Australia – history by hcj


									04 IMPORTANT EVENTS AND PEOPLE IN HISTORY OF AUSTRALIA                                   -    in the second half of the 19th century many of them became rich and their
AND NEW ZEALAND                                                                               farms were patrolled by soldiers – troopers
broader view: crime                                                                           these rich farmers employed migrant workers (swagmen) to work for

AUSTRALIA:                                                                           Immigration
                                                                                        - the wave of immigration began in 1788
Aborigines                                                                              - it was after Captain James Cook had claimed New South Wales as a
   - native inhabitants – arrived at least 50 000 years ago from South-East                 British colony in 1770
        Asia, because the sea level was lower, according to present evidence            - the first immigration was very special – 13th May 1787, the “First Fleet”
   - when the first white people from Europe came to Australia,                             set out from England on the way to Australia
       about 300 000 Aborigines were living there, they spoke 250 different             - prison ships came to east coast to Sydney in 1788 and brought 750
       languages                                                                            prisoners, 400 soldiers and livestock and supplies for 2 years
   - originally lived as hunters using boomerangs and other similar                     - In 18th and 19th century continent was used as a prison of Great Britain
        instruments for hunting                                                         - the commander of the first fleet was Arthur Philip and the ship landed in
   - they understood and loved their land                                                   Botany Bay and A Philip became the first governor of this colony
   - Europeans wanted their land and so they started to persecute the                   - for 40 years – the region around Sydney and the Tasmania Island were
        Aborigines – many of them died                                                      the only parts of Australia which were colonized – the majority of the
   - now, there are about 200 000 Aborigines and live mostly in government’s                population being the convicts
        reservations or missions, but also in some cities                               - the convict system (deportation of convicted criminals to penal colony)
   - since 1980s they have been granted some areas, mostly in the centre of                 lasted till 1866 - officially abolished in the last colony in Australia – in
        the country                                                                         Western Australia
                                                                                        - the convicts’ contribution to the economic foundation of country as well
First colonists                                                                             as to the language spoken in Australia was considerable
    - first Europeans, who saw Australia, were Dutch – in 1606, the Dutch ship
         called “little dove”, under the command of Willem Jansz, sighted the                 In 1840 John Eyre made his famous journey over 1400 km long, starting
         western coast of Cape York                                                           in Adelaide and ending in Western Australia.
    - the Spanish ship of Luis Vaez de Torres sailed north of Cape York and
         through the Torres Strait, thus proving that New Guinea was separated       Gold Rush
         from Australia                                                                     In 1851 gold was discovered in several parts of continent, so many
    - later voyagers include Abel Tasman, William Dampier, and Dirk Hartog,                 immigrants came, especially from Ireland and Scotland. In these times
         who in 1616 left an inscribed pewter plate – Australian’s most famous              Australia becme economically secure, because a lot of people began to
         relic, now in Amsterdam                                                            take advantage of mineral and agricultural resources.
    - Abel Tasman found Tasmania in 1640's.                                             - of 1850s and 1890s
    - In 1770 James Cook landed in Botany Bay, called the continent New                 - contributed to the exploration as well as to economic and constitutional
         South Wales and claimed Australia with all it's aborigines for Britain in          growth of Australia
         the name of George III.                                                        - the pioneer work - the “overlanders” – the Australian drivers in the 19th
    - they usually bought some sheep, hired a few men and found a they liked                century who opened up new territory by driving their cattle through
         and built a house on “their” land - early farmers were called SQUATERS             remote areas to new stations or to market
    -    Transportation of convicts ended in 1852                                      -   6th February, 1840 – Captain William Hobson and leading Maori chiefs
    -    In 1870s there was a famous robber Ned Kelly, who dressed himself and             signed the Treaty of Waitangi, by which they acknowledged British rule
         his men into metal armor to prevent being perforated by bullets. He               and received for the Maori people full British citizenship – in return, the
         became synonyme of bravery and rebelion against stronger enemies.                 Maoris were guaranteed protection of their lands, forests, fisheries and
                                                                                           other territorial rights
Independence                                                                           -   after the Treaty of Waitangi, a steady stream of settlers from the British
    - the idea of independence first appeared in the first half of the 19 th century       Isles started
    - 1891 – the proposition of federal constitution was made – this document          -   1852 – Britain granted self-government to New Zealand – the seat was
       led the British Parliament to agree with the constitutional law and in              initially in Russel, then in Auckland and finally in Wellington
       September 1900, Queen Victoria proclaimed the Commonwealth of                   -   1860 – 1870 - New Zealand land wars - there were also conflicts between
       Australia to be recognized from January 1, 1901                                     Europeans and Maoris – mostly thanks to the sale of land and fighting
    - one of the first problems solved by the Federal Parliament was its seat –            took place mainly in the North Island – the last conflict was more than
       according to the constitution it was Melbourne but in 1927 the Parliament           100 years ago
       started its work in Canberra                                                    -   1867 – 4 seats in the New Zealand House of Representatives were set for
    - the Immigration Restriction Act – proclaimed the White Australian                    Maori members to represent their own race
       Policy - every immigrant had to prove knowledge of some European                -   1893 – women's right to vote - first country, where the women could vote
       language in a written test                                                      -   1907 – NZ became a dominion in the British Empire and in 1931 was
                                                                                           granted full independence
World Wars                                                                             -   NZ troops fought in the Boer War in South Africa and also more than 100
   - Australia played an important role in both World Wars                                 000 people were in WW I and WWII
   - After WWI Australia had a strongly devolved economy but the economic              -   1947 – independence was formally accepted by the NZ legislature
       crisis in the 1930s lasted relatively shortly                                   -   Maori and Europeans resolved major differences and now live in
   - After WWII Australia started a fresh period of expansion, with new                    harmony – today the equality of the two peoples is considered an
       mineral finds playing a large part in economic growth                               example in racial tolerance and cooperation
                                                                                       -   Today Maori represent about 9 per cent of the population

    -   the first inhabitants of New Zealand were the Maoris of Polynesian
        origin, they reached New Zealand before and during the 14th century
    -   1642 – the first European was Abel Tasman, the Dutch navigator
        he discovered it, but Maori didn’t let him to land
    -   1769 – the next recorded voyage to New Zealand was made by Captain
        James Cook – he mapped the two main islands and discovered the
        passage between them and this strait was named after him – Cook Strait
    -   Trade with Europe – weapons, tools, food, agriculture transformed by
        potato, warfare by musket, settlements along the far northern coast
    -   Early 1800's – Musket war
    -   1814 – Christian missionary work among Maori was begun by Reverend
        Samuel Marsden

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