geographic location and population density on suicide incidence and risk
factors for suicide, and to make it possible to reliably estimate country-wide burden of disease for suicide.
Prevention of suicide, while potentially effective, is challenging, requiring multifaceted approaches and
adaptation of strategies to locally relevant cultural factors. Demographic characteristics of victims suggest
the need for a variety of prevention strategies. Issues that will ```need to be addressed are likely quite
different for adolescent females, who accounted for a substantial proportion of mortality, than older,
employed males. For instance, violence against women and suicide attempts may be interrelated; thus, it
may be necessary to address fundamental factors responsible for the former in order to successfully
prevent the latter. For cases referred to as suicide in this report, information collected during post-mortem
family interviews clearly indicate self-inflicted death; however, the possibility that some deaths might
represent homicide (for instance, deaths falsely described to interviewers as suicides) cannot be ruled out
with available data—this complicates the interpretation of the data and broadens the scope for future
studies and potential interventions.
Young, first-time-married women took easily available residual insecticide kept at house for committing
suicide on many occasions. The social and financial impact of suicide was huge and had multidiscipline
problems. Ongoing and future works involve preventive approaches (Village dispute regulation
committee, courtyard meeting, income-generating trainings and means) that include broadly promotion of
rational use of insecticide without storage in the house, public awareness, good governence, prevention of
childhood marriage, empowerment of women and reduction of violence against women by useful and
relevant means in primary target group (women, students) and secondary target group (family members,
resource persons, community leaders) in the study population in order to reduce the burden of suicide.
Further studies will be needed to more closely examine underlying factors responsible for suicide and
characteristics predictive of suicidal death, and to identify opportunities for contact with a physician or
mental health services before suicide is contemplated or attempted.


04. Use of Study Findings:
In light of findings some strategies need to be developed such as:
Preventive measures including-
a) Collective Action/ initiatives by the key stakeholders especially LG/ Police administration/ journalist
or press reporters.
b. Distribution leaflet, poster, sticker,
c) Organizing and arranging rally and drama for campaign,
d) Village dispute regulation committee (VDRC) and Women Suicide Prevention Committee
formation with an aim at reducing familial and social disputes by which suicide rate and VAW occurred
at domestic atmosphere might be ultimately reduced.
                                                                                                    21
e) Legal aid support either directly or indirectly for experiencing the social justice irrespective of sex. It is
also to be ensured that legal aid support on the basis of findings should be provided by establishing
liaison with BRAC, Mannobadhiker Sangstha,WE and like minded NGO that are to provide legal aid
support in the study area in collaboration with Local Government.
f) FGD aiming at promoting the men to be gender sensitive.
g) Training Session:
         All VDRC & WSPC members will be trained up on right based issues by which the committee
         will be self sustained and in further the project will also be sustainable.
         Income generating trainings may be effective to strengthen the women in the arena of self
         reliance.
h) Awareness campaign for school going students especially the adolescent girls who form a large
proportion suicide attempters is needed in order to make them aware about the determinants and risk
factors of suicide. This campaign can also help them to cope with the demand of time.
i) Community meeting and house to house visit might be effective to expand the awareness on the said
issue and so on to prevent VAW.

05 Recommendation
       Every family in our working area should be gender sensitive and the men should be susceptible to
       the women as well. If so happen that the cases of VAW may be reduced because they can enjoy
       their right to live on with dignity.
       Child marriage and polygamy should to be prevented aiming to reduce further problems
       regarding VAW.
       Ensuring education (especially on IGA) equally for both sex.
       Economic empowerment of women through more women specific income generating works, skill
       training handicrafts, weaving, starching and marketing of products.
       Stronger local govt. specific role of women leaders/ members in the local govt. leaders separate
       portfolio for them.
       Closely monitoring and follow up the marriage process through proper registration, controlling
       child marriage force marriage, polygamy in our project area.
       As a grand member of people use poison as a means all poison dealers need to be conscious or
       make them conscious about to whom this poison is being sold.

    06. Future Activities:
        We have a plan to make the VDRC as sustainable where they will keep their role continuing to
        reducing VAW and suicidal tendency.
        Both VDRC and WSPC members will spontaneously play a role of motivator, counselor and
        salish.
        School & Madrassa teachers will rigorously get involved with our school based activities.
        To raise strong voice and to reduce the suicide trends of mass people VDRC members will know
        more information about laws to prevent the violence against women, child rights convention and
        human rights.
        Prospective data will be collected.
        Case study will be done in order to publish in the daily newspaper to create interest on life and
        greater awareness for mass people.
        A TOT course will be developed by a core training team on counseling, human rights and
        violence against women and empowerment of suicide attempters. We think it will be helpful to
        cover and support for smooth functioning of greater awareness raising program at the union level.
        Income generating trainings and some income generating facilities ( Micro credit and the like) for
        women will be provided.
        Awareness campaign students who form large proportion suicide attempters will be organized.
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Conclusion:
At the end of the report we have been really geared up and wistful to apply the received knowledge.
The youths are the most vulnerable for committing suicide. As triggering factors of suicide, poverty
and inspiration from another suicide should be highlighted to set up the prevention strategy. We believe
in mind that to face the challenges counseling process will be highly preferable to return a person who
is suffering from depression to a normal way of life and the belief holds a place in our mind through
application the counseling strategy at field level. To attain the sustainability of the project we need to
make both VDRC and WSPC committee strengthened. Involvement of the School & Madrassa teachers
in our project activities bears the importance to sustain the SRWSTJ-project.




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