Diving by pengtt

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									Diving in Sai Kung
Baseline Conditions
Andries Temme
Susan Voelkl
Content

   Introduction
   Baseline conditions
    – Environment
    – Economy
    – Social
    – Government
   Stakeholder capabilities and awareness
Introduction
   Statistic
    – > 20.000 divers in HK (estimation AFCD)
    – Number of diving agencies
    – Divers
   Impact of diving on enviroment
    – Pick up things under water
    – Food dumping
    – Suntan, shampoo, etc
    – Boats -> pollution
    – Disturbance of delicate ecosystem
    – Overland pollution (transport to Sai Kung)
Environment
   Subtropical environment      1

    – Water temperatures 30°C - 13C
    – Wet season March - September
    – 5 - 6 typhoons / year over past 18 years
    – Pearl river influence highest in the west,
      more oceanic to the east
   SK specifics   2

    – Strong riverine influences (pearl river)
    – High coastal influence (eutrophication,
      pollution)
    – Silt  Murky water
Environment
   Biodiversity   1

    – Quite high
    – Species from temperate & tropical regions
    – Seasonal (summer high)
    – Winter: fish retreat into coral framework
Environment

   Corals
    – No true coral reefs - fringing communities 1
    – Found around northeast & eastern waters
    – Very important for biodiversity 1,2,3,4
   Sai Kung coral specifics
    – Location map
    – High coral cover variance
    – Fairly Unhealty
Environment
   Threats to coral communities 1
    – Natural disturbance
    – Coastal development
    – Marine and land-based pollution
    – Disease
    – Over fishing & Destructive fishing
   Threats by divers
    – Disturbance of fish
    – Sedimentation 4
    – Touching/breaking coral       3

          Influences species composition 3
Environment
   Marine protected areas (AFCD)
    – Created under Marine Parks Ordinance 2001
    – Increasing number of studies
    – 4 Marine parks
          Hoi Ha Wan, Yan Chau Tong
           Sha Chau and Lung Kwu Chau, Tung Ping Chau
    – 1 Marine reserve
          Cape d’Aguilar
   Fishing allowed under licencing system
    – Only original inhabitants
    – Using non destructive methods
Environment

   Special “please don’t anchor here” zones
    in SK
    – Sharp Island
    – Ung Kong wan (Bluff Island)
Environment
   Does it work?
    – Yes, comparative data (Tung Ping Chau)
      shows increase in fish & coral abundance   1

          Data exists only for Tung Ping Chau

   Researched protection sites
    – Fan Lau, Soko Island Group, Southern
      Lamma Island, Kat O Chau, Ngo Mei Chau,
      Tai Long Wan, Long Ke Wan, Bluff Island
      and Nine Pine Island
    – Bluff Island and Long Ke Wan are in the Sai
      Kung area
Environment

   Planned changes    1

    – Initiate fishing license scheme whereby
      all commercial fishing vessels must be
      licensed with the government
    – Create 2 large Fisheries Protection Areas
      (FPAs) in Port Shelter & Tolo Harbour and
      Channel in eastern & northeastern waters
    – Extend fishing ban carried out in waters
      surrounding Hong Kong in June and July
Social
   Transport
    – Short Window
    – Sunday 08:30 – 09:15
    – Mainly people come by bus
   Divers -> HK locals, regular customers
    – Diving Community
   Weekly club nights (Marine Divers)
   Services
    – 2 recompression chambers in HK
Economics
   HK = no popular tourist destination for
    waterrelated activities
   Diving activities more & more popular
    – SARS impact – many people stayed in HK,
      discovered parks
   Big business – 20 to 50pax per boat,
    every Sunday (besides Dez & Jan)
   X people work in diving sector
   X companies with X boats
    – 36 companies are members of HKUA
Economics
   High season & low season
    – All year long, low season Dec. – Jan.
   Costs of Diving trip: 3 dives incl. full
    equipment and meals: $ 600
   Saturated market
   Money into SK? Almost no benefit (?)
    – Food
    – Diving Boats
Government

   No governmental restricions diving in SK
   Marine parks
   No Marine parks in SK
    – 2 “please don’t anchor here” zones
   Politics
    – Responsible for marine parks & conservation
      efforts on coral: AFCD & Marine park police
Government

   Legislation
    – No legislation concerning SCUBA diving
    – Some legislation concerning marine wildlife
    – Some restrictions -> activities in Marine
      Parks
        Licenced fishing
        No anchoring

        Monitoring by Marine Park Police
Government

   Education
    – Distribution of flyers to boats in the
      “please don’t anchor here” zones
    – Distribution of information to schools
    – Special stickers for dive boats
    – Small museum on coral
    – Trying to raise awareness on marine life
Government

   Government participation in Reefcheck
    – Only monitoring programme to monitor coral
      communities outside Marine Protected Areas
   Recommendations Reefcheck
    – Better Management of tourist activities.
      Divers should be monitored, regulated,
      controlled.
    – Less than 2% of marine area currently under
      protection – need for comprehensive plan!
      Enlargement
Stakeholder Awareness
and Capacities
   NGOs / NPOs
    – HK Marine Conservation Society
    – WWF – HK Big Fish count
    – Most of them other focus
   Government
    – AFCD Lack of resources
    – Desire of enlargement marine park areas
Stakeholder Awareness
and Capacities
   Diving Agencies
    – No awareness about
        Disturbance due to underwater traffic
        Pollution due to boat traffic

        Pollution due to overland traffic on Sunday

    – Desire: Marinepark in SK, no anchoring
   HKUA - HK Underwater Association
   SK residents
    – Marginally involved (?)
                   References
1.   Ang Jr., P.O., Choi, L.S., Cornish, A., Fung, H.L., Lee, M.W.,
     Lin, T.P., Ma, W.C., Tam, M.C., Wong, S.Y., 2004. 3.2 Hong
     Kong. Status of Coral Reefs in East Asian Seas Region, 121-
     152.
2.   Fabricius, K.E., McCorry, D., 2006. Changes in octocoral
     communities and benthic cover along a water quality
     gradient in the reefs of Hong Kong. Marine Pollution Bulletin
     52, 22–33.
3.   Hawkins, J.P., Roberts, C.M., Van’t Hof, T., De Meyer, K.,
     Tratalos, J., Aldam, C., 1999. Effects of Recreational Scuba
     Diving on Caribbean Coral and Fish Communities.
     Conservation Biology 13, 888-897.
4.   Zakai, D., Chadwick-Furman, N.E., 2002. Impacts of
     intensive recreational diving on reef corals at Eilat, northern
     Red Sea. Biological Conservation 105, 179–187
Thank you for your time!

								
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